aneurysmal bone cysts

Summary

Summary: Fibrous blood-filled cyst in the bone. Although benign it can be destructive causing deformity and fractures.

Top Publications

  1. Maiya S, Davies M, Evans N, Grimer J. Surface aneurysmal bone cysts: a pictorial review. Eur Radiol. 2002;12:99-108 pubmed
    The aim of this article is to present the imaging features of surface aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs). Twenty-three surface ABCs were identified from of a series of 144 histologically proven ABCs treated in our unit over the past 20 years...
  2. Yildirim E, Ersozlu S, Kirbas I, Ozgur A, Akkaya T, Karadeli E. Treatment of pelvic aneurysmal bone cysts in two children: selective arterial embolization as an adjunct to curettage and bone grafting. Diagn Interv Radiol. 2007;13:49-52 pubmed
    Treatment options of aneurysmal bone cysts include complete resection, curettage, curettage with bone grafting, selective arterial embolization (as a primary treatment or preoperative adjuvant therapy), and percutaneous injection of ..
  3. Adamsbaum C, Mascard E, Guinebretiere J, Kalifa G, Dubousset J. Intralesional Ethibloc injections in primary aneurysmal bone cysts: an efficient and safe treatment. Skeletal Radiol. 2003;32:559-66 pubmed
    ..Ethibloc is a fibrogenic and thrombogenic agent recently proposed for the treatment of bone cysts. The purpose of this study is to report the results of direct Ethibloc injection in primary aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) in children...
  4. Rossi G, Rimondi E, Bartalena T, Gerardi A, Alberghini M, Staals E, et al. Selective arterial embolization of 36 aneurysmal bone cysts of the skeleton with N-2-butyl cyanoacrylate. Skeletal Radiol. 2010;39:161-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a lytic benign bone lesion representing about 1% of all primary bone tumors. The lesion causes pain and swelling, which are generally present for less than 3 months...
  5. Bush C, Adler Z, Drane W, Tamurian R, Scarborough M, Gibbs C. Percutaneous radionuclide ablation of axial aneurysmal bone cysts. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2010;194:W84-90 pubmed publisher
    ..injection of 32P chromic phosphate, a beta-emitting colloidal radiopharmaceutical, in the treatment of aneurysmal bone cysts of the axial skeleton...
  6. Oliveira A, Chou M, Perez Atayde A, Rosenberg A. Aneurysmal bone cyst: a neoplasm driven by upregulation of the USP6 oncogene. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:e1; author reply e2 pubmed
  7. Mendenhall W, Zlotecki R, Gibbs C, Reith J, Scarborough M, Mendenhall N. Aneurysmal bone cyst. Am J Clin Oncol. 2006;29:311-5 pubmed
    The purpose of this article is to discuss the natural history, treatment, and outcomes for patients with aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC).
  8. Saccomanni B. Aneurysmal bone cyst of spine: a review of literature. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2008;128:1145-7 pubmed
    b>Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC) are benign, highly vascular osseous lesions characterized by cystic, blood-filled spaces surrounded by thin perimeters of expanded bone. Children and young adults are most affected by spinal ABCs...
  9. Winnepenninckx V, Debiec Rychter M, Jorissen M, Bogaerts S, Sciot R. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the nose with 17p13 involvement. Virchows Arch. 2001;439:636-9 pubmed
    ..a single (6:17)(p21;p13) translocation, confirming a specific genetic involvement in the development of aneurysmal bone cysts. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis mapped the putative gene between the p53 (17p13...

More Information

Publications67

  1. Papagelopoulos P, Choudhury S, Frassica F, Bond J, Unni K, Sim F. Treatment of aneurysmal bone cysts of the pelvis and sacrum. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2001;83-A:1674-81 pubmed
    b>Aneurysmal bone cysts are benign, non-neoplastic, highly vascular bone lesions...
  2. Kumar V, Malik N, Kumar D. Treatment of large recurrent aneurysmal bone cysts of mandible: transosseous intralesional embolization as an adjunct to resection. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;38:671-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Various treatment options have been proposed. The authors present three cases of recurrent, large aneurysmal bone cysts of the mandible successfully treated by en block resection and reconstruction using free fibula flap ..
  3. Brastianos P, Gokaslan Z, McCarthy E. Aneurysmal bone cysts of the sacrum: a report of ten cases and review of the literature. Iowa Orthop J. 2009;29:74-8 pubmed
    Ten cases of aneurysmal bone cysts are presented. Patients ranged in age from five years to 64 years. Treatment was resection or curettage; four patients had preoperative embolization. Treatment results were excellent...
  4. Lampasi M, Magnani M, Donzelli O. Aneurysmal bone cysts of the distal fibula in children: long-term results of curettage and resection in nine patients. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2007;89:1356-62 pubmed
    ..Although resection is effective it should be reserved for aggressive or recurrent juxtaphyseal lesions...
  5. Sun Z, Sun H, Yang R, Zwahlen R, Zhao Y. Aneurysmal bone cysts of the jaws. Int J Surg Pathol. 2009;17:311-22 pubmed publisher
    ..8%). JABCs are known for their different clinical and radiographic features, therefore often posing a diagnostic dilemma. Some JABC's may be secondary in nature. Careful curettage is considered to be suitable as treatment for JABCs...
  6. Gan Y, Hockley A. Aneurysmal bone cysts of the cranium in children. Report of three cases and brief review of the literature. J Neurosurg. 2007;106:401-6 pubmed
    b>Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) of the cranium in children are rare, with only 3 to 6% of cases occurring in this anatomical location. Consequently, not much is known about ABCs and the most effective modality of treatment...
  7. Sokolo R, Alseriani F, Lagrange A, Dumollard J, Peoc h M, Seguin P. [Aneurysmal bone cyst of the mandibular condyle]. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac. 2006;107:109-14 pubmed
    ..Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a pseudotumor of bone consisting of a septated cystic cavity filled with blood...
  8. Docquier P, Delloye C. Treatment of aneurysmal bone cysts by introduction of demineralized bone and autogenous bone marrow. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005;87:2253-8 pubmed
    ..The goals of the present study were to assess cyst-healing and to determine the prevalence of recurrence associated with this new procedure...
  9. Oz G, Dolanmaz D, Uckan S, Gunhan O, Armstrong J. Persistent painful swelling in the posterior mandible. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2004;62:1139-43 pubmed
  10. Liu J, Brockmeyer D, Dailey A, Schmidt M. Surgical management of aneurysmal bone cysts of the spine. Neurosurg Focus. 2003;15:E4 pubmed
    b>Aneurysmal bone cysts of the spine are benign, highly vascular osseous lesions of unknown origin that may present difficult diagnostic and therapeutic challenges...
  11. Sciot R, Dorfman H, Brys P, Dal Cin P, De Wever I, Fletcher C, et al. Cytogenetic-morphologic correlations in aneurysmal bone cyst, giant cell tumor of bone and combined lesions. A report from the CHAMP study group. Mod Pathol. 2000;13:1206-10 pubmed
    ..We examined the karyotypes of 3 aneurysmal bone cysts, 12 giant cell tumors, and 3 combined lesions...
  12. Althof P, Ohmori K, Zhou M, Bailey J, Bridge R, Nelson M, et al. Cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic findings in 43 aneurysmal bone cysts: aberrations of 17p mapped to 17p13.2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Mod Pathol. 2004;17:518-25 pubmed
    ..17p breakpoint, and provide an alternative approach (ie FISH) for detecting 17p abnormalities in nondividing cells of aneurysmal bone cysts. The latter could potentially be utilized as an adjunct in diagnostically challenging cases.
  13. Falappa P, Fassari F, Fanelli A, Genovese E, Ascani E, Crostelli M, et al. Aneurysmal bone cysts: treatment with direct percutaneous Ethibloc injection: long-term results. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2002;25:282-90 pubmed
    To assess the efficacy and long-term results of Ethibloc treatment in aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC).
  14. Nielsen G, Fletcher C, Smith M, Rybak L, Rosenberg A. Soft tissue aneurysmal bone cyst: a clinicopathologic study of five cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2002;26:64-9 pubmed
    ..Soft tissue aneurysmal bone cyst is an uncommon benign tumor that can be treated by simple excision, and it should be distinguished from a variety of other reactive and neoplastic processes...
  15. Motamedi M. Destructive aneurysmal bone cyst of the mandibular condyle: report of a case and review of the literature. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002;60:1357-61 pubmed
  16. Segall L, Cohen Kerem R, Ngan B, Forte V. Aneurysmal bone cysts of the head and neck in pediatric patients: a case series. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2008;72:977-83 pubmed publisher
    To characterize aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) of the head and neck as seen at a tertiary care center.
  17. Ellison D, Sawyer J, Parham D, Nicholas R. Soft-tissue aneurysmal bone cyst: report of a case with t(5;17)(q33;p13). Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2007;10:46-9 pubmed
    ..Soft-tissue ABC is a rare, benign lesion that can have a similar radiologic appearance to myositis ossificans but has a histologic appearance identical to that of its intraosseus counterpart...
  18. Ilaslan H, Sundaram M, Unni K. Solid variant of aneurysmal bone cysts in long tubular bones: giant cell reparative granuloma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2003;180:1681-7 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to determine the age distribution, location, and imaging features of histologically proven solid variants of aneurysmal bone cysts in long tubular bones.
  19. Cottalorda J, Chotel F, Kohler R, de Gauzy J, Louahem D, Lefort G, et al. Aneurysmal bone cysts of the pelvis in children: a multicenter study and literature review. J Pediatr Orthop. 2005;25:471-5 pubmed
    The authors analyzed a series of 15 pelvic aneurysmal bone cysts (9 boys and 6 girls) in children and adolescents who were reviewed with an average follow-up of 50.3 months. Pain and limp were the main symptoms...
  20. Oliveira A, Perez Atayde A, Dal Cin P, Gebhardt M, Chen C, Neff J, et al. Aneurysmal bone cyst variant translocations upregulate USP6 transcription by promoter swapping with the ZNF9, COL1A1, TRAP150, and OMD genes. Oncogene. 2005;24:3419-26 pubmed
    b>Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC) are locally aggressive bone tumors that often feature chromosome 17p13 rearrangements...
  21. Cottalorda J, Bourelle S. Current treatments of primary aneurysmal bone cysts. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2006;15:155-67 pubmed
    ..In the light of their experience and a review of the literature of 1256 aneurysmal bone cysts, the authors analyzed various treatment modalities...
  22. Heatley J, Tully T, Mitchell M, Partington B, Taylor H. Trauma-induced aneurysmal bone cysts in two psittacine species (Cacatua alba and Nymphicus hollandicus). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2004;35:185-96 pubmed
    ..Postoperative bandaging and rational antibiotic use are indicated to prevent excessive motion and secondary infection of affected sites, respectively...
  23. Feigenberg S, Marcus R, Zlotecki R, Scarborough M, Berrey B, Enneking W. Megavoltage radiotherapy for aneurysmal bone cysts. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2001;49:1243-7 pubmed
    ..For recurrent tumors, or tumors for which surgery would result in significant functional morbidity, does radiotherapy (RT) provide a safe and effective alternative for local control?..
  24. Topouchian V, Mazda K, Hamze B, Laredo J, Pennecot G. Aneurysmal bone cysts in children: complications of fibrosing agent injection. Radiology. 2004;232:522-6 pubmed
    To report complications of direct fibrosing agent injection in the treatment of aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) in children.
  25. Sun Z, Zhao Y, Yang R, Zwahlen R. Aneurysmal bone cysts of the jaws: analysis of 17 cases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010;68:2122-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are benign osteolytic lesions that occur relatively rarely in the jaws...
  26. Oliveira A, Hsi B, Weremowicz S, Rosenberg A, Dal Cin P, Joseph N, et al. USP6 (Tre2) fusion oncogenes in aneurysmal bone cyst. Cancer Res. 2004;64:1920-3 pubmed
    ..CDH11 is expressed strongly in bone, and our findings implicate a novel oncogenic mechanism in which deregulated USP6 transcription results from juxtaposition to the highly active CDH11 promoter...
  27. Cottalorda J, Bourelle S. Modern concepts of primary aneurysmal bone cyst. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2007;127:105-14 pubmed
    Despite the long experience of radiologists, pathologists and orthopaedists with aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC), there is limited knowledge regarding the cause of the lesion and the optimal treatment...
  28. Kiattavorncharoen S, Joos U, Brinkschmidt C, Werkmeister R. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the mandible: a case report. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2003;32:419-22 pubmed
    ..The biopsy specimen showed an aneurysmal bone cyst. The patient was treated surgically via extraoral approach including immediate mandibular reconstruction with with iliac crest bone. The literature is briefly reviewed...
  29. Lin P, Brown C, Raymond A, Deavers M, Yasko A. Aneurysmal bone cysts recur at juxtaphyseal locations in skeletally immature patients. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008;466:722-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Aneurysmal bone cysts are associated with a high rate of recurrence. Many aneurysmal bone cysts arise near open physes or articular cartilage in skeletally immature patients...
  30. Clayer M. Injectable form of calcium sulphate as treatment of aneurysmal bone cysts. ANZ J Surg. 2008;78:366-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC) are a rare condition in adolescents and teenagers but may result in pain, fracture and growth abnormalities...
  31. Ozcanli H, Aydin A, Yeter A, Akyidiz F, Gurer E. [A new technique for aneurysmal bone cysts of the proximal humerus: cortical collapsing]. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc. 2008;42:161-5 pubmed
    We evaluated the results of a new technique developed for aneurysmal bone cysts centrally located in the proximal humeral metaphysis leading to widespread destruction.
  32. Varshney M, Rastogi S, Khan S, Trikha V. Is sclerotherapy better than intralesional excision for treating aneurysmal bone cysts?. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2010;468:1649-59 pubmed publisher
    Minimally invasive approaches such as sclerotherapy have been introduced to treat aneurysmal bone cysts. Sclerotherapy has been associated with reasonable healing rates during the past two decades...
  33. Rapidis A, Vallianatou D, Apostolidis C, Lagogiannis G. Large lytic lesion of the ascending ramus, the condyle, and the infratemporal region. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2004;62:996-1001 pubmed
  34. Kumta S, Huang L, Cheng Y, Chow L, Lee K, Zheng M. Expression of VEGF and MMP-9 in giant cell tumor of bone and other osteolytic lesions. Life Sci. 2003;73:1427-36 pubmed
    ..Their expression may therefore provide some prognostic indication of the possible aggressive behavior of the underlying pathology...
  35. Rattan V, Goyal S. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the coronoid process of the mandible. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2006;24:155-7 pubmed
    ..Seventy-four to eighty-five percent of aneurysmal bone cysts of jaws occur in 10-20 years age group...
  36. Liedauer R, Svoboda M, Wlcek K, Arrich F, Jä W, Toma C, et al. Different expression patterns of organic anion transporting polypeptides in osteosarcomas, bone metastases and aneurysmal bone cysts. Oncol Rep. 2009;22:1485-92 pubmed
    ..by quantitative RT-PCR in 21 human bone tumor specimens (osteosarcomas, bone metastases and benign aneurysmal bone cysts)...
  37. Shinde A, Mehlman C, Collins M. Aneurysmal bone cysts express vascular markers. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2006;9:38-43 pubmed
    Recently, clonal chromosome abnormalities have been identified in the mural spindle cells in aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs), but the nature of the cystic spaces is unclear...
  38. Oliveira A, Perez Atayde A, Inwards C, Medeiros F, Derr V, Hsi B, et al. USP6 and CDH11 oncogenes identify the neoplastic cell in primary aneurysmal bone cysts and are absent in so-called secondary aneurysmal bone cysts. Am J Pathol. 2004;165:1773-80 pubmed
    ..By contrast, secondary ABC lack CDH11 and USP6 rearrangements, and although morphological mimics of primary ABC, appear to represent a non-specific morphological pattern of a diverse group of non-ABC neoplasms...
  39. Sukov W, Franco M, Erickson Johnson M, Chou M, Unni K, Wenger D, et al. Frequency of USP6 rearrangements in myositis ossificans, brown tumor, and cherubism: molecular cytogenetic evidence that a subset of "myositis ossificans-like lesions" are the early phases in the formation of soft-tissue aneurysmal bone cys. Skeletal Radiol. 2008;37:321-7 pubmed publisher
    ..USP6 rearrangements with several partner genes have been identified recently in primary but not in secondary aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs)...
  40. Dubois J, Chigot V, Grimard G, Isler M, Garel L. Sclerotherapy in aneurysmal bone cysts in children: a review of 17 cases. Pediatr Radiol. 2003;33:365-72 pubmed
    To determine the efficacy of percutaneous sclerotherapy in the treatment of aneurysmal bone cysts.
  41. Cummings J, Smith R, Heck R. Argon beam coagulation as adjuvant treatment after curettage of aneurysmal bone cysts: a preliminary study. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2010;468:231-7 pubmed publisher
    The optimal treatment of aneurysmal bone cysts remains an area of debate. Curettage, with or without adjuvant therapy, has been advocated for tumors in most locations...
  42. Baruffi M, Neto J, Barbieri C, Casartelli C. Aneurysmal bone cyst with chromosomal changes involving 7q and 16p. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2001;129:177-80 pubmed
    ..There is only one report in the literature of three aneurysmal bone cysts presenting clonal karyotypic alterations...
  43. Motamedi M, Navi F, Eshkevari P, Jafari S, Shams M, Taheri M, et al. Variable presentations of aneurysmal bone cysts of the jaws: 51 cases treated during a 30-year period. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;66:2098-103 pubmed publisher
    Our study aimed to assess the clinicohistopathological features of maxillofacial aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) to distinguish parameters significant to diagnosis and treatment, adding to the body of literature on the subject.
  44. Perrotti V, Rubini C, Fioroni M, Piattelli A. Solid aneurysmal bone cyst of the mandible. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2004;68:1339-44 pubmed
    ..The solid variant is more difficult to recognize. The practical importance of aneurysmal bone cyst lies in the fact that it must be differentiated from malignant tumours: mainly with giant cell tumours and teleangiectatic osteosarcoma...
  45. Brindley G, Greene J, Frankel L. Case reports: malignant transformation of aneurysmal bone cysts. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2005;438:282-7 pubmed
    ..Several cases of late malignant transformation of primary aneurysmal bone cysts without adjuvant radiation have been reported...
  46. Jeblaoui Y, Ben Neji N, Haddad S, Zribi A, Neji R, Boussafa H, et al. [Mandibular aneurysmal bone cyst mimicking a malignant tumor]. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac. 2007;108:238-40 pubmed
    ..The biopsy specimen proved the diagnosis of aneurismal bone cyst and the patient was treated by surgical curettage. There was no recurrence after 4 years of follow-up...
  47. Dormans J, Pill S. Fractures through bone cysts: unicameral bone cysts, aneurysmal bone cysts, fibrous cortical defects, and nonossifying fibromas. Instr Course Lect. 2002;51:457-67 pubmed
  48. Rastogi S, Varshney M, Trikha V, Khan S, Choudhury B, Safaya R. Treatment of aneurysmal bone cysts with percutaneous sclerotherapy using polidocanol. A review of 72 cases with long-term follow-up. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2006;88:1212-6 pubmed
    ..It can be used at surgically-inaccessible sites and treatment can be performed on an out-patient basis...
  49. Ramirez N, Perez C, Rivera Y. Distal third fibular aneurysmal bone cyst: en bloc resection and proximal third fibular reconstruction. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2001;30:237-40 pubmed
    Treatment of aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) located in the distal third fibula adjacent to the growth plate, can be problematic. The first choice of treatment for these lesions has been cyst curettage and bone graft...
  50. Mut M, Cataltepe O, Soylemezoglu F, Akalan N, Ozgen T. Radiation-induced malignant triton tumor associated with severe spinal cord compression. Case report and review of the literature. J Neurosurg. 2004;100:298-302 pubmed
    ..He eventually became quadriplegic, however, and died 13 months after diagnosis of MTT. This is the seventh case of radiation-induced MTT and the fifth of MTT with spinal canal involvement to be reported in the literature. ..
  51. Ulivieri S, Oliveri G, Miracco C. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the parietal bone. Case report. Pathologica. 2008;100:41-2 pubmed
    ..An unusual case of aneurismal bone cyst of the parietal bone is reported. ..
  52. Kanamiya T, Asakawa Y, Naito M, Yoshimura T, Isayama T. Pathological fracture through a C-6 aneurysmal bone cyst. Case report. J Neurosurg. 2001;94:302-4 pubmed
    ..The authors consider a two-stage operation supplemented by fusion without instrumentation to be the best treatment for young patients with aneurysmal bone cysts occurring at C-6.
  53. D Alise M, Timmons C, Swift D. Focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome) with vertebral solid aneurysmal bone cyst variant. A case report. Pediatr Neurosurg. 1996;24:151-4 pubmed
    ..We present a case with a vertebral lesion causing neurologic deficit. A discussion of the history of the syndrome is included as well as detailed histologic description...
  54. Kim S, Lee S, Arsenault D, Strijbosch R, Shamberger R, Puder M. Pediatric rib lesions: a 13-year experience. J Pediatr Surg. 2008;43:1781-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Rib lesions in the pediatric population are rare but significant processes and are often neoplastic...
  55. Donigan J, Kebaish K, McCarthy E. Metachronous aneurysmal bone cysts with involvement of the humerus and the thoracic vertebrae. Skeletal Radiol. 2003;32:468-71 pubmed
    Metachronous aneurysmal bone cysts are rare. We report on a 32-year-old man who presented with an aneurysmal bone cyst of the thoracic spine 15 years subsequent to diagnosis of aneurysmal bone cyst of the humerus.
  56. Kabukcuoglu Y, Kabukcuoglu F, Kucukkaya M, Kuzgun U. Aneurysmal bone cyst in the hamate. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2003;32:101-2 pubmed
    b>Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) show a predilection for the metaphysis of the long bones and the vertebrae and seldom involve the carpal bones. We present a case of an ABC in the left hamate of an 18-year-old man...
  57. Guzmán G P, Baeza O A, Araya O J, Roa S J, Brevis O L, Torres L P. [Aneurysmal bone cyst of the maxilla. Report of one case]. Rev Med Chil. 2005;133:1355-60 pubmed
    b>Aneurysmal bone cysts are benign fibro osseous lesions, rarely present in maxillary region. We report the CT and morphological findings of aneurysmal bone cyst of the maxilla in a 15 years old female...
  58. Pedrosa R, Tizziani M, Raimúndez R, Vizcaino J, Ribeiro I. [Aneurysmal bone cyst of the temporal bone in a 8 year sold girl: case report]. Neurocirugia (Astur). 2010;21:132-7 pubmed
    ..Although the histologic characteristics have been well defined, its pathogenesis remains obscure and not totally explained. Total excision nowadays is the treatment of choice...