nuclear physics


Summary: The study of the characteristics, behavior, and internal structures of the atomic nucleus and its interactions with other nuclei. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Spence R, Mattus A. Laboratory stabilizations/solidification of tank sludges: MVST/BVEST. J Environ Manage. 2004;70:189-202 pubmed
    ..The grout formulations stabilized these two RCRA metals within UTS limits. In addition, a grout leachability index of about 9.0-10.0 was measured for both (85)Sr and (137)Cs, meeting the recommended requirement of >6.0. ..
  2. Andersen V, Ballarini F, Battistoni G, Campanella M, Carboni M, Cerutti F, et al. The FLUKA code for space applications: recent developments. Adv Space Res. 2004;34:1302-10 pubmed
  3. Hall F. Mammographically determined breast density and cancer risk. Radiology. 2008;248:1083; author reply 1083 pubmed publisher
  4. Tripathi R, Townsend L. Bose condensation of nuclei in heavy ion collisions. Phys Rev C Nucl Phys. 1994;50:R7-9 pubmed
    ..Nonetheless, some suggestions for the possible experimental verification of the existence of this phenomenon are made. ..
  5. Chatrchyan S, Khachatryan V, Sirunyan A, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Aguilo E, et al. Search for pair production of third-generation leptoquarks and top squarks in pp collisions at sqrt[s] = 7 TeV. Phys Rev Lett. 2013;110:081801 pubmed
    ..These results are the most stringent for these scenarios to date. ..
  6. Tsoulou E, Kalfas C, Sideris E. Probing irradiated DNA with the perturbed angular correlation method. Radiat Res. 2001;156:181-5 pubmed
    ..Indium-111 is used as a probe. Rotational correlation times, tau(c), a parameter measuring the flexibility of a macromolecule, are obtained that show a dependence on radiation dose. ..
  7. Kim S, Kim C, Lee K, Chang S, Elmasri H, Beeley P. Development of an environmental radiation analysis research capability in the UAE. Appl Radiat Isot. 2013;81:190-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper outlines the development of this capability as well as the work in progress and planned for the future. ..
  8. Cucinotta F, Townsend L, Wilson J. Production of 3H at large momentum in alpha-12C collisions at 2A GeV. Phys Lett B. 1992;282:1-6 pubmed
    ..Comparisons to momentum distributions obtained through (p, 2p) and (e, ep) reactions on 4He are made. ..
  9. Deutchman P, Norbury J, Townsend L. Total and differential cross sections for pion production via coherent isobar and giant resonance formation in heavy-ion collisions. Can J Phys. 1985;63:1242-8 pubmed
    ..It is shown that the pion angular distributions, in coincidence with the target giant resonance excitations, might provide a well-defined signature for these coherent processes. ..

More Information


  1. Herman M, Mills M, Gillin M. Reimbursement versus effort in medical physics practice in radiation oncology. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2003;4:179-87 pubmed
    ..It remains important for medical physicists to assess our utilization of resources and allocation to each of the services we provide and to understand the implications of policy changes at the federal and local levels. ..
  2. Chatrchyan S, Khachatryan V, Sirunyan A, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Aguilo E, et al. Measurement of the ?1S, ?2S, and ?3S polarizations in pp collisions at sqrt[s] = 7 TeV. Phys Rev Lett. 2013;110:081802 pubmed
    ..6 and 0.6<|y|<1.2. No evidence of large transverse or longitudinal polarizations is seen in the explored kinematic region. ..
  3. Hendee W, Mower H. A time of opportunity in the education of medical physicists: Report of a multi-organizational summit on the education of medical physicists. Med Phys. 2006;33:3327-32 pubmed
  4. Chun S, Khandelwal G, Wilson J. A Green's function method for high charge and energy ion transport. Nucl Sci Eng. 1996;122:267-75 pubmed
    ..Improved agreements with the attenuation characteristics for neon ions are found, and reasonable agreement is obtained for the transport of argon ions in water. ..
  5. Underwood M. Joseph Rotblat, the bomb and anomalies from his archive. Sci Eng Ethics. 2013;19:487-90 pubmed publisher
    Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat made significant contributions to nuclear physics and worked on the development of the atomic bomb. He walked out of the Manhattan Project after working there for less than a year, the only scientist to do so...
  6. Spillantini P, Taccetti F, Papini P, Rossi L. Radiation shielding of spacecraft in manned interplanetary flights. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res A. 2000;443:254-63 pubmed
    ..The high-energy component of SCRs is quasi-directional so that a shielding system based on a superconductive magnetic lens can reduce the daily dose of SCRs to the level delivered by GCRS. ..
  7. Yamazaki T, Akaishi Y, Hassanvand M. New way to produce dense double-antikaonic dibaryon system, KKNN, through ?(1405)-doorway sticking in p+p collisions. Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci. 2011;87:362-70 pubmed
  8. Nohtomi A. [Shape of neutron energy]. Igaku Butsuri. 2012;32:130-7 pubmed
    ..Consequently, it has been revealed that the neutron energy evaluation is surely possible by analyzing the spatial distributions of signal enhancement that is caused by recoil protons...
  9. Colonna N, Altieri S. Simulations of neutron transport at low energy: a comparison between GEANT and MCNP. Health Phys. 2002;82:840-6 pubmed
    ..These results justify the use of the GEANT/MICAP code for neutron transport in a wide range of applications, including health physics problems. ..
  10. Akopova A, Manaseryan M, Melkonyan A, Tatikyan S, Potapov Y. Radiation measurement on the International Space Station. Radiat Meas. 2005;39:225-8 pubmed
    ..5-2.2 x 10(3) keV/micrometers and the value of equivalent dose 360 microSv/day was estimated. The flux of biologically dangerous heavy particles with Z > or = 2 was measured (3.85 x 10(3) particles/cm2). ..
  11. Alzetta R. The nuclear shell model. Riv Biol. 2004;97:173-4 pubmed
  12. Mayo C, Ulin K. A method for checking high dose rate treatment times for vaginal applicators. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2001;2:184-90 pubmed
    ..The maximum discrepancy for a representative set of cylinder plans done on a Nucletron unit was 5%. A working HTML JavaScript program is included in the Appendix. ..
  13. Tripathi R, Wilson J, Cucinotta F. Nuclear absorption cross sections using medium modified nucleon-nucleon amplitudes. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res B. 1998;145:277-82 pubmed
    ..Simple expressions are then given for the in-medium nucleon-nucleon amplitudes for any system of colliding nuclei as a function of energy. Excellent agreement is demonstrated in ion-nucleus absorption cross sections. ..
  14. de Certaines J. Is biomedical nuclear magnetic resonance limited by a revisitable paradigm in physics?. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2005;51:655-61 pubmed
    ..But, curiously, this severely constraining limitation on sensitivity has not been called into question during this half-century, as if the pioneers of the pre-war period had been forgotten. ..
  15. Wilson J, Townsend L, Ganapol B, Chun S, Buck W. Charged-particle transport in one dimension. Nucl Sci Eng. 1988;99:285-7 pubmed
    ..Present results are compared with analytic solutions based on the perturbation theory. ..
  16. Moroni A, Abbondanno U, Agodi C, Alba R, Ballarini F, Bellia G, et al. Nuclear detecting systems at LNL and LNS: foreseen experiments to provide basic data for heavy-ion risk assessment. Phys Med. 2001;17 Suppl 1:124-7 pubmed
    The use of existing detecting systems developed for nuclear physics studies allows collecting data on particle and ion production cross-sections in reactions induced by Oxygen and Carbon beams, of interest for hadrontherapy and heavy-ion ..
  17. Heilbronn L, Cary R, Cronqvist M, Deak F, Frankel K, Galonsky A, et al. Neutron yields from 155 MeV/nucleon carbon and helium stopping in aluminum. Nucl Sci Eng. 1999;132:1-15 pubmed
  18. Krahenbuhl U, Noll K, Dobeli M, Grambole D, Herrmann F, Tobler L. Exposure of Allan Hills 84001 and other achondrites on the Antarctic ice. Meteorit Planet Sci. 1998;33:665-70 pubmed
    ..For ALH 84001, our data indicate a period of exposure on the ice of <500 years. Thus, this specimen was enclosed in the ice >95% of its terrestrial age of 13 000 years. ..
  19. Rajon D, Bolch W. Interactions with 3D isotropic and homogeneous radiation fields: a Monte Carlo simulation algorithm. Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 2003;70:167-77 pubmed
    ..Both algorithms can be easily adapted to any situation that involves the Monte Carlo simulation of radiation interactions of a fixed object immersed within an isotropic and homogeneous radiation field. ..
  20. Swenberg C, Myers L, Miller J. Energy and charge localization in irradiated DNA. Adv Space Res. 1994;14:181-201 pubmed
    ..These microscopic processes will be reviewed critically in an analysis using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) evidence for and against long-range transfer of energy and/or charge in frozen, hydrated DNA. ..
  21. Starkschall G. Editorial: Taking advantage of the JACMP website. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2008;9:2916 pubmed
  22. Domondon A. Bringing physics to bear on the phenomenon of life: the divergent positions of Bohr, Delbrück, and Schrödinger. Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci. 2006;37:433-58 pubmed
  23. McKaughan D. The influence of Niels Bohr on Max Delbrück: revisiting the hopes inspired by "light and life". Isis. 2005;96:507-29 pubmed
  24. Murata Y, Muroyama T, Kawabata Y, Yamamoto M, Komura K. Activation of soil and chemical reagents exposed to the neutrons released by the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura. J Radiat Res. 2001;42 Suppl:S55-74 pubmed
    ..The present data are believed to be important as validation data for a three-dimensional neutron transport model calculation. ..
  25. Weiss B. [The nuclear physicist, Rudolf Fleischmann and medicine at the University of Strassburg]. NTM. 2006;14:107-18 pubmed
    ..In one of his last interviews, which he gave to the author of this paper, he called the Strasbourg period a prerequisite for establishing his own scientific reputation. ..
  26. Zhang Y, Tao Z. [Refit of simple plasma generator]. Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi. 2003;20:132-4 pubmed
    ..This demonstrated that the refitted ion sputter can be used as an effective plasma generator for biomaterial surface engineering. ..
  27. Pan X, Siewerdsen J, La Riviere P, Kalender W. Anniversary paper. Development of x-ray computed tomography: the role of medical physics and AAPM from the 1970s to present. Med Phys. 2008;35:3728-39 pubmed
    ..In this article, the authors intend to give a brief review of the role of Medical Physics and the AAPM in CT and tomosynthesis imaging over the last few decades. ..
  28. Underwood M. Joseph Rotblat and the moral responsibilities of the scientist. Sci Eng Ethics. 2009;15:129-34 pubmed publisher
    ..He made significant contributions to nuclear physics and worked on the development of the atomic bomb...
  29. Wilson J, Xu Y, Chang C, Kamaratos E. Atomic mean excitation energies for stopping powers from local plasma oscillator strengths. J Appl Phys. 1984;56:860-1 pubmed
    ..Rev. 92, 626 (1953)] is incorporated. ..
  30. Aad G, Abbott B, Abdallah J, Abdelalim A, Abdesselam A, Abdinov O, et al. Search for a light Higgs boson decaying to long-lived weakly interacting particles in proton-proton collisions at sqrt[s] = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector. Phys Rev Lett. 2012;108:251801 pubmed
    ..No excess of events is observed above the expected background and limits on the Higgs boson production times branching ratio to weakly interacting, long-lived particles are derived as a function of the particle proper decay length. ..
  31. Kirshner R. The Earth's elements. Sci Am. 1994;271:58-65 pubmed
    ..The elements that make up the earth and its inhabitants were created by earlier generations of stars. ..
  32. Steinbach J, Guenther K, Loesel E, Grunwald G, Mikecz P, Andó L, et al. Temperature course in small volume [18O]water targets for [18F]F- production. Int J Rad Appl Instrum A. 1990;41:753-6 pubmed
    ..The heat transfer occurs only by movement of the water molecules generated by the boiling target water and not by heat conduction or free convection alone. There is no heat transfer arising from vaporization and reflux. ..
  33. Takamiya K, Ohtsuki T, Yuki H, Mitsugashira T, Sato N, Suzuki T, et al. Target preparation by the precipitation method for nuclear reactions. Appl Radiat Isot. 2007;65:32-5 pubmed
    ..The preparation procedure is convenient and the method is appropriate for several target materials, including not only precious materials but also radioactive materials with low contamination. ..
  34. Nichols A. Nuclear decay data: observations and reflections. Appl Radiat Isot. 2006;64:1384-91 pubmed
    Decay data constitute an important feature of nuclear physics that plays a significant role in the various work programmes of members and associates of the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology (ICRM)...
  35. Alvarez Romero J. Relation between absorbed dose, charged particle equilibrium and nuclear transformations: a non-equilibrium thermodynamics point of view. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2006;119:75-9 pubmed
    ..Rather, the operation has to be defined with a time-dependent non-equilibrium statistical operator rho(r, t); therefore, D is a time-dependent function D(r,t). ..
  36. Ledingham K, McKenna P, Singhal R. Applications for nuclear phenomena generated by ultra-intense lasers. Science. 2003;300:1107-11 pubmed
    ..Here we review the developments in this research field and describe the potential of laser produced proton, neutron, and heavy ion beams, together with isotope and isomer production. ..
  37. Kist A. Use of nuclear physics methods in life sciences in the USSR. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1990;26-27:661-70 pubmed
    Analytical nuclear physics methods, as well as radioanalytical, X-ray, and radiometric techniques are widely used in the Soviet Union in life sciences studies...
  38. Ternovoi K, Selezneva T, Akleev A, Pashkov I, Noskin L, Klopov N, et al. [Comparative analysis of semiotic shifts, established by LCS of blood plasma from random samples of studied subjects from the zone of the Chernobyl accident, "Ural Radiation Trace", and collaborators from St. Petersburg Institute of Nuclear. Ukr Biokhim Zh (1978). 1998;70:81-5 pubmed
    ..of Chernobyl accident, "Ural radiation trace" and collaborators from Sanct-Petersbourg Institute of Nuclear Physics. An analysis of results obtained using accidental selections which differed as to the character of radiation ..
  39. Chatrchyan S, Khachatryan V, Sirunyan A, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Aguilo E, et al. Study of the mass and spin-parity of the Higgs boson candidate via its decays to Z boson pairs. Phys Rev Lett. 2013;110:081803 pubmed
    ..Under the assumption of spin 0, the present data are consistent with the pure scalar hypothesis, while disfavoring the pure pseudoscalar hypothesis. ..
  40. Tripathi R, Wilson J, Cucinotta F. Accurate universal parameterization of absorption cross sections II--neutron absorption cross sections. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res B. 1997;129:11-5 pubmed
    ..The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results. ..
  41. Fasso A, Rokni S. Operational radiation protection in high-energy physics accelerators: implementation of ALARA in design and operation of accelerators. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2009;137:94-9 pubmed publisher
  42. Stabin M, Brill A. Physics in nuclear medicine: a year of tangible progress. J Nucl Med. 2003;44:22N-25N pubmed
  43. Carr G, Martin M, McKinney W, Jordan K, Neil G, Williams G. Very high power THz radiation at Jefferson Lab. Phys Med Biol. 2002;47:3761-4 pubmed
    ..In contrast to conventional THz radiation, however, the intensity is many orders of magnitude greater due to the relativistic enhancement. ..
  44. Abulencia A, Adelman J, Affolder T, Akimoto T, Albrow M, Amerio S, et al. Search for heavy long-lived particles that decay to photons at CDF II. Phys Rev Lett. 2007;99:121801 pubmed
    ..L. lower limit on the [Formula: see text] mass of 101 GeV/c(2) at [Formula: see text]. ..
  45. Norbury J, Miller J. Review of nuclear physics experimental data for space radiation. Health Phys. 2012;103:640-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Helium data are missing in the intervals 280 MeV n-3 GeV n and >15 GeV n. Carbon data are missing >15 GeV n. Iron projectile data are missing at all energies except in the interval 280 MeV n-3 GeV n. ..
  46. Kaflak A, Kolodziejski W. Phosphorus-31 spin-lattice NMR relaxation in bone apatite and its mineral standards. Solid State Nucl Magn Reson. 2007;31:174-83 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that the effect of water on T(1 rho)(P) is much more pronounced than on T(1)(P). The interpretation has involved P-OH groups and adsorbed water, which cover the apatite crystal surface. ..
  47. Stiefelhagen P. [Why is it nobody understands me, yet everybody likes me? 50th anniversary of the death of Albert Einstein (1879-1955)]. Internist (Berl). 2005;46:469-73 pubmed
  48. Miller J. Proton and heavy ion acceleration facilities for space radiation research. Gravit Space Biol Bull. 2003;16:19-28 pubmed
    The particles and energies commonly used for medium energy nuclear physics and heavy charged particle radiobiology and radiotherapy at particle accelerators are in the charge and energy range of greatest interest for space radiation ..
  49. Lewicki A. Marie Sklodowska Curie in America, 1921. Radiology. 2002;223:299-303 pubmed
  50. Townsend L, Cucinotta F. Overview of nuclear fragmentation models and needs. Adv Space Res. 1996;17:59-68 pubmed
    ..Their shortcomings are discussed. Further actions needed to improve their accuracy and generality are presented. ..
  51. Strijckmans K. The isochronous cyclotron: principles and recent developments. Comput Med Imaging Graph. 2001;25:69-78 pubmed
    ..The characteristics of such PET cyclotrons are described, as well as their technical implementation. The IBA 18/9 PET cyclotron is given as an example. ..
  52. Kox S, Gamp A, Perrin C, Arvieux J, Bertholet R, Bruandet J, et al. Trends of total reaction cross sections for heavy ion collisions in the intermediate energy range. Phys Rev C Nucl Phys. 1987;35:1678-91 pubmed
    ..Most of the experimental results in the intermediate and high energy range have been reproduced by this parametrization using a single energy-dependent parameter...
  53. Spence R, Mattus A. Laboratory stabilization/solidification of tank sludges: maximizing sludge loading. J Environ Manage. 2004;70:215-33 pubmed
    ..However, tests with actual sludges at such high loadings revealed problems with lead and silver stabilization that were not experienced with the surrogate testing. ..