Summary: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
- de Vladar H, Barton N. The contribution of statistical physics to evolutionary biology. Trends Ecol Evol. 2011;26:424-32 pubmed publisherEvolutionary biology shares many concepts with statistical physics: both deal with populations, whether of molecules or organisms, and both seek to simplify evolution in very many dimensions...
- Morelli J, Runge V, Ai F, Attenberger U, Vu L, Schmeets S, et al. An image-based approach to understanding the physics of MR artifacts. Radiographics. 2011;31:849-66 pubmed publisher..is to interpret clinical images and not necessarily to understand complex equations describing the underlying physics. Nevertheless, the physics of MR imaging plays an important role in clinical practice because it determines image ..
- Delp S, Ku J, Pande V, Sherman M, Altman R. Simbios: an NIH national center for physics-based simulation of biological structures. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2012;19:186-9 pubmed publisherb>Physics-based simulation provides a powerful framework for understanding biological form and function. Simulations can be used by biologists to study macromolecular assemblies and by clinicians to design treatments for diseases...
- Plewes D, Kucharczyk W. Physics of MRI: a primer. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2012;35:1038-54 pubmed publisherThis article is based on an introductory lecture given for the past many years during the "MR Physics and Techniques for Clinicians" course at the Annual Meeting of the ISMRM...
- Niendorf T, Graessl A, Thalhammer C, Dieringer M, Kraus O, Santoro D, et al. Progress and promises of human cardiac magnetic resonance at ultrahigh fields: a physics perspective. J Magn Reson. 2013;229:208-22 pubmed publisher..by the safe operation of UHF-CMR even in the presence of conductive implants are described together with the physics, numerical simulations and experiments, all of which detailing antenna effects and RF heating induced by ..
- Sanborn A, Mansinghka V, Griffiths T. Reconciling intuitive physics and Newtonian mechanics for colliding objects. Psychol Rev. 2013;120:411-37 pubmed publisher..We also consider an extended model that handles causality judgments, and obtain good quantitative agreement with human judgments across tasks that involve different judgment types with a single consistent set of parameters. ..
- Bianca C. Thermostatted kinetic equations as models for complex systems in physics and life sciences. Phys Life Rev. 2012;9:359-99 pubmed publisher..The second part provides a review of a variety of thermostatted mathematical models in physics and life sciences, including Kac, Boltzmann, Jager-Segel and the thermostatted (continuous and discrete) kinetic ..
- Michor F, Liphardt J, Ferrari M, Widom J. What does physics have to do with cancer?. Nat Rev Cancer. 2011;11:657-70 pubmed publisher..How are we beginning to address cancer from the perspective of the physical sciences? ..
- Gunawardena J. Biology is more theoretical than physics. Mol Biol Cell. 2013;24:1827-9 pubmed publisher..Here, ideas from a previous essay are expanded upon to suggest, to the contrary, that the second kind of theory has always played a critical role and that biology, therefore, is a good deal more theoretical than physics.
- Bornmann L, Daniel H. Do author-suggested reviewers rate submissions more favorably than editor-suggested reviewers? A study on atmospheric chemistry and physics. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13345 pubmed publisher..were available for 552 manuscripts (in total 1145 reviews) that were submitted to Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, an interactive open access journal using public peer review (authors' and reviewers' comments are publicly ..
- King M, Pretorius P, Farncombe T, Beekman F. Introduction to the physics of molecular imaging with radioactive tracers in small animals. J Cell Biochem Suppl. 2002;39:221-30 pubmed..this article introduces the physics of imaging behind the imaging methods...
- Yeramian E. Genes and the physics of the DNA double-helix. Gene. 2000;255:139-50 pubmed..of the genetic information stored in the double-helical DNA implies the separation of the two strands, the physics of which is described by the helix-coil transition model...
- Xia Y, Xiong Y, Lim B, Skrabalak S. Shape-controlled synthesis of metal nanocrystals: simple chemistry meets complex physics?. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2009;48:60-103 pubmed publisher..We conclude this article with personal perspectives on the directions toward which future research in this field might take. ..
- Pappu R, Wang X, Vitalis A, Crick S. A polymer physics perspective on driving forces and mechanisms for protein aggregation. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2008;469:132-41 pubmed..The proposed mechanism derives from the recognition that polymers have unique dynamics that distinguish them from other aggregation-prone systems such as colloidal particles. ..
- Prange H. Laplace's law and the alveolus: a misconception of anatomy and a misapplication of physics. Adv Physiol Educ. 2003;27:34-40 pubmed..Laplace's law as it applies to cylinders is an important feature of the mechanics of airway collapse, but the law as it applies to spheres is not relevant to the individual alveolus...
- Cody D. AAPM/RSNA physics tutorial for residents: topics in CT. Image processing in CT. Radiographics. 2002;22:1255-68 pubmed..CT perfusion allows the measurement of physiologic parameters over time. Additional postprocessing efforts can potentially add value to the patients and their outcomes, as can be seen in the cases that illustrate this article. ..
- Bialek W, Botstein D. Introductory science and mathematics education for 21st-Century biologists. Science. 2004;303:788-90 pubmed..We propose that a way out of this dilemma is a unified introductory science curriculum that fully incorporates mathematics and quantitative thinking. ..
- Wheelwright S, Baron Cohen S. The link between autism and skills such as engineering, maths, physics and computing: a reply to Jarrold and Routh. Autism. 2001;5:223-7 pubmed..This result was interpreted as providing supporting evidence for the folk-psychology/folk-physics theory of autism...
- Bernier J, Horiot J, Poortmans P. Quality assurance in radiotherapy: from radiation physics to patient- and trial-oriented control procedures. Eur J Cancer. 2002;38 Suppl 4:S155-8 pubmed..in function of two main criteria: the targets of the quality control procedures implemented, in Radiation Physics and clinical research, by the EORTC Radiotherapy Group and the development of both trial- and patient-oriented ..
- Papoian G, Wolynes P. The physics and bioinformatics of binding and folding-an energy landscape perspective. Biopolymers. 2003;68:333-49 pubmed
- Kasparian J, Wolf J. Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation. Opt Express. 2008;16:466-93 pubmed..Typical applications include remote sensing of atmospheric gases and aerosols, lightning control, laser-induced spectroscopy, coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering, and the generation of sub-THz radiation. ..
- Liger Belair G. The physics and chemistry behind the bubbling properties of champagne and sparkling wines: a state-of-the-art review. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:2788-802 pubmedIn this review, the latest results about the chemical physics behind the bubbling properties of Champagne and sparkling wines are collected and fully illustrated...
- Lieu D. Ultrasound physics and instrumentation for pathologists. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2010;134:1541-56 pubmed publisher..Educational courses discuss clinical ultrasound and biopsy techniques but not ultrasound physics and instrumentation...
- Pattee H. The physics of symbols: bridging the epistemic cut. Biosystems. 2001;60:5-21 pubmed..Non-integrable constraints are one necessary condition for bridging the epistemic cut by measurement, control, and coding. Additional properties of heteropolymer constraints are necessary for biological evolution. ..
- Webb S. Advances in three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy physics with intensity modulation. Lancet Oncol. 2000;1:30-6 pubmed..Several new technologies are in development, but physicists are still working to improve the physical basis of radiation therapy. ..
- Bogacz R, Brown E, Moehlis J, Holmes P, Cohen J. The physics of optimal decision making: a formal analysis of models of performance in two-alternative forced-choice tasks. Psychol Rev. 2006;113:700-65 pubmed..They use these findings to address empirical data and make novel predictions about performance under optimality. ..
- Bogatyrenko E, Pompey P, Hanebeck U. Efficient physics-based tracking of heart surface motion for beating heart surgery robotic systems. Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg. 2011;6:387-99 pubmed publisher..A heart surface motion tracking method is developed, including a stochastic physics-based heart surface model and an efficient reconstruction algorithm...
- Longo G, Montévil M. From physics to biology by extending criticality and symmetry breakings. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2011;106:340-7 pubmed publisherSymmetries play a major role in physics, in particular since the work by E. Noether and H. Weyl in the first half of last century...
- Pittayapat P, Oliveira Santos C, Thevissen P, Michielsen K, Bergans N, Willems G, et al. Image quality assessment and medical physics evaluation of different portable dental X-ray units. Forensic Sci Int. 2010;201:112-7 pubmed publisher..acquired by three portable X-ray devices in combination with four image receptors and to evaluate their medical physics parameters...
- Bays H. Adiposopathy, metabolic syndrome, quantum physics, general relativity, chaos and the Theory of Everything. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2005;3:393-404 pubmed..are not unlike the mechanistic and philosophical thinking processes involved in reconciling the micro (quantum physics) and macro (general relativity) theories in physics...
- Tarnow E. Coauthorship in physics. Sci Eng Ethics. 2002;8:175-90 pubmed..Respondents seem to be divided into two non-overlapping populations--those who report no inappropriate coauthorship and those who have a more graduated view. ..
- Bernacki K, Kalyanaraman C, Jacobson M. Virtual ligand screening against Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase: improving docking enrichment using physics-based methods. J Biomol Screen. 2005;10:675-81 pubmed..reductase: a receptor preparation procedure that incorporates rotamer optimization of side chains and a physics-based rescoring procedure for estimating relative binding affinities of the protein-ligand complexes...
- Zhu T, Finlay J. The role of photodynamic therapy (PDT) physics. Med Phys. 2008;35:3127-36 pubmed..The authors will review the current state of art in PDT research, with an emphasis in PDT physics. They foresee a merge of current separate areas of research in light production and delivery, PDT dosimetry, ..
- Zhuravel D, Kaern M. Physics takes another stab at biological design principles. Mol Syst Biol. 2005;1:2005.0029 pubmed
- Wilson B, Patterson M. The physics, biophysics and technology of photodynamic therapy. Phys Med Biol. 2008;53:R61-109 pubmed publisher..This paper reviews the current status of PDT with an emphasis on the contributions of physics, biophysics and technology, and the challenges remaining in the optimization and adoption of this treatment ..
- Iborra F. Can visco-elastic phase separation, macromolecular crowding and colloidal physics explain nuclear organisation?. Theor Biol Med Model. 2007;4:15 pubmed..I demonstrate that nuclear structure can satisfy the predictions of this hypothesis. I discuss the functional implications of this phenomenon. ..
- Dubochet J. The physics of rapid cooling and its implications for cryoimmobilization of cells. Methods Cell Biol. 2007;79:7-21 pubmed
- Schueler B. The AAPM/RSNA physics tutorial for residents: general overview of fluoroscopic imaging. Radiographics. 2000;20:1115-26 pubmed..Fluoroscopic equipment is available in many different configurations for use in a wide variety of clinical applications. ..
- Pooley R. AAPM/RSNA physics tutorial for residents: fundamental physics of MR imaging. Radiographics. 2005;25:1087-99 pubmed..are many concepts to learn and retain simultaneously; this situation may give the illusion that learning the physics of MR imaging is complicated...
- Yeramian E. The physics of DNA and the annotation of the Plasmodium falciparum genome. Gene. 2000;255:151-68 pubmed..The structural analyses suggest more or less extensive revision to the annotations, and also allow new putative genes to be identified in the chromosome sequences. Several examples of such new genes are described in detail. ..
- McNitt Gray M. AAPM/RSNA Physics Tutorial for Residents: Topics in CT. Radiation dose in CT. Radiographics. 2002;22:1541-53 pubmed
- Axelsson S. Perspectives on handedness, life and physics. Med Hypotheses. 2003;61:267-74 pubmed..Symmetry prevails in physics by equal amounts of left- and right-hand spinning entities, while life is asymmetric in this respect...
- Packer M, Fishkind W, Fine I, Seibel B, Hoffman R. The physics of phaco: a review. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2005;31:424-31 pubmed..Surgeons will benefit from understanding the physical principles underlying phacoemulsification because they will be better able to evaluate the performance of various parameters and different machine settings. ..
- Ramasamy A, Hill A, Hepper A, Bull A, Clasper J. Blast mines: physics, injury mechanisms and vehicle protection. J R Army Med Corps. 2009;155:258-64 pubmed..The challenge for the vehicle designer is the incorporation of these protective measures within an operationally effective platform. ..
- Shell M, Ozkan S, Voelz V, Wu G, Dill K. Blind test of physics-based prediction of protein structures. Biophys J. 2009;96:917-24 pubmed publisher..a multiprotein blind test of a computer method to predict native protein structures based solely on an all-atom physics-based force field...
- Giles J. Top five in physics. Nature. 2006;441:265 pubmed
- Shlesinger M. Mathematical physics: search research. Nature. 2006;443:281-2 pubmed
- Uversky V. Natively unfolded proteins: a point where biology waits for physics. Protein Sci. 2002;11:739-56 pubmed..In this respect, the Protein Quartet model, with function arising from four specific conformations (ordered forms, molten globules, premolten globules, and random coils) and transitions between any two of the states, is discussed. ..
- Studholme C, Constable R, Duncan J. Accurate alignment of functional EPI data to anatomical MRI using a physics-based distortion model. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2000;19:1115-27 pubmed..The algorithm is then applied to a range of nine brain imaging studies illustrating global and local improvement in the anatomical alignment and localization of fMRI activations. ..
- Jacobson K, Mouritsen O, Anderson R. Lipid rafts: at a crossroad between cell biology and physics. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:7-14 pubmed..Further application of existing tools and the development of new tools are needed to understand the dynamic heterogeneity of biological membranes. ..