Genomes and Genes
Summary: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)
- Kittichai V, Koepfli C, Nguitragool W, Sattabongkot J, Cui L. Substantial population structure of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand facilitates identification of the sources of residual transmission. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005930 pubmed publisher..Understanding the genetic relationship of residual parasite populations can help track the origins of the parasites that are reintroduced into malaria-free regions within the country...
- Park J, Jung S, Ki J, Guo R, Kim H, Lee K, et al. Transfer of the small diatoms Thalassiosira proschkinae and T. spinulata to the genus Minidiscus and their taxonomic re-description. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181980 pubmed publisher..nov. and Minidiscus spinulatus (Takano) Park & Lee comb. nov., respectively. The genus description of Minidiscus was emended. ..
- McCormack J, Faircloth B. Next-generation phylogenetics takes root. Mol Ecol. 2013;22:19-20 pubmed
- Alfonso Morales A, Martínez Pérez O, Dolz R, Valle R, Perera C, Bertran K, et al. Spatiotemporal Phylogenetic Analysis and Molecular Characterisation of Infectious Bursal Disease Viruses Based on the VP2 Hyper-Variable Region. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e65999 pubmed publisher..To our knowledge, this work is the first study applying the Bayesian phylogeographic reconstruction approach to analyse the emergence and spread of vvIBDV strains worldwide. ..
- Mende M, Hundsdoerfer A. Mitochondrial lineage sorting in action--historical biogeography of the Hyles euphorbiae complex (Sphingidae, Lepidoptera) in Italy. BMC Evol Biol. 2013;13:83 pubmed publisherMitochondrial genes are among the most commonly used markers in studies of species' phylogeography and to draw conclusions about taxonomy...
- Listl D, Poschlod P, Reisch C. Phylogeography of a tough rock survivor in European dry grasslands. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179961 pubmed publisher..Therefore, central European grasslands were recently colonized by northern cryptic populations and source populations originating in the east and the Apennine Peninsula. ..
- Chiou H, Hsieh C, Jeng C, Chan F, Wang H, Pang V. Molecular characterization of cryptically circulating rabies virus from ferret badgers, Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:790-8 pubmed publisher..Our findings indicate that RABV could be cryptically circulating in the environment. An understanding of the underlying mechanism might shed light on the complex interaction between RABV and its host. ..
- Vogler A, Andrianaivoarimanana V, Telfer S, Hall C, Sahl J, Hepp C, et al. Temporal phylogeography of Yersinia pestis in Madagascar: Insights into the long-term maintenance of plague. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005887 pubmed publisher..To address that gap and further inform our understanding of plague epidemiology, we investigated the phylogeography of Y. pestis in Madagascar over an 18 year period...
- Zehender G, Veo C, Ebranati E, Carta V, Rovida F, Percivalle E, et al. Reconstructing the recent West Nile virus lineage 2 epidemic in Europe and Italy using discrete and continuous phylogeography. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179679 pubmed publisher..Over a period of about seven years, the virus spread all over an area of northern Italy by following the Po river and its main tributaries. ..
- Kruckenhauser L, Haring E, Tautscher B, Cadahía L, Zopp L, Duda M, et al. Indication for selfing in geographically separated populations and evidence for Pleistocene survival within the Alps: the case of Cylindrus obtusus (Pulmonata: Helicidae). BMC Evol Biol. 2017;17:138 pubmed publisher..The small genetic distances among all individuals (max. 1.7%) suggest that C. obtusus has experienced severe bottlenecks in the past. ..
- Apolônio Silva de Oliveira D, Decraemer W, Moens T, Dos Santos G, Derycke S. Low genetic but high morphological variation over more than 1000 km coastline refutes omnipresence of cryptic diversity in marine nematodes. BMC Evol Biol. 2017;17:71 pubmed publisher..Our results show that cryptic species are not omnipresent in marine nematode species, suggesting that nematodes associated with seaweeds have been able to disperse over large distances across well-known biogeographic barriers. ..
- Price E, Sarovich D, Webb J, Hall C, Jaramillo S, Sahl J, et al. Phylogeographic, genomic, and meropenem susceptibility analysis of Burkholderia ubonensis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005928 pubmed publisher..Finally, we show that Asian B. ubonensis isolate RF23-BP41 is avirulent in the BALB/c mouse model via a subcutaneous route of infection. Our results provide several new insights into the biology of this understudied species. ..
- Tobler R, Rohrlach A, Soubrier J, Bover P, Llamas B, Tuke J, et al. Aboriginal mitogenomes reveal 50,000 years of regionalism in Australia. Nature. 2017;544:180-184 pubmed publisher..Remarkably, we find evidence for the continuous presence of populations in discrete geographic areas dating back to around 50?ka, in agreement with the notable Aboriginal Australian cultural attachment to their country. ..
- . Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8. Science. 2016;354:213-217 pubmed..Improving our understanding of the circumpolar circulation of avian influenza viruses in migratory waterfowl will help to provide early warning of threats from avian influenza to poultry, and potentially human, health. ..
- Hassel C, Mirand A, Farkas A, Diedrich S, Huemer H, Peigue Lafeuille H, et al. Phylogeography of Coxsackievirus A16 Reveals Global Transmission Pathways and Recent Emergence and Spread of a Recombinant Genogroup. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher..The results are consistent with our earlier data on EV-A71 and confirm the epidemiological interconnection of Asia and Europe with regard to EV infections. ..
- Lavoué S, Bertrand J, Wang H, Chen W, Ho H, Motomura H, et al. Molecular systematics of the anchovy genus Encrasicholina in the Northwest Pacific. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181329 pubmed publisher..These molecular results combined with recent taxonomic revisions are important for designing further studies on the population structure and phylogeography of these anchovies.
- Lebrija Trejos E, Wright S, Hernandez A, Reich P. Does relatedness matter? Phylogenetic density-dependent survival of seedlings in a tropical forest. Ecology. 2014;95:940-51 pubmed..Improved performance near phylogenetically similar neighbors is an emerging pattern in the handful of similar studies. ..
- GutiÃ©rrez RodrÃguez J, Barbosa A, MartÃnez Solano Ã. Integrative inference of population history in the Ibero-Maghrebian endemic Pleurodeles waltl (Salamandridae). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2017;112:122-137 pubmed publisher..This study provides novel insights into the relative roles of geology and climate on the biogeography of a biodiversity hotspot. ..
- Salas Leiva D, Meerow A, Calonje M, Francisco Ortega J, Griffith M, Nakamura K, et al. Shifting Quaternary migration patterns in the Bahamian archipelago: Evidence from the Zamia pumila complex at the northern limits of the Caribbean island biodiversity hotspot. Am J Bot. 2017;104:757-771 pubmed publisher..Our study highlights the importance of the maintenance of the predominant direction of genetic exchange and the role of overseas dispersion among the islands during climate oscillations. ..
- Furuse Y, Oshitani H. Global Transmission Dynamics of Measles in the Measles Elimination Era. Viruses. 2017;9: pubmed publisher..It is therefore crucial to maintain vigilance in efforts to monitor and eradicate measles globally. ..
- Chua V, Smith B, Burner R, Rahman M, Lakim M, Prawiradilaga D, et al. Evolutionary and ecological forces influencing population diversification in Bornean montane passerines. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2017;113:139-149 pubmed publisher..To understand historical forces influencing montane population structure on Borneo, future studies must compare populations across the entirety of Sundaland. ..
- Miller D, Lawson S, Rinker D, Estby H, Abbot P. The origin and genetic differentiation of the socially parasitic aphid Tamalia inquilinus. Mol Ecol. 2015;24:5751-66 pubmed publisher..Shared host plants may be sufficient to promote the ecological diversification of a network of phytophagous insects and their parasites, as exemplified by Tamalia aphids. ..
- Larruga J, Marrero P, Abu Amero K, Golubenko M, Cabrera V. Carriers of mitochondrial DNA macrohaplogroup R colonized Eurasia and Australasia from a southeast Asia core area. BMC Evol Biol. 2017;17:115 pubmed publisher..The phylogeny and phylogeography of the major mitochondrial DNA Eurasian haplogroups M and N have played the main role in giving molecular ..
- Hranilovic A, Bely M, Masneuf Pomarede I, Jiranek V, Albertin W. The evolution of Lachancea thermotolerans is driven by geographical determination, anthropisation and flux between different ecosystems. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184652 pubmed publisher..Altogether, this study sheds light on the genotypic and phenotypic diversity of L. thermotolerans, contributing to a better understanding of the population structure, ecology and evolution of this non-Saccharomyces yeast. ..
- Roor W, Konrad H, Mamadjanov D, Geburek T. Population Differentiation in Common Walnut (Juglans regia L.) across Major Parts of Its Native Range-Insights from Molecular and Morphometric Data. J Hered. 2017;108:391-404 pubmed publisher..Pakistani and Indian populations showed highest nut densities. These South Asian populations contain putatively ancestral nut forms, which probably have been lost in other populations as a consequence of human selection. ..
- Pereira A, Sterli J, Moreira F, Schrago C. Multilocus phylogeny and statistical biogeography clarify the evolutionary history of major lineages of turtles. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2017;113:59-66 pubmed publisher..On the other hand, the biogeographical history of Pleurodira indicated a tight correlation with the paleogeography of the Gondwanan landmasses. ..
- Licona Vera Y, Ornelas J. The conquering of North America: dated phylogenetic and biogeographic inference of migratory behavior in bee hummingbirds. BMC Evol Biol. 2017;17:126 pubmed publisher..Comparative phylogeography is needed to test whether the repeated evolution of migration resulted from northward expansion of southern ..
- Kutschera V, Lecomte N, Janke A, Selva N, Sokolov A, Haun T, et al. A range-wide synthesis and timeline for phylogeographic events in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes). BMC Evol Biol. 2013;13:114 pubmed publisher..Red foxes, grey wolves, and brown bears thus represent an interesting case where species that occupy similar ecological niches also exhibit similar phylogeographic histories. ..
- Quillfeldt P, Moodley Y, Weimerskirch H, Cherel Y, Delord K, Phillips R, et al. Does genetic structure reflect differences in non-breeding movements? A case study in small, highly mobile seabirds. BMC Evol Biol. 2017;17:160 pubmed publisher..In line with other Southern Ocean taxa, geographic distance did not lead to genetic differences between widely spaced populations of Southern Ocean petrel species. ..
- Yu H, Zhang Y, Wang Z, Liu L, Chen Z, Qi W. Diverse range dynamics and dispersal routes of plants on the Tibetan Plateau during the late Quaternary. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177101 pubmed publisher..Finally, we believe that this study would provide valuable insights for the conservation of alpine species under future climate change. ..
- Li J, Hu Z, Sun Z, Yao J, Liu F, Fresia P, et al. Historical isolation and contemporary gene flow drive population diversity of the brown alga Sargassum thunbergii along the coast of China. BMC Evol Biol. 2017;17:246 pubmed publisher..Our findings exemplify how both historical and contemporary forces are needed to understand phylogeographical patterns in coastal marine species with long-distance dispersal. ..
- Burke S, Clark L, Triplett J, Grennan C, Duvall M. Biogeography and phylogenomics of New World Bambusoideae (Poaceae), revisited. Am J Bot. 2014;101:886-91 pubmed publisher..Discriminating between alternate evolutionary/biogeographic scenarios in Olyreae is challenging. ..
- Timofeev V, Bakhteeva I, Titareva G, Kopylov P, Christiany D, Mokrievich A, et al. Russian isolates enlarge the known geographic diversity of Francisella tularensis subsp. mediasiatica. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183714 pubmed publisher..mediasiatica is genetically distinct from the classical Central Asian population, and probably is endemic to Southern Siberia. We propose to subdivide the mediasiatica subspecies into three phylogeographic groups, M.I, M.II and M.III. ..
- MarchÃ¡n D, FernÃ¡ndez R, de Sosa I, DÃaz CosÃn D, Novo M. Pinpointing cryptic borders: Fine-scale phylogeography and genetic landscape analysis of the Hormogaster elisae complex (Oligochaeta, Hormogastridae). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2017;112:185-193 pubmed publisher..The phylogeography of the cryptic complex Hormogaster elisae (Oligochaeta, Hormogastridae) lacks knowledge on several aspects, ..
- Baranzelli M, Cosacov A, Ferreiro G, Johnson L, Sérsic A. Travelling to the south: Phylogeographic spatial diffusion model in Monttea aphylla (Plantaginaceae), an endemic plant of the Monte Desert. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178827 pubmed publisher..Pleistocene glaciations drastically decreased the species area in the southern Monte, which expanded in a southeastern direction to the new available areas during the interglacial periods. ..
- Qu Y, Ericson P, Quan Q, Song G, Zhang R, Gao B, et al. Long-term isolation and stability explain high genetic diversity in the Eastern Himalaya. Mol Ecol. 2014;23:705-20 pubmed..We conclude that the high genetic diversity in the Southwest Mountainous Region results from a long-term in situ diversification within these evolutionary isolated and environment stable montane habitats. ..
- Wang Y, Peng Y, Hai R, Xia L, Li H, Zhang Z, et al. Diversity of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica lineages, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:1191-4 pubmed publisher..We found 4 diverse subtypes, including 3 from the most basal lineage, biovar japonica. This result indicates unprecedented levels of diversity from a single region and suggests new models for emergence. ..
- Mackiewicz P, Moska M, Wierzbicki H, Gagat P, Mackiewicz D. Evolutionary history and phylogeographic relationships of shrews from Sorex araneus group. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179760 pubmed publisher..The migrations of populations were accompanied by introgressions of mitochondrial DNA into native shrews and occurred at least twice. ..
- Patino L, Mendez C, Rodriguez O, Romero Y, Velandia D, ALVARADO M, et al. Spatial distribution, Leishmania species and clinical traits of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis cases in the Colombian army. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005876 pubmed publisher..braziliensis and L. panamensis and how these genotypes are distributed at the geographic level. ..
- Patel R, Wutke S, Lenz D, Mukherjee S, Ramakrishnan U, Veron G, et al. Genetic Structure and Phylogeography of the Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) Inferred from Mitochondrial Genomes. J Hered. 2017;108:349-360 pubmed publisher..In the context of Leopard cat biogeography, we cautiously recommend a revision of the Prionailurus bengalensis subspecific taxonomy: namely, a reduction to 4 subspecies (2 mainland and 2 Sundaic forms). ..
- Zinder D, Bedford T, Baskerville E, Woods R, Roy M, Pascual M. Seasonality in the migration and establishment of H3N2 Influenza lineages with epidemic growth and decline. BMC Evol Biol. 2014;14:272 pubmed publisher..Further work is also needed on additional conditions that contribute to the persistence and long term evolution of influenza within the human population, such as spatial heterogeneity with respect to climate and seasonality. ..
- Manickavelu A, Jighly A, Ban T. Molecular evaluation of orphan Afghan common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) landraces collected by Dr. Kihara using single nucleotide polymorphic markers. BMC Plant Biol. 2014;14:320 pubmed publisher..Taken together, these analyses can be used to help improve wheat cultivation in Afghanistan, while providing insights into the evolution and selective pressures underlying these distinct landraces. ..
- Peng J, He Z, Zhang S, Lun Z, Wu Z, Fan C, et al. Phylogeography of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) in southern China and some surrounding areas. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005776 pubmed publisher..However, there are very limited studies about its phylogeography and spread pattern. In the present study, the phylogeography of A...
- Tembrock L, Simmons M, Richards C, Reeves P, Reilley A, Curto M, et al. Phylogeography of the wild and cultivated stimulant plant qat (Catha edulis, Celastraceae) in areas of historical cultivation. Am J Bot. 2017;104:538-549 pubmed publisher..This pattern of divergence could be caused by the extinction of the wild-source qat populations in Ethiopia due to deforestation, undersampling, and/or artificial selection for agronomically important traits. ..
- Rando H, Stutchman J, Bastounes E, Johnson J, Driscoll C, Barr C, et al. Y-Chromosome Markers for the Red Fox. J Hered. 2017;108:678-685 pubmed publisher..The development of new markers has increased the resolution at which red fox Y-chromosome diversity can be analyzed and provides insight into the contribution of males to red fox population diversity and patterns of phylogeography.
- Wang E, van Wijk R, Braun M, Wink M. Gene flow and genetic drift contribute to high genetic diversity with low phylogeographical structure in European hoopoes (Upupa epops). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2017;113:113-125 pubmed publisher..To date, data regarding its phylogeography in Europe are missing...
- Valdivia Carrillo T, García de León F, Blazquez M, Gutiérrez Flores C, González Zamorano P. Phylogeography and Ecological Niche Modeling of the Desert Iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis, Baird & Girard 1852) in the Baja California Peninsula. J Hered. 2017;108:640-649 pubmed publisher..The information obtained in this study provides data allowing a better understanding of how historical population processes in the Baja California Peninsula can be understood from an ecological perspective...
- Bennett E, Champlot S, Peters J, Arbuckle B, Guimaraes S, Pruvost M, et al. Taming the late Quaternary phylogeography of the Eurasiatic wild ass through ancient and modern DNA. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0174216 pubmed publisher..In addition, appropriately placing extant relict populations into a broader phylogeographic and genetic context can better inform ongoing conservation strategies for this highly-endangered species. ..
- Tian H, Sun Z, Faria N, Yang J, Cazelles B, Huang S, et al. Increasing airline travel may facilitate co-circulation of multiple dengue virus serotypes in Asia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005694 pubmed publisher..Phylogeographic reconstructions help to explain how growing air transportation networks could influence the dynamics of DENV circulation. ..
- Zhu Q, Liao B, Li P, Li J, Deng X, Hu X, et al. Phylogeographic pattern suggests a general northeastward dispersal in the distribution of Machilus pauhoi in South China. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184456 pubmed publisher..This conservation strategy can also be combined with the pattern of adaptive genetic variation from the provenance trial for comprehensive genetic resource management of native M. pauhoi. ..
- Yang B, Zhou Y, Min M, Matsui M, Dong B, Li P, et al. Diversity and phylogeography of Northeast Asian brown frogs allied to Rana dybowskii (Anura, Ranidae). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2017;112:148-157 pubmed publisherWe investigated the species diversity and phylogeography of the Northeast Asian brown frogs allied to Rana dybowskii (the R. dybowskii species complex: R. dybowskii, R. pirica, and R. uenoi) using four mitochondrial and three nuclear loci...
- Muniraju M, Munir M, Parthiban A, Banyard A, Bao J, Wang Z, et al. Molecular evolution of peste des petits ruminants virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:2023-33 pubmed publisher..Substitution rates are critical parameters for understanding virus evolution because restrictions in genetic variation can lead to lower adaptability and pathogenicity. ..
- PÃ©rez Moreno J, BalÃ¡zs G, Wilkins B, Herczeg G, Bracken Grissom H. The role of isolation on contrasting phylogeographic patterns in two cave crustaceans. BMC Evol Biol. 2017;17:247 pubmed publisher..For N. hrabei, in which populations exhibit a fully 'cave-adapted' (troglomorphic) phenotype, the lack of genetic structure suggests that subterranean environments do not pose a dispersal barrier for this surface-cave species. ..
- Morales Rozo A, Tenorio E, Carling M, Cadena C. Origin and cross-century dynamics of an avian hybrid zone. BMC Evol Biol. 2017;17:257 pubmed publisher..Our data suggest that the hybrid zone likey resulted from secondary contact between populations. The observed changes in the hybrid zone may be a result of sexual selection, asymmetric gene flow, or environmental change. ..
- Castillo Ramírez S, Corander J, Marttinen P, Aldeljawi M, Hanage W, Westh H, et al. Phylogeographic variation in recombination rates within a global clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Genome Biol. 2012;13:R126 pubmed publisher..sequencing (NGS) is a powerful tool for understanding both patterns of descent over time and space (phylogeography) and the molecular processes underpinning genome divergence in pathogenic bacteria...
- Harrison S, Harvey M, Cooper S, Austin A, Rix M. Across the Indian Ocean: A remarkable example of trans-oceanic dispersal in an austral mygalomorph spider. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180139 pubmed publisher..These analyses provide strong support for the hypothesis that Moggridgea colonised Australia via long-distance trans-Indian Ocean dispersal, representing the first such documented case in a mygalomorph spider. ..
- Fuentes M, Pulgar I, Gallo C, Bortolini M, Canizales Quinteros S, Bedoya G, et al. [Gene geography of Chile: regional distribution of American, European and African genetic contributions]. Rev Med Chil. 2014;142:281-9 pubmed publisher..Participants with Aymara and Mapuche surnames had a higher American genetic contribution than the general Chilean population. These results confirm the usefulness of surnames as a first approximation to determine genetic ancestry. ..
- Leski T, Stockelman M, Moses L, Park M, Stenger D, Ansumana R, et al. Sequence variability and geographic distribution of Lassa virus, Sierra Leone. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:609-18 pubmed publisher..01% for nucleoprotein gene at the nucleotide level. These results may have major implications for designing diagnostic tests and therapeutic agents for LASV infections in Sierra Leone. ..
- Poe S, Nieto Montes de Oca A, Torres Carvajal O, de Queiroz K, Velasco J, Truett B, et al. A Phylogenetic, Biogeographic, and Taxonomic study of all Extant Species of Anolis (Squamata; Iguanidae). Syst Biol. 2017;66:663-697 pubmed publisher..Our comprehensive phylogenetic estimate of anoles should prove useful for rigorous testing of many comparative evolutionary hypotheses. [Anoles; biogeography; lizards; Neotropics; phylogeny; taxonomy]. ..
- Simó Riudalbas M, Metallinou M, De Pous P, Els J, Jayasinghe S, Péntek Zakar E, et al. Cryptic diversity in Ptyodactylus (Reptilia: Gekkonidae) from the northern Hajar Mountains of Oman and the United Arab Emirates uncovered by an integrative taxonomic approach. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180397 pubmed publisher
- Liang D, Leung R, Lee S, Kam K. Insights into intercontinental spread of Zika virus. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176710 pubmed publisher..Our findings provide new insights into the transmission characteristics of ZIKV, while further genetic and serologic studies are warranted to support the design of tailored prevention strategies. ..
- Song J, Cui B. Phylogeny, divergence time and historical biogeography of Laetiporus (Basidiomycota, Polyporales). BMC Evol Biol. 2017;17:102 pubmed publisher..Four intercontinental dispersal routes and a possible concealed dispersal route were established for the first time. ..
- Pepin K, Davis A, Streicker D, Fischer J, VerCauteren K, Gilbert A. Predicting spatial spread of rabies in skunk populations using surveillance data reported by the public. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005822 pubmed publisher..Passive disease surveillance (i.e., case reports by public) is a common method of monitoring emergence of wildlife diseases, but can be challenging to interpret due to spatial biases and limitations in data quantity and quality...
- McMahan C, Ginger L, Cage M, David K, Chakrabarty P, Johnston M, et al. Pleistocene to holocene expansion of the black-belt cichlid in Central America, Vieja maculicauda (Teleostei: Cichlidae). PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178439 pubmed publisher..maculicauda in expansion of their distributions. Future work aimed at comparisons with other species and modeling of future climatic scenarios will be a fruitful area of investigation. ..