clinical chemistry


Summary: The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.

Top Publications

  1. Lippi G, Salvagno G, Montagnana M, Brocco G, Guidi G. Influence of hemolysis on routine clinical chemistry testing. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2006;44:311-6 pubmed
    Preanalytical factors are the main source of variation in clinical chemistry testing and among the major determinants of preanalytical variability, sample hemolysis can exert a strong influence on result reliability...
  2. Chen Y, Qin S, Ding Y, Wei L, Zhang J, Li H, et al. Reference values of clinical chemistry and hematology parameters in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Xenotransplantation. 2009;16:496-501 pubmed publisher
    Rhesus monkey models are valuable to the studies of human biology. Reference values for clinical chemistry and hematology parameters of rhesus monkeys are required for proper data interpretation...
  3. Bowen R, Hortin G, Csako G, Otañez O, Remaley A. Impact of blood collection devices on clinical chemistry assays. Clin Biochem. 2010;43:4-25 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will identify sources of exogenous substances in blood specimens and propose methods to minimize their impact on clinical chemistry assays.
  4. Kemna E, Tjalsma H, Willems H, Swinkels D. Hepcidin: from discovery to differential diagnosis. Haematologica. 2008;93:90-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Ongoing studies in humans should provide us with more information on the etiology of iron metabolism disorders in order to create new therapeutic strategies and improve differential diagnosis protocols for these diseases. ..
  5. Bons J, Wodzig W, van Dieijen Visser M. Protein profiling as a diagnostic tool in clinical chemistry: a review. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2005;43:1281-90 pubmed
    ..Further progress in protein profiling as a diagnostic tool requires a more comprehensive description of technical details in all future studies. ..
  6. Kintzios S. Cell-based biosensors in clinical chemistry. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2007;7:1019-26 pubmed
    ..The present review focuses on the most successful technologies used for the detection of ultra-low concentrations of bioactive analytes (such as metabolic markers and pathogens) in clinical samples. ..
  7. Miller W, Myers G, Ashwood E, Killeen A, Wang E, Ehlers G, et al. State of the art in trueness and interlaboratory harmonization for 10 analytes in general clinical chemistry. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2008;132:838-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Conventionally prepared proficiency testing specimens were not adequately commutable with a fresh frozen specimen to be used to evaluate trueness of methods compared with a reference measurement procedure. ..
  8. Zwart S, Wolf M, Rogers A, Rodgers S, Gillman P, Hitchcox K, et al. Stability of analytes related to clinical chemistry and bone metabolism in blood specimens after delayed processing. Clin Biochem. 2009;42:907-10 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the stability of 36 analytes related to clinical chemistry in a controlled storage study. Blood was collected from 11 subjects and was maintained for 45 min, 2.5 h, 5 h, or 24 h after phlebotomy before centrifugation...
  9. Wu A. A selected history and future of immunoassay development and applications in clinical chemistry. Clin Chim Acta. 2006;369:119-24 pubmed
    ..g., cytokines and allergens). ..

More Information


  1. Kalousova M, Zima T, Tesar V, Dusilova Sulkova S, Skrha J. Advanced glycoxidation end products in chronic diseases-clinical chemistry and genetic background. Mutat Res. 2005;579:37-46 pubmed
  2. McMurray J, Zerah S, Hallworth M, Schuff Werner P, Haushofer A, Szekeres T, et al. The European Register of Specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: guide to the Register, version 3-2010. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2010;48:999-1008 pubmed publisher
    In 1997, the European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EC4) set up a Register for European Specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine...
  3. Vasikaran S, Lai L, Sethi S, Lopez J, Sikaris K. Quality of interpretative commenting on common clinical chemistry results in the Asia-Pacific region and Africa. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2009;47:963-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Five sets of laboratory results reflecting common and important problems encountered in clinical chemistry were distributed at 4-weekly intervals to 31 registered participants from countries in the Asia-Pacific ..
  4. Chasman D, Pare G, Ridker P. Population-based genomewide genetic analysis of common clinical chemistry analytes. Clin Chem. 2009;55:39-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Nonetheless, performing a genomewide association study demands an awareness of very specific epidemiologic and analytic principles. ..
  5. Melanson S, Tanasijevic M, Jarolim P. Cardiac troponin assays: a view from the clinical chemistry laboratory. Circulation. 2007;116:e501-4 pubmed
  6. Saathoff E, Schneider P, Kleinfeldt V, Geis S, Haule D, Maboko L, et al. Laboratory reference values for healthy adults from southern Tanzania. Trop Med Int Health. 2008;13:612-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We enrolled 145 women and 156 men between 19 and 48 years of age to determine clinical chemistry (CC), haematology and lymphocyte immunophenotyping (LIP) parameters using standard laboratory methods...
  7. Flegar Meštrić Z, Nazor A, Perkov S, Surina B, Kardum Paro M, Siftar Z, et al. Accreditation of medical laboratories in Croatia--experiences of the Institute of Clinical Chemistry, University Hospital "Merkur", Zagreb. Coll Antropol. 2010;34:181-6 pubmed
  8. Parvin C, Gronowski A. Effect of analytical run length on quality-control (QC) performance and the QC planning process. Clin Chem. 1997;43:2149-54 pubmed
  9. Neumaier M, Braun A, Wagener C. Fundamentals of quality assessment of molecular amplification methods in clinical diagnostics. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry Scientific Division Committee on Molecular Biology Techniques. Clin Chem. 1998;44:12-26 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, this publication is intended to serve as a recommendation for good laboratory practice and internal quality control and as a guide to troubleshooting, primarily in amplification techniques. ..
  10. Binz P, Hochstrasser D, Appel R. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics: current status and potential use in clinical chemistry. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2003;41:1540-51 pubmed
    ..We also describe the major experimental workflows that are typically used in proteomics today, with a focus on those incorporating MS as a major analysis tool. ..
  11. Cuka S, Dvornik S, Drazenović K, Mihić J. Evaluation of the Dade Behring Dimension RxL clinical chemistry analyzer. Clin Lab. 2001;47:35-40 pubmed
    The performance of the Dade Behring Dimension RxL clinical chemistry analyzer was evaluated according to the guidelines of the European Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards...
  12. Luppa P, Sokoll L, Chan D. Immunosensors--principles and applications to clinical chemistry. Clin Chim Acta. 2001;314:1-26 pubmed
    ..The future role of this technique in intralaboratory, as well as bedside testing, will become even more important as the clinical laboratory is faced with increasing pressure to contain costs. ..
  13. Obuchowski N, Lieber M, Wians F. ROC curves in clinical chemistry: uses, misuses, and possible solutions. Clin Chem. 2004;50:1118-25 pubmed
    ..We reviewed every original work using ROC curves and published in Clinical Chemistry in 2001 or 2002...
  14. Pedersen M, Ornemark U, Rustad P, Steensland H, Loikkanen M, Olafsdottir E, et al. The Nordic Trueness Project 2002: use of reference measurement procedure values in a general clinical chemistry survey. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2004;64:309-20 pubmed
    ..The findings should be used to discuss to what extent reference measurement procedure values are useful and cost-efficient for this type of material. ..
  15. Strømme J, Rustad P, Steensland H, Theodorsen L, Urdal P. Reference intervals for eight enzymes in blood of adult females and males measured in accordance with the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry reference system at 37 degrees C: part of the Nordic Reference Interval Project. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2004;64:371-84 pubmed
    ..Only results obtained with the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) compatible measuring systems were selected for estimation of the enzyme reference intervals...
  16. Lumbreras Lacarra B, Ramos Rincón J, Hernandez Aguado I. Methodology in diagnostic laboratory test research in clinical chemistry and clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. Clin Chem. 2004;50:530-6 pubmed
    ..articles that estimated indexes of diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) and were published in Clinical Chemistry or Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine in 1996, 2001, and 2002...
  17. D Orazio P. Biosensors in clinical chemistry. Clin Chim Acta. 2003;334:41-69 pubmed
    ..Present-day applications of biosensors to clinical chemistry are reviewed, including basic and applied research, commercial applications and fabrication techniques...
  18. Schuurman H, Smith H. Reference values for clinical chemistry and clinical hematology parameters in cynomolgus monkeys. Xenotransplantation. 2005;12:72-5 pubmed
    ..For proper data interpretation, reference values for clinical chemistry and hematology are required...
  19. Sonntag O, Scholer A. Drug interference in clinical chemistry: recommendation of drugs and their concentrations to be used in drug interference studies. Ann Clin Biochem. 2001;38:376-85 pubmed
    ..The study confirmed the usefulness of the recommendation. ..
  20. Righetti P, Castagna A, Antonucci F, Piubelli C, Cecconi D, Campostrini N, et al. Proteome analysis in the clinical chemistry laboratory: myth or reality?. Clin Chim Acta. 2005;357:123-39 pubmed
    ..present, this technique has been used mostly for advanced research, with no immediate applications in the clinical chemistry laboratory, there are hints that such applications will soon become a reality...
  21. Coley N. Medical chemists and the origins of clinical chemistry in Britain (circa 1750-1850). Clin Chem. 2004;50:961-72 pubmed
    In this history, I review developments leading toward the establishment of clinical chemistry in Britain...
  22. Bilic A, Alpeza I, Rukavina A. Evaluation of the Olympus AU 400 clinical chemistry analyzer. Clin Lab. 2000;46:1-6 pubmed
    The performance of the Olympus AU 400 clinical chemistry analyzer was evaluated according to the guidelines of the European Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards...
  23. Marvin L, Roberts M, Fay L. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry in clinical chemistry. Clin Chim Acta. 2003;337:11-21 pubmed
    ..In this paper, we will review the application of MALDI-Tof-MS in clinical chemistry and biology. MALDI-Tof-MS is used in clinical chemistry, e.g...
  24. Gurr E, Koller U, Blaton V, Lund E, Harmoinen A, Zerah S, et al. The European Register for Specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: guide to the Register Version 2-2003 and procedure for re-registration. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2003;41:238-47 pubmed
    The European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EC4) opened a Register for European Chemists in 1997. The operation of the Register is undertaken by a Register Committee (EC4RC)...
  25. Richet G. Nephrolithiasis at the turn of the 18th to 19th centuries: biochemical disturbances. A genuine cascade giving rise to clinical chemistry. Am J Nephrol. 2002;22:254-9 pubmed
    ..quot;We would probably still not have chemistry, botany, or anatomy had not physicians studied and taught them." G. Cuvier Report on Natural Sciences, Paris 1980. ..
  26. Kristiansen J. Description of a generally applicable model for the evaluation of uncertainty of measurement in clinical chemistry. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2001;39:920-31 pubmed
    There is a growing pressure on clinical chemistry laboratories to conform to quality standards that require the evaluation and expression of the uncertainty of results of measurement...
  27. Michiels J, Berneman Z, Gadisseur A, van der Planken M, Schroyens W, Budde U, et al. Immune-mediated etiology of acquired von Willebrand syndrome in systemic lupus erythematosus and in benign monoclonal gammopathy: therapeutic implications. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2006;32:577-88 pubmed
    ..AvWS associated with IgG BMG does not respond to corticosteroids, immune suppression, or chemotherapy. AvWS associated with IgM BMG is rare and does not respond to any conventional treatment. ..
  28. Yoo B, Kong S, Jang S, Kim K, Ahn S, Park W, et al. Identification of hypoxanthine as a urine marker for non-Hodgkin lymphoma by low-mass-ion profiling. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:55 pubmed publisher
    ..This technique can be a powerful non-invasive diagnostic tool with high sensitivity and specificity for NHL screening. Furthermore, HX identified in the study may be a useful single urine marker for NHL screening. ..
  29. Cerdeira A, Karumanchi S. Angiogenic proteins as aid in the diagnosis and prediction of preeclampsia. Scand J Clin Lab Invest Suppl. 2010;242:73-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will highlight the recent clinical studies that have evaluated the utility of these biomarkers in preeclampsia and its related complications. ..
  30. Granger C. The specificity of interferon-gamma-based blood tests in the identification of latent tuberculosis infection. Eur Respir J. 2006;28:1283 pubmed
  31. Costante G, Meringolo D, Durante C, Bianchi D, Nocera M, Tumino S, et al. Predictive value of serum calcitonin levels for preoperative diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma in a cohort of 5817 consecutive patients with thyroid nodules. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:450-5 pubmed
    ..Routine serum calcitonin (CT) measurement in patients with thyroid nodules for diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is controversial...
  32. Bergen T, Steckhan D, Wittenberg T, Zerfass T. Segmentation of leukocytes and erythrocytes in blood smear images. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2008;2008:3075-8 pubmed publisher
    ..An evaluation comparing the performance of the algorithm to the manual segmentation performed by several persons yielded good results. ..
  33. O Keane M, Cunningham S. Evaluation of three different specimen types (serum, plasma lithium heparin and serum gel separator) for analysis of certain analytes: clinical significance of differences in results and efficiency in use. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2006;44:662-8 pubmed
    ..Further investigation would be required to evaluate a broader range of analytes. ..
  34. Gopaul K, Crook M. Sialic acid: a novel marker of cardiovascular disease?. Clin Biochem. 2006;39:667-81 pubmed
    ..Potential mechanisms for this role are examined. The use of serum TSA as a marker of atherosclerotic disease is evaluated. ..
  35. Ferraz R, Baxmann A, Ferreira L, Nishiura J, Siliano P, Gomes S, et al. Preservation of urine samples for metabolic evaluation of stone-forming patients. Urol Res. 2006;34:329-37 pubmed
  36. Gopaul K, Crook M. The inborn errors of sialic acid metabolism and their laboratory investigation. Clin Lab. 2006;52:155-69 pubmed
    ..In view of recent evidence indicating a wide underestimation in the prevalence of sialic acid disorders, laboratory methods for determining urinary free SA and its implications for screening and prenatal diagnosis are evaluated...
  37. Lai L. Global standardisation of HbA1c. Malays J Pathol. 2008;30:67-71 pubmed
    ..In 1994, the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) established a Working Group on Standardisation of HbA1c...
  38. Nardin R, Zarrin A, Horowitz G, Tarulli A. Effect of newly proposed CK reference limits on neuromuscular diagnosis. Muscle Nerve. 2009;39:494-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The clinical impact of the loss in sensitivity is small. If these new upper reference limits are adopted, neuromuscular physicians should be aware that a normal CK level does not exclude a diagnosis of myopathy. ..
  39. Rapi S, Bazzini C, Tozzetti C, Sbolci V, Modesti P. Point-of-care testing of cholesterol and triglycerides for epidemiologic studies: evaluation of the multicare-in system. Transl Res. 2009;153:71-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The characteristics of sensitivity and specificity as well as diagnostic accuracy make the POCT instrument useful for obtaining an accurate stratification of a study population. ..
  40. Behnes M, Brueckmann M, Ahmad Nejad P, Lang S, Wolpert C, Elmas E, et al. Diagnostic performance and cost effectiveness of measurements of plasma N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide in patients presenting with acute dyspnea or peripheral edema. Int J Cardiol. 2009;135:165-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Chest X-rays were saved in 34%, echocardiography in 9%. Measurement of NT-proBNP leads to multiple saving amounts and optimizes diagnostic pathways and resource allocation. ..
  41. Collier C, Clark A, Bain J, Godwin M, Hudson R, Lepage R, et al. Functional testosterone: biochemical assessment of hypogonadism in men--report from a multidisciplinary workshop hosted by the Ontario Society of Clinical Chemists. Aging Male. 2007;10:211-6 pubmed
    ..Total testosterone is a reliable marker for the initial investigation of men presenting with symptoms of hypogonadism; cBAT is a reasonable follow-up test in patients with equivocal biochemical or consistent symptomatic findings. ..
  42. Crook M. Chemical pathology and Krapp's last tape. J Clin Pathol. 2005;58:788 pubmed
  43. Elston D. Commentary: Iron deficiency and hair loss: problems with measurement of iron. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010;63:1077-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This commentary discusses the sensitivity and specificity of available tests for iron deficiency and presents practical guidelines for testing and supplementation. ..
  44. Goullé J, Saussereau E, Mahieu L, Bouige D, Guerbet M, Lacroix C. [The metallic profile: a new biological concept]. Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 2010;68:429-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, this procedure offers new exploration possibilities in various fields such as clinical chemistry but also clinical toxicology, forensic toxicology as well as workplace testing or environmental exposure and ..
  45. Knör S, Khrenov A, Laufer B, Benhida A, Grailly S, Schwaab R, et al. Efficient factor VIII affinity purification using a small synthetic ligand. J Thromb Haemost. 2008;6:470-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Its synthesis by established solid-phase procedures is straightforward and considerably cheaper than the biotechnological production of antibodies, and safety concerns associated with the use of biological material are overcome. ..
  46. Brabant G, Beck Peccoz P, Jarzab B, Laurberg P, Orgiazzi J, Szabolcs I, et al. Is there a need to redefine the upper normal limit of TSH?. Eur J Endocrinol. 2006;154:633-7 pubmed
    ..4-4.0 mU/l. Classifying subjects with a TSH value between 2 and 4 mU/l as abnormal, as well as intervening with thyroxine treatment in such subjects, is probably doing more harm than good. ..
  47. Clemmons D. Clinical utility of measurements of insulin-like growth factor 1. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2006;2:436-46 pubmed
    ..IGF-I is also very useful in monitoring the symptomatic response to therapy. ..
  48. Lippi G, Siest G, Plebani M. Pharmacy-based laboratory services: past or future and risk or opportunity?. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2008;46:435-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Pharmacies were historically involved in clinical chemistry. At the European level, the existing pharmacy syllabus gives to students and postgraduates the ..
  49. Middle J, Kane J. Oestradiol assays: fitness for purpose?. Ann Clin Biochem. 2009;46:441-56 pubmed publisher
  50. Joffe M, Hsu C, Feldman H, Weir M, Landis J, Hamm L. Variability of creatinine measurements in clinical laboratories: results from the CRIC study. Am J Nephrol. 2010;31:426-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Failing to do so may substantially affect study eligibility and clinical interpretations when they are determined by Cr-based estimates of GFR. ..
  51. Hawkins R, Badrick T, Hickman P. Over-reporting significant figures--a significant problem?. Clin Chim Acta. 2007;375:158-61 pubmed
    ..A consensus on appropriate reporting unit size is needed to encourage laboratories to change their present reporting formats. ..
  52. Ouellette A, Li J, Cooper D, Ricco A, Kovacs G. Evolving point-of-care diagnostics using up-converting phosphor bioanalytical systems. Anal Chem. 2009;81:3216-21 pubmed publisher
    ..To listen to a podcast about this feature, please go to the Analytical Chemistry website at ..
  53. Hurley A. Principles of quality control. Curr Protoc Cytom. 2001;Chapter 3:Unit 3.1 pubmed publisher
    ..This unit presents a brief overview of the principles of quality control in the clinical laboratory. ..