Summary: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.

Top Publications

  1. Allison J, Sakoda L, Levin T, Tucker J, Tekawa I, Cuff T, et al. Screening for colorectal neoplasms with new fecal occult blood tests: update on performance characteristics. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007;99:1462-70 pubmed
    ..1% (95% CI = 89.3% to 90.8%) and 90.6% (95% CI = 89.8% to 91.4%), respectively, for the sensitive GT. The FIT has high sensitivity and specificity for detecting left-sided colorectal cancer, and it may be a useful replacement for the GT. ..
  2. Harzsch S, Hansson B. Brain architecture in the terrestrial hermit crab Coenobita clypeatus (Anomura, Coenobitidae), a crustacean with a good aerial sense of smell. BMC Neurosci. 2008;9:58 pubmed publisher
  3. Brenner H, Tao S, Haug U. Low-dose aspirin use and performance of immunochemical fecal occult blood tests. JAMA. 2010;304:2513-20 pubmed publisher
    ..003 and P = .04, respectively). For 2 iFOBTs, use of low-dose aspirin compared with no aspirin was associated with a markedly higher sensitivity for detecting advanced colorectal neoplasms, with only a slightly lower specificity. ..
  4. Rigo A, Gottardi M, Zamo A, Mauri P, Bonifacio M, Krampera M, et al. Macrophages may promote cancer growth via a GM-CSF/HB-EGF paracrine loop that is enhanced by CXCL12. Mol Cancer. 2010;9:273 pubmed publisher
    ..The involvement of mixed M1/M2 GM-CSF-stimulated macrophages in a tumour-promoting loop may challenge the paradigm of tumour-favouring macrophages as polarized M2 mononuclear phagocytes. ..
  5. Park D, Ryu S, Kim Y, Lee S, Lee C, Eun C, et al. Comparison of guaiac-based and quantitative immunochemical fecal occult blood testing in a population at average risk undergoing colorectal cancer screening. Am J Gastroenterol. 2010;105:2017-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The qFIT provides a higher sensitivity for detecting ACRN and cancer than the GT, and has an acceptable specificity that significantly reduces the need for colonoscopic evaluation in the screened population. ..
  6. Hol L, Wilschut J, van Ballegooijen M, van Vuuren A, van Der Valk H, Reijerink J, et al. Screening for colorectal cancer: random comparison of guaiac and immunochemical faecal occult blood testing at different cut-off levels. Br J Cancer. 2009;100:1103-10 pubmed publisher
    ..From our experience, a cut-off value of 75 ng ml(-1) provided an adequate positivity rate and an acceptable trade-off between detection rate and NNscope. ..
  7. Bujanda L, Lanas A, Quintero E, Castells A, Sarasqueta C, Cubiella J, et al. Effect of aspirin and antiplatelet drugs on the outcome of the fecal immunochemical test. Mayo Clin Proc. 2013;88:683-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of DAPT increased the rate of positive FIT results. Use of aspirin, NAAAs, or both did not modify the PPV for AN in this population-based colorectal screening program. ..
  8. Vilkin A, Rozen P, Levi Z, Waked A, Maoz E, Birkenfeld S, et al. Performance characteristics and evaluation of an automated-developed and quantitative, immunochemical, fecal occult blood screening test. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005;100:2519-25 pubmed
    ..Suitability for population CRC screening awaits further evaluation. ..
  9. Levi Z, Rozen P, Hazazi R, Vilkin A, Waked A, Maoz E, et al. A quantitative immunochemical fecal occult blood test for colorectal neoplasia. Ann Intern Med. 2007;146:244-55 pubmed
    ..Quantitative immunochemical FOBT has good sensitivity and specificity for detection of clinically significant neoplasia. Test performance in screening average-risk populations is not known. ..

More Information


  1. Guittet L, Bouvier V, Mariotte N, Vallee J, Arsene D, Boutreux S, et al. Comparison of a guaiac based and an immunochemical faecal occult blood test in screening for colorectal cancer in a general average risk population. Gut. 2007;56:210-4 pubmed
    ..The automated reading technology allows choice of the positivity rate associated with an ideal balance between sensitivity and specificity. ..
  2. Smith A, Young G, Cole S, Bampton P. Comparison of a brush-sampling fecal immunochemical test for hemoglobin with a sensitive guaiac-based fecal occult blood test in detection of colorectal neoplasia. Cancer. 2006;107:2152-9 pubmed
    ..9% and 40.4%, respectively. This brush-sampling FIT is more sensitive for cancers and significant adenomas than a sensitive GFOBT. As such, it should deliver greater reductions in colorectal cancer mortality and incidence than the GFOBT. ..
  3. Sakai H, Mori T, Iida T, Tokuma Y, Maruo K, Masegi T. Immunohistochemical features of proliferative marker and basement membrane components of two feline inductive odontogenic tumours. J Feline Med Surg. 2008;10:296-9 pubmed
    ..Type IV collagen and laminin were constantly positive around the foci of epithelial cells, and Ki-67 positive indices were extremely low; therefore, these findings consistent with the benign clinical presentation of FIOT...
  4. Lemal R, Tournilhac O, Bay J. Biological markers in haematological malignancies. Bull Cancer. 2014;101 Suppl 1:S7-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We aim to describe these different biological markers and to pinpoint their accurate role in daily practice. ..
  5. Bacos K, Björkqvist M, Petersen A, Luts L, Maat Schieman M, Roos R, et al. Islet beta-cell area and hormone expression are unaltered in Huntington's disease. Histochem Cell Biol. 2008;129:623-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This may lead to a better understanding of HD and provide novel therapeutic targets for symptomatic treatment in HD. ..
  6. Albrecht M, Alessandri S, Conti A, Reuter A, Lauer I, Vieths S, et al. High level expression, purification and physico- and immunochemical characterisation of recombinant Pen a 1: a major allergen of shrimp. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008;52 Suppl 2:S186-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the recombinant allergen proved to be immunologically reactive in IgE Western blot analysis and ELISA. This study provides a protocol for the preparation of recombinant shrimp tropomyosin in standardised quality. ..
  7. Winawer S, Fischer S, Levin B. Evidence-Based, Reality-Driven Colorectal Cancer Screening Guidelines: The Critical Relationship of Adherence to Effectiveness. JAMA. 2016;315:2065-6 pubmed publisher
  8. Papasarantos I, Klimentzou P, Koutrafouri V, Anagnostouli M, Zikos C, Paravatou Petsotas M, et al. Solid-phase synthesis of a biotin derivative and its application to the development of anti-biotin antibodies. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2010;162:221-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Synthetic derivatives of hapten molecules that can be easily prepared with solid-phase chemistry, such as BAL, may be used for the development of specific antibodies for the corresponding hapten. ..
  9. Kitamura O, Takeichi T, Wang E, Tokunaga I, Ishigami A, Kubo S. Microglial and astrocytic changes in the striatum of methamphetamine abusers. Leg Med (Tokyo). 2010;12:57-62 pubmed publisher
  10. Tada Y, Taniguchi A, Nagao I, Miki T, Uematsu M, Tsuda A, et al. Differing growth responses of major phylogenetic groups of marine bacteria to natural phytoplankton blooms in the western North Pacific Ocean. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:4055-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These data elucidate the distinctive ecological role of major bacterial taxa in organic matter cycling during open ocean phytoplankton blooms. ..
  11. Nikolényi A, Sukosd F, Kaizer L, Csörgo E, Voros A, Uhercsak G, et al. Tumor topoisomerase II alpha status and response to anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer. Oncology. 2011;80:269-77 pubmed publisher
    ..TOP2A expression is a marker of the tumor's proliferation rate and sensitivity to anthracycline-based chemotherapy, and does not depend on the amplification of its gene. ..
  12. Adrait A, Lebert D, Trauchessec M, Dupuis A, Louwagie M, Masselon C, et al. Development of a Protein Standard Absolute Quantification (PSAQ™) assay for the quantification of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin A in serum. J Proteomics. 2012;75:3041-9 pubmed publisher
    ..With this sensitive PSAQ-SRM assay, we expect to contribute to decipher the pathophysiological role of SEA in severe sepsis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics: The clinical link. ..
  13. Lotfi P, Romero Ortega M. Control of neural interfacing in peripheral nerves through regenerative molecular guidance. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2011;2011:4633-6 pubmed publisher
  14. Chi X, Michos O. Immunohistochemical staining of dpERK staining during early kidney development. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;886:261-5 pubmed publisher
    ..ERK signaling is activated by receptor tyrosine kinase such as RET and FGFR2. This protocol describes a method to detect the diphosphorylated form of ERK (dpERK) on paraffin embedded tissue of early mouse embryo. ..
  15. Lopez Rios J. Sensing BMP pathway activity by immune detection of phosphorylated R-Smad proteins in mouse embryonic kidney. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;886:267-73 pubmed publisher
  16. Stegeman I, de Wijkerslooth T, Mallant Hent R, de Groot K, Stroobants A, Fockens P, et al. Implementation of population screening for colorectal cancer by repeated Fecal Immunochemical Test (FIT): third round. BMC Gastroenterol. 2012;12:73 pubmed publisher
    ..This enables to estimate the effectiveness of CRC screening programs that rely on repeated FIT- screening, such as the one that will be implemented in the Netherlands in 2013. ..
  17. Danieli E, Proietti D, Brogioni G, Romano M, Cappelletti E, Tontini M, et al. Synthesis of Staphylococcus aureus type 5 capsular polysaccharide repeating unit using novel L-FucNAc and D-FucNAc synthons and immunochemical evaluation. Bioorg Med Chem. 2012;20:6403-15 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus type 5 polysaccharide-CRM(197) conjugate. ..
  18. Yan Q, Yu H, Li J. [Study on the expression of BDNF in human gliomas]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2009;40:415-7 pubmed
    ..The expression of BDNF in gliomas of human was greatly upregulated, indicating BDNF may play an important role in the tumorigenesis of gliomas, and relate with pathologic grading. ..
  19. Shin E, Jeong J, Kim H, Jang C, Yamada K, Nabeshima T, et al. Exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields enhances locomotor activity via activation of dopamine D1-like receptors in mice. J Pharmacol Sci. 2007;105:367-71 pubmed
    ..Thus, our results suggest that ELF-MF-induced behavioral responses are, at least in part, mediated by activation of dopamine D(1)-like receptors. ..
  20. Van Emon J, Shelver W. Introduction, recent advances in immunochemistry and their application to agrochemicals. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:3749 pubmed
  21. Bujanda L, Sarasqueta C, Lanas A, Quintero E, Cubiella J, Hernandez V, et al. Effect of oral anticoagulants on the outcome of faecal immunochemical test. Br J Cancer. 2014;110:1334-7 pubmed publisher
    ..4-10.8; P=0.4). Oral anticoagulant did not significantly modify the PPV for AN in this population-based colorectal screening program. The detection rate of advanced adenoma was higher in the combination OAC more antiplatelets. ..
  22. Tarikuz Zaman A, Spees J, Sobel B. Attenuation of cardiac vascular rhexis: a promising therapeutic target. Coron Artery Dis. 2013;24:245-52 pubmed publisher
  23. Hirose R, Miura T, Sha R, Shinkai Y, Tanaka Kagawa T, Kumagai Y. A method for detecting covalent modification of sensor proteins associated with 1,4-naphthoquinone-induced activation of electrophilic signal transduction pathways. J Toxicol Sci. 2012;37:891-8 pubmed
  24. Lee B, Yang C, Hahm D, Lee H, Choe E, Pyun K, et al. Coptidis Rhizoma attenuates repeated nicotine-induced behavioural sensitization in the rat. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2007;59:1663-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that CR and BER may produce inhibitory effects of nicotine on behavioural sensitization by possibly reducing postsynaptic neuronal activation in the central dopaminergic systems. ..
  25. Tao S, Haug U, Kuhn K, Brenner H. Comparison and combination of blood-based inflammatory markers with faecal occult blood tests for non-invasive colorectal cancer screening. Br J Cancer. 2012;106:1424-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These blood-based markers do not seem to be an alternative to FOBT-based CRC screening. The potential use of these and other blood-based tests in combination with iFOBT might deserve further attention. ..
  26. Reddy D, Zeng Y. Differential anesthetic activity of ketamine and the GABAergic neurosteroid allopregnanolone in mice lacking progesterone receptor A and B subtypes. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2007;29:659-64 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no marked gender-related difference to ketamine response in both genotypes. In conclusion, these results suggest that the neurosteroid allopregnanolone and ketamine produce differential anesthetic response in mice lacking PRs. ..
  27. Wilschut J, Habbema J, van Leerdam M, Hol L, Lansdorp Vogelaar I, Kuipers E, et al. Fecal occult blood testing when colonoscopy capacity is limited. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011;103:1741-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Increasing the colonoscopy capacity substantially increases the health benefits of FIT screening. ..
  28. Narukawa M, Kitagawa Iseki K, Oike H, Abe K, Mori T, Hayashi Y. Characterization of umami receptor and coupling G protein in mouse taste cells. Neuroreport. 2008;19:1169-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we demonstrated that umami stimuli were received by G protein-coupled receptors that function together with some of the Galphai family members. ..
  29. Schuetz A, Cohen C. Aspergillus immunohistochemistry of culture-proven fungal tissue isolates shows high cross-reactivity. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2009;17:524-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The number of culture-confirmed Candida cases was too low to adequately evaluate sensitivity. More accurate and reliable fungal IHCs, including those for Zygomycete staining, are needed. ..
  30. Masilamani S, Rao S, Chirakkal P, Kumar A. Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of the base of tongue: a distinct and rare entity. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2011;54:167-9 pubmed publisher
    ..No further therapy was given to the patient. One year after the surgery, the patient is symptom free without local recurrence and on regular follow up. ..
  31. Kersigo J, D Angelo A, Gray B, Soukup G, Fritzsch B. The role of sensory organs and the forebrain for the development of the craniofacial shape as revealed by Foxg1-cre-mediated microRNA loss. Genesis. 2011;49:326-41 pubmed publisher
  32. Sapin R. [Interferences in immunoassays: Mechanisms and outcomes in endocrinology]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2008;69:415-25 pubmed publisher
    ..If there is any suspicion of discrepancy between clinical and laboratory data, they must alert the laboratory. This is the only way to better detect and, if possible, eliminate interferences and their regrettable outcomes. ..
  33. Deobagkar D, Panikar C, Rajpathak S, Shaiwale N, Mukherjee S. An immunochemical method for detection and analysis of changes in methylome. Methods. 2012;56:260-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This experimental system permits rapid evaluation of potential target genes which would be modulated by DNA methylation changes and thus the gene networks that govern the processes. ..
  34. Slattery S, Newberg J, Szafran A, Hall R, Brinkley B, Mancini M. A framework for image-based classification of mitotic cells in asynchronous populations. Assay Drug Dev Technol. 2012;10:161-78 pubmed publisher
    ..As such, we suggest the use of MPM-2 analysis and its associated expressive features for integration into HCS approaches. ..
  35. Winbanks C, Darby I, Kelynack K, Pouniotis D, Becker G, Hewitson T. Explanting is an ex vivo model of renal epithelial-mesenchymal transition. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2011;2011:212819 pubmed publisher
    ..Explanting is a reproducible ex vivo model of EMT. The ability to modify this change in phenotype provides a useful tool to study the regulation and mechanisms of renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis. ..
  36. Samra H, He F. Advancements in high throughput biophysical technologies: applications for characterization and screening during early formulation development of monoclonal antibodies. Mol Pharm. 2012;9:696-707 pubmed publisher
    ..Several case studies are also presented here to provide examples of combining existing biophysical methods with high throughput screening technology in the formulation development of monoclonal antibody drugs. ..
  37. Matsubara T, Aoki N, Honjoh T, Mizumachi K, Kurisaki J, Okajima T, et al. Absorption, migration and kinetics in peripheral blood of orally administered ovalbumin in a mouse model. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2008;72:2555-65 pubmed
    ..Such stable absorption and blood kinetics of undigested ovalbumin in normal mice suggest some sort of physiological significance for the intestinal uptake of intact food proteins. ..
  38. Lough C, Young T, Parker R, Wittenauer S, Vincler M. Increased spinal dynorphin contributes to chronic nicotine-induced mechanical hypersensitivity in the rat. Neurosci Lett. 2007;422:54-8 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that chronic nicotine administration produces an increase in spinal dynorphin content and release that contributes to mechanical hypersensitivity. ..
  39. Ou C, Kuo F, Hsu W, Lu C, Yu F, Kuo C, et al. Comparison of the performance of guaiac-based and two immunochemical fecal occult blood tests for identifying advanced colorectal neoplasia in Taiwan. J Dig Dis. 2013;14:474-83 pubmed publisher
    ..For the ACRN group, qnFIT also showed the best screening ability with a sensitivity of 56.8%, accuracy of 86.7% and PLR 5.0. Both qnFIT and qlFIT perform better than GT in detecting advanced adenomas and CRC in the Taiwanese population. ..
  40. Allison J. FIT: a valuable but underutilized screening test for colorectal cancer-it's time for a change. Am J Gastroenterol. 2010;105:2026-8 pubmed publisher
  41. Cherepanova A, Tamkovich S, Pyshnyi D, Kharkova M, Vlassov V, Laktionov P. Immunochemical assay for deoxyribonuclease activity in body fluids. J Immunol Methods. 2007;325:96-103 pubmed
    ..36+/-0.20 U/ml. DNase II-like activity was not detected in the plasma samples. The data obtained confirm that DNase I-like enzymes are responsible for the majority of deoxyribonuclease activity in blood plasma. ..
  42. Bazáes A, Schmachtenberg O. Odorant tuning of olfactory crypt cells from juvenile and adult rainbow trout. J Exp Biol. 2012;215:1740-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support an involvement of olfactory crypt cells in reproduction-related olfactory signaling in fishes. ..
  43. Rosing K, Fobker M, Kannenberg F, Gunia S, Dell Aquila A, Kwiecien R, et al. Everolimus therapy is associated with reduced lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-Pla2) activity and oxidative stress in heart transplant recipients. Atherosclerosis. 2013;230:164-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects may additionally contribute to the reduced CAV incidence observed in heart transplant recipients receiving everolimus therapy. ..
  44. Ravenscroft G, Colley S, Walker K, Clement S, Bringans S, Lipscombe R, et al. Expression of cardiac alpha-actin spares extraocular muscles in skeletal muscle alpha-actin diseases--quantification of striated alpha-actins by MRM-mass spectrometry. Neuromuscul Disord. 2008;18:953-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We have shown by immunochemistry, Western blotting and a novel MRM-mass spectrometry technique, comparable levels of cardiac alpha-actin in ..
  45. Yen Y, Tsang C, Cameron T, Ankrah D, Rodou A, Stathopoulos C. Importance of conserved residues of the serine protease autotransporter beta-domain in passenger domain processing and beta-barrel assembly. Infect Immun. 2010;78:3516-28 pubmed publisher
    ..substitution, and defects in their secretion phenotypes were assessed by cell fractionation and immunochemistry. A total of 22 single mutants exhibited abnormal phenotypes in different cellular compartments...
  46. Bereza T, Lis G, Mituś J, Sporek M, Chmielewski P, Kolber W, et al. Blood vessels of the intratumoral septa in uterine leiomyomata. Folia Med Cracov. 2013;53:99-106 pubmed
    ..Apart from the veins the intratumoral septa were consisted of small arteries and capillaries. ..
  47. Li C, Shiu M, Chia S, Liu J, Chen T, Chie W. Factors associated with referral compliance of abnormal immunochemical faecal occult blood test. J Med Screen. 2007;14:186-90 pubmed
    ..Three factors in Health Belief Model were associated with referral compliance after positive FOBT. ..
  48. Budke J, Goffinet B, Jones C. A hundred-year-old question: is the moss calyptra covered by a cuticle? A case study of Funaria hygrometrica. Ann Bot. 2011;107:1279-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Thicknesses of individual cuticle layers were quantified and compared statistically. The immunochemistry antibody (LM19) specific for pectins was used to locate cell wall material within the cuticle...
  49. Bláhová L, Oravec M, Marsalek B, Sejnohová L, Simek Z, Blaha L. The first occurrence of the cyanobacterial alkaloid toxin cylindrospermopsin in the Czech Republic as determined by immunochemical and LC/MS methods. Toxicon. 2009;53:519-24 pubmed
    ..Our study demonstrates for the first time occurrence of CYN in the Central Europe. With respect to its suspected carcinogenicity, further research on distribution, concentrations and risks of this cyanobacterial toxin is needed. ..
  50. Skeppholm M, Wallén N, Malmqvist K, Kallner A, Antovic J. Comparison of two immunochemical assays for measuring thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor concentration with a functional assay in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Thromb Res. 2007;121:175-81 pubmed
    ..Therefore the optimal choice of assay for determination of TAFI in different clinical studies is of importance. The Pefakit and Asserachrom seem to be appropriate candidates. ..
  51. Holma R, Salmenperä P, Virtanen I, Vapaatalo H, Korpela R. Prophylactic potential of montelukast against mild colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium in rats. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007;58:455-67 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that montelukast has some potential to ameliorate mild experimental colitis induced by DSS. ..
  52. Ma B, Zhang Y, Wu D, Jia J, Xu W, Luo Y. Affinity-purification of fibrinogenase with high proteolytic activity from Agkistrodon halys (Chinese) Venom. Arch Pharm Res. 2008;31:1129-36 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the purified fibrinogenase by affinity column were shown to be homogeneous and showed a high and specific proteolytic activity against beta-chains of fibrinogen molecules and antithrombosis activity. ..
  53. Fuller M, Tucker J, Lang D, Dean C, Fietz M, Meikle P, et al. Screening patients referred to a metabolic clinic for lysosomal storage disorders. J Med Genet. 2011;48:422-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates the sensitivity and specificity of this technology to accurately identify 99% of LSD patients, with the exception of one MPS II false negative. ..