Summary: A series of thoughts, images, or emotions occurring during sleep which are dissociated from the usual stream of consciousness of the waking state.

Top Publications

  1. Blagrove M, Henley Einion J, Barnett A, Edwards D, Heidi Seage C. A replication of the 5-7 day dream-lag effect with comparison of dreams to future events as control for baseline matching. Conscious Cogn. 2011;20:384-91 pubmed publisher
    ..effect refers to there being, after the frequent incorporation of memory elements from the previous day into dreams (the day-residue), a lower incorporation of memory elements from 2 to 4 days before the dream, but then an ..
  2. Llewellyn S. If waking and dreaming consciousness became de-differentiated, would schizophrenia result?. Conscious Cogn. 2011;20:1059-83 pubmed publisher
    ..As a consequence of progressive de-differentiation, certain identifiable psychiatric disorders may emerge. Ultimately, schizophrenia, a disorganized-fragmented self, may result. ..
  3. Schredl M. Dreams in patients with sleep disorders. Sleep Med Rev. 2009;13:215-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Dream recall is heightened in patients with insomnia and their dreams reflect current stressors...
  4. Voss U, Tuin I, Schermelleh Engel K, Hobson A. Waking and dreaming: related but structurally independent. Dream reports of congenitally paraplegic and deaf-mute persons. Conscious Cogn. 2011;20:673-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Results are discussed with respect to feedforward mechanisms and protoconsciousness theory of dreaming. ..
  5. Marzano C, Ferrara M, Mauro F, Moroni F, Gorgoni M, Tempesta D, et al. Recalling and forgetting dreams: theta and alpha oscillations during sleep predict subsequent dream recall. J Neurosci. 2011;31:6674-83 pubmed publisher
  6. Saurat M, Agbakou M, Attigui P, Golmard J, Arnulf I. Walking dreams in congenital and acquired paraplegia. Conscious Cogn. 2011;20:1425-32 pubmed publisher
    To test if dreams contain remote or never-experienced motor skills, we collected during 6 weeks dream reports from 15 paraplegics and 15 healthy subjects...
  7. Blagrove M, Morgan C, Curran H, Bromley L, Brandner B. The incidence of unpleasant dreams after sub-anaesthetic ketamine. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009;203:109-20 pubmed publisher
    ..antagonist with psychotogenic effects and for which there are diverse reports of whether pleasant or unpleasant dreams result during anaesthesia, post-operatively or after sub-anaesthetic use...
  8. Csoka S, Simor P, Szabo G, Kopp M, Bodizs R. Early maternal separation, nightmares, and bad dreams: results from the Hungarostudy Epidemiological Panel. Attach Hum Dev. 2011;13:125-40 pubmed publisher
    ..before one year of age and lasting at least one month) report more frequent nightmare experiences and bad dreams as adults. In the frame of the Hungarostudy Epidemiological Panel, 5020 subjects were interviewed...
  9. Steinig J, Foraita R, Happe S, Heinze M. Perception of sleep and dreams in alcohol-dependent patients during detoxication and abstinence. Alcohol Alcohol. 2011;46:143-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The hypothesis of dreaming about alcohol as a compensatory effect, however, could not be confirmed. ..

More Information


  1. Wamsley E, Tucker M, Payne J, Benavides J, Stickgold R. Dreaming of a learning task is associated with enhanced sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Curr Biol. 2010;20:850-5 pubmed publisher
    ..That similar effects were not observed during wakefulness suggests that these mnemonic processes are specific to the sleep state. ..
  2. Cook J, Steigman P, Pickett S, Diehl S, Fox A, SHIPLEY P, et al. Randomized controlled trial of peer-led recovery education using Building Recovery of Individual Dreams and Goals through Education and Support (BRIDGES). Schizophr Res. 2012;136:36-42 pubmed publisher
    ..to test the efficacy of a peer-led, mental illness education intervention called Building Recovery of Individual Dreams and Goals through Education and Support (BRIDGES)...
  3. Schredl M. Characteristics and contents of dreams. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2010;92:135-54 pubmed publisher
    b>Dreams have been studied from different perspectives: psychoanalysis, academic psychology, and neurosciences...
  4. Wamsley E, Perry K, Djonlagic I, Reaven L, Stickgold R. Cognitive replay of visuomotor learning at sleep onset: temporal dynamics and relationship to task performance. Sleep. 2010;33:59-68 pubmed
    ..These observations are interpreted in light of memory consolidation theory, and demonstrate that introspective reports can provide a valuable window on cognitive processing in the sleeping brain. ..
  5. Guénolé F, Marcaggi G, Baleyte J, Garma L. [Dreams in normal and pathological aging]. Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil. 2010;8:87-96 pubmed publisher
    ..This evolution occurs faster in men than women, with gender differences in the content of dreams. The chronological modifications could be explained partly by changes in lifestyle and attitude towards dreams in ..
  6. Stompe T, Ritter K, Ortwein Swoboda G, Schmid Siegel B, Zitterl W, Strobl R, et al. Anxiety and hostility in the manifest dreams of schizophrenic patients. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2003;191:806-12 pubmed
    ..We compared 96 dreams of 19 patients with schizophrenia and an equal number of dreams of 19 healthy controls collected over an 8-week ..
  7. Brugger P. The phantom limb in dreams. Conscious Cogn. 2008;17:1272-8; discussion 1279-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Hochstenbach, J., Dijkstra, P. U., Geertzen, J. H. B. (2008). Born to adapt, but not in your dreams. Consciousness and Cognition, 17, 1266-1271...
  8. Malcolm Smith S, Solms M, Turnbull O, Tredoux C. Threat in dreams: an adaptation?. Conscious Cogn. 2008;17:1281-91 pubmed
    ..influential Threat Simulation Theory (TST) predicts that people exposed to survival threats will have more threat dreams, and evince enhanced responses to dream threats, compared to those living in relatively safe conditions...
  9. Schredl M, Erlacher D. Self-reported effects of dreams on waking-life creativity: an empirical study. J Psychol. 2007;141:35-46 pubmed
    The authors studied the self-rated effect of dreams on creativity in participants who were not selected for creative abilities. Students (N = 444) and online respondents (N = 636) answered a questionnaire about dreams and creative dreams...
  10. Valli K, Revonsuo A, Pälkäs O, Ismail K, Ali K, Punamaki R. The threat simulation theory of the evolutionary function of dreaming: Evidence from dreams of traumatized children. Conscious Cogn. 2005;14:188-218 pubmed
    ..a threat simulation response, and therefore, to an increased frequency and severity of threatening events in dreams. Consequently, children who live in an environment in which their physical and psychological well-being is ..
  11. Granja C, Lopes A, Moreira S, Dias C, Costa Pereira A, Carneiro A. Patients' recollections of experiences in the intensive care unit may affect their quality of life. Crit Care. 2005;9:R96-109 pubmed
    ..Of respondents, 51% experienced dreams and nightmares during their ICU stay; of these, 14% stated that those dreams and nightmares disturb their present ..
  12. Muris P, Merckelbach H, Gadet B, Moulaert V. Fears, worries, and scary dreams in 4- to 12-year-old children: their content, developmental pattern, and origins. J Clin Child Psychol. 2000;29:43-52 pubmed
    ..The percentages of children reporting fears, worries, and scary dreams were 75.8, 67.4, and 80.5%, respectively, indicating that these anxiety symptoms are quite common among children...
  13. Wegner D, Wenzlaff R, Kozak M. Dream rebound: the return of suppressed thoughts in dreams. Psychol Sci. 2004;15:232-6 pubmed
    ..have this influence, increasing dreaming about the person as measured both by participants' self-ratings of their dreams and by raters' coding of mentions of the person in written dream reports...
  14. Rassin E, Merckelbach H, Spaan V. When dreams become a royal road to confusion: realistic dreams, dissociation, and fantasy proneness. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2001;189:478-81 pubmed
    ..For example, difficulties in distinguishing between dreams and reality may lead to false memories...
  15. Raymond I, Nielsen T, Lavigne G, Choiniere M. Incorporation of pain in dreams of hospitalized burn victims. Sleep. 2002;25:765-70 pubmed
    It has been shown that realistic, localized painful sensations can be experienced in dreams either through direct incorporation or from past memories of pain. Nevertheless, the frequency of pain dreams in healthy subjects is low...
  16. Takeuchi T, Miyasita A, Inugami M, Yamamoto Y. Intrinsic dreams are not produced without REM sleep mechanisms: evidence through elicitation of sleep onset REM periods. J Sleep Res. 2001;10:43-52 pubmed
    The hypothesis that there is a strict relationship between dreams and a specific rapid eye movement (REM) sleep mechanism is controversial...
  17. Kahn D, Stickgold R, Pace Schott E, Hobson J. Dreaming and waking consciousness: a character recognition study. J Sleep Res. 2000;9:317-25 pubmed
    ..Subjects were queried by questionnaire about dream characters immediately after recording their dreams upon awakening in their normal home setting...
  18. Kirmayer L. Asklepian dreams: the ethos of the wounded-healer in the clinical encounter. Transcult Psychiatry. 2003;40:248-77 pubmed
    ..changes in the relationship of the healer to his wounds during psychiatric training are illustrated by a series of dreams. The ethos of the wounded-healer has implications for the training of clinicians, as well as for the ethics and ..
  19. Nielsen T. A review of mentation in REM and NREM sleep: "covert" REM sleep as a possible reconciliation of two opposing models. Behav Brain Sci. 2000;23:851-66; discussion 904-1121 pubmed
    ..Such covert activity may be responsible for much of the dreamlike cognitive activity occurring in NREM sleep. ..
  20. Zanasi M, De Persis S, Caporali M, Siracusano A. Dreams and age. Percept Mot Skills. 2005;100:925-38 pubmed
    This work evaluated the association of age and dream reports. The verbal reports of 148 dreams of elderly people (M age=75.8 yr.) were compared with 151 dreams of a group of young people (M age=22.0)...
  21. Elbert T, Schauer M. Burnt into memory. Nature. 2002;419:883 pubmed
  22. Roberts B, Rickard C, Rajbhandari D, Reynolds P. Patients' dreams in ICU: recall at two years post discharge and comparison to delirium status during ICU admission. A multicentre cohort study. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2006;22:264-73 pubmed
    Discharged intensive care unit (ICU) patients often recall experience vivid dreams, hallucinations or delusions. These may be persecutory in nature and are sometimes very frightening...
  23. Tractenberg R, Singer C. Sleep and sleep disturbance: from genes to dreams. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007;64:1171-3 pubmed
  24. Rothbaum B, Mellman T. Dreams and exposure therapy in PTSD. J Trauma Stress. 2001;14:481-90 pubmed
    ..the context of the relationship between therapeutic exposure and exposure to trauma-related stimuli that occurs in dreams. It is concluded that nightmares that replay the trauma and disrupt sleep do not meet requirements for therapeutic ..
  25. Grenier J, Cappeliez P, St Onge M, Vachon J, Vinette S, Roussy F, et al. Temporal references in dreams and autobiographical memory. Mem Cognit. 2005;33:280-8 pubmed
    In an attempt to determine whether temporal references identified in dreams follow the same temporal distributions as those documented for autobiographical memories, 28 younger women (18-35 years of age) and 30 older women (60-77 years of ..
  26. McNamara P, McLaren D, Smith D, Brown A, Stickgold R. A "Jekyll and Hyde" within: aggressive versus friendly interactions in REM and non-REM dreams. Psychol Sci. 2005;16:130-6 pubmed
    We hypothesized that representations of social interactions in REM and non-REM (NREM) dreams would reflect differing regional brain activation patterns associated with the two sleep states, and that levels of aggressive interactions would ..
  27. Hellwagner K, Holzer A, Gustorff B, Schroegendorfer K, Greher M, Weindlmayr Goettel M, et al. Recollection of dreams after short general anaesthesia: influence on patient anxiety and satisfaction. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2003;20:282-8 pubmed
    We ascertained whether dreams during short general anaesthesia influence subsequent patient satisfaction and anxiety...
  28. Roberts B, Chaboyer W. Patients' dreams and unreal experiences following intensive care unit admission. Nurs Crit Care. 2004;9:173-80 pubmed
    b>Dreams and unreal experiences occur commonly in critically ill patients admitted to intensive care unit...
  29. Toscano A, Pancaro C, Peduto V. Scopolamine prevents dreams during general anesthesia. Anesthesiology. 2007;106:952-5 pubmed
    ..Anticholinergic drugs are used in anesthesia as premedication, but their use to decrease the incidence of dreams and psychological adverse reactions after anesthesia is not well established...
  30. Uga V, Lemut M, Zampi C, Zilli I, Salzarulo P. Music in dreams. Conscious Cogn. 2006;15:351-7 pubmed
    Music in dreams is rarely reported in scientific literature, while the presence of musical themes in dreams of famous musicians is anecdotally reported...
  31. Stickgold R, Hobson J, Fosse R, Fosse M. Sleep, learning, and dreams: off-line memory reprocessing. Science. 2001;294:1052-7 pubmed
  32. Payne J, Nadel L. Sleep, dreams, and memory consolidation: the role of the stress hormone cortisol. Learn Mem. 2004;11:671-8 pubmed
    We discuss the relationship between sleep, dreams, and memory, proposing that the content of dreams reflects aspects of memory consolidation taking place during the different stages of sleep...
  33. Manni R. Rapid eye movement sleep, non-rapid eye movement sleep, dreams, and hallucinations. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2005;7:196-200 pubmed
    ..The role of these processes has been most extensively documented in visual hallucinations occurring in the context of delirium tremens and Parkinson's disease. ..
  34. Nielsen T, Kuiken D, Alain G, Stenstrom P, Powell R. Immediate and delayed incorporations of events into dreams: further replication and implications for dream function. J Sleep Res. 2004;13:327-36 pubmed
    The incorporation of memories into dreams is characterized by two types of temporal effects: the day-residue effect, involving immediate incorporations of events from the preceding day, and the dream-lag effect, involving incorporations ..
  35. Cartwright R, Agargun M, Kirkby J, Friedman J. Relation of dreams to waking concerns. Psychiatry Res. 2006;141:261-70 pubmed
    To test that dreams are influenced by the pre-sleep waking emotional concerns of the sleeper and have an effect on waking adaptation, 20 depressed and 10 control subjects, who were all going through a divorce, were enrolled in a repeated ..
  36. Nielsen T, Laberge L, Paquet J, Tremblay R, Vitaro F, Montplaisir J. Development of disturbing dreams during adolescence and their relation to anxiety symptoms. Sleep. 2000;23:727-36 pubmed
    This work assesses the prevalence and development of disturbing dreams among adolescents and the association of these dreams with anxiety. Sex differences in prevalence were analyzed with chi-square analyses...
  37. Stickgold R, Malia A, Fosse R, Propper R, Hobson J. Brain-mind states: I. Longitudinal field study of sleep/wake factors influencing mentation report length. Sleep. 2001;24:171-9 pubmed
    ..The use of the Nightcap sleep monitoring system along with waking experience sampling permits a more complete sampling and analysis of mental activity across the sleep/wake cycle than has been previously possible. ..
  38. Johnson B. Drug dreams: a neuropsychoanalytic hypothesis. J Am Psychoanal Assoc. 2001;49:75-96 pubmed
    ..Of 240 dreams reported by the patient,58 had manifest content involving the seeking or using of drugs...
  39. Revonsuo A. The reinterpretation of dreams: an evolutionary hypothesis of the function of dreaming. Behav Brain Sci. 2000;23:877-901; discussion 904-1121 pubmed
    ..Phenomenal dream content, however, is not as disorganized as such views imply. The form and content of dreams is not random but organized and selective: during dreaming, the brain constructs a complex model of the world in ..
  40. Samuelsson P, Brudin L, Sandin R. Intraoperative dreams reported after general anaesthesia are not early interpretations of delayed awareness. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2008;52:805-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Dreams are more frequently reported than awareness after surgery. We define awareness as explicit recall of real intraoperative events during anaesthesia. The importance of intraoperative dreaming is poorly understood...
  41. Nielsen T, McGregor D, Zadra A, Ilnicki D, Ouellet L. Pain in dreams. Sleep. 1993;16:490-8 pubmed
    Little is known about pain in dreams. Some studies indicate that it is rare and that it may be beyond the representational capability of dreaming...
  42. Nielsen T, Stenstrom P. What are the memory sources of dreaming?. Nature. 2005;437:1286-9 pubmed
    ..Freud have appreciated that memories of the people, places, activities and emotions of daily life are reflected in dreams but are typically so fragmented that their predictability is nil...
  43. Stickgold R. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Nature. 2005;437:1272-8 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, converging evidence, from the molecular to the phenomenological, leaves little doubt that offline memory reprocessing during sleep is an important component of how our memories are formed and ultimately shaped. ..
  44. Mulder T, Hochstenbach J, Dijkstra P, Geertzen J. Born to adapt, but not in your dreams. Conscious Cogn. 2008;17:1266-71 pubmed
    ..The results show that the majority of the dreamers reported dreams about their intact body although the mean time that elapsed since the amputation was twelve years...
  45. Schredl M, Ciric P, Götz S, Wittmann L. Typical dreams: stability and gender differences. J Psychol. 2004;138:485-94 pubmed
    ..investigation of the stability of the rank order of the dream themes and of gender differences in the content of dreams. The authors administered A. L. Zadra and T. A. Nielsen's (1997) Typical Dream Questionnaire to 444 participants...
  46. Fosse M, Fosse R, Hobson J, Stickgold R. Dreaming and episodic memory: a functional dissociation?. J Cogn Neurosci. 2003;15:1-9 pubmed
    ..a period of 14 days, 29 subjects kept a log of daytime activities, events, and concerns, wrote down any recalled dreams, and scored the dreams for incorporation of any waking experiences...
  47. Stickgold R, Malia A, Maguire D, Roddenberry D, O Connor M. Replaying the game: hypnagogic images in normals and amnesics. Science. 2000;290:350-3 pubmed
    ..In addition, control participants reported images from previously played versions of the game, demonstrating that remote memories can influence the images from recent waking experience. ..
  48. Billow R. Models of therapeutic engagement. Part II: sincerity and authenticity. Int J Group Psychother. 2010;60:29-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The four overlapping categories while nonexclusive are exhaustive; they supply conceptual references for the therapeutic stance one has adopted, allowing the therapist to be more aware of what he or she is doing and why. ..
  49. Tauber A. Freud's dreams of reason: the Kantian structure of psychoanalysis. Hist Human Sci. 2009;22:1-29 pubmed
    ..Herein lies the philosophical foundation of psychoanalytic theory, a beguiling paradox in which natural cause and autonomous reason - determinism and freedom - are conjoined despite their apparent logical exclusion. ..
  50. Cheong S, Lee K, Lim S, Cho K, Kim M, Ko M, et al. Brief report: the effect of suggestion on unpleasant dreams induced by ketamine administration. Anesth Analg. 2011;112:1082-5 pubmed publisher
    The use of ketamine may be associated with the recall of unpleasant dreams after sedation. We hypothesized that a positive suggestion before sedation could reduce the incidence of ketamine-induced unpleasant dreams...
  51. Schredl M, Berger M, Riemann D. The effect of trimipramine on dream recall and dream emotions in depressive outpatients. Psychiatry Res. 2009;167:279-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of trimipramine on dream recall was small and might be explained by the reduction of negatively toned dreams. The 4-week treatment with trimipramine yielded a considerable shift in dream emotions towards the positive end of ..
  52. Mahon E. Mourning, dreaming, and the discovery of the oedipus complex. Psychoanal Q. 2013;82:877-95 pubmed publisher
  53. Haridi M, Weyn Banningh S, Clé M, Leu Semenescu S, Vidailhet M, Arnulf I. Is there a common motor dysregulation in sleepwalking and REM sleep behaviour disorder?. J Sleep Res. 2017;26:614-622 pubmed publisher