Summary: Sense of movement of a part of the body, such as movement of fingers, elbows, knees, limbs, or weights.

Top Publications

  1. Reichenbach A, Thielscher A, Peer A, Bülthoff H, Bresciani J. Seeing the hand while reaching speeds up on-line responses to a sudden change in target position. J Physiol. 2009;587:4605-16 pubmed publisher
    ..This facilitation probably results from the possibility to map hand- and target-related information in a common visual reference frame. ..
  2. Tagliabue M, McIntyre J. Necessity is the mother of invention: reconstructing missing sensory information in multiple, concurrent reference frames for eye-hand coordination. J Neurosci. 2011;31:1397-409 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the necessity of producing at least one coordinate transformation activates multiple, concurrent internal representations, the functionality of which depends on the alignment of the head with respect to gravity. ..
  3. Smith J, Crawford M, Proske U, Taylor J, Gandevia S. Signals of motor command bias joint position sense in the presence of feedback from proprioceptors. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009;106:950-8 pubmed publisher
    ..7 +/- 4.9 degrees . Before paralysis, isometric efforts changed it by 6.7 +/- 3.6 degrees . Thus all studies concur: when joint movement is prevented, signals of motor command contribute to joint position sense. ..
  4. Goble D, Brown S. Upper limb asymmetries in the matching of proprioceptive versus visual targets. J Neurophysiol. 2008;99:3063-74 pubmed publisher
  5. Guerraz M, Provost S, Narison R, Brugnon A, Virolle S, Bresciani J. Integration of visual and proprioceptive afferents in kinesthesia. Neuroscience. 2012;223:258-68 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed changes in the relative contribution of each input across experimental conditions likely reflect reliability-dependent weights. ..
  6. Tagliabue M, McIntyre J. Eye-hand coordination when the body moves: dynamic egocentric and exocentric sensory encoding. Neurosci Lett. 2012;513:78-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, a combined analysis of response variability and response deviations induced by the conflict suggests the coexistence of independent ego- and exo-centered internal representations within each sensory modality. ..
  7. Van Doorn G, Hohwy J, Symmons M. Capture of kinesthesis by a competing cutaneous input. Atten Percept Psychophys. 2012;74:1539-51 pubmed
    ..The results are interpreted in light of optimal integration, perceptual suppression, reafference suppression, and inattentional blindness. ..
  8. Ageberg E, Fridén T. Normalized motor function but impaired sensory function after unilateral non-reconstructed ACL injury: patients compared with uninjured controls. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2008;16:449-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Kinesthesia was poorer in the patient group than in the control group. The results indicate that motor function can be restored but that the sensory function is persistently disturbed after ACL injury. ..
  9. Pennel I, Coello Y, Orliaguet J. Visuokinesthetic realignment in a video-controlled reaching task. J Mot Behav. 2003;35:274-84 pubmed

More Information


  1. Demaille Wlodyka S, Chiquet C, Lavaste J, Skalli W, Revel M, Poiraudeau S. Cervical range of motion and cephalic kinesthesis: ultrasonographic analysis by age and sex. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007;32:E254-61 pubmed
    ..We provide a database by age and sex for patient ability to return the head to the neutral position and for cervical ROM. This database could be used as a reference in clinical applications. ..
  2. Rao A, Gordon A. Contribution of tactile information to accuracy in pointing movements. Exp Brain Res. 2001;138:438-45 pubmed
    ..In addition, tactile cues at the beginning and end of the movement may be used to scale movement amplitude. ..
  3. Kito T, Hashimoto T, Yoneda T, Katamoto S, Naito E. Sensory processing during kinesthetic aftereffect following illusory hand movement elicited by tendon vibration. Brain Res. 2006;1114:75-84 pubmed
    ..Motor-cortical processing of the unbalanced sensory information from the stimulated and non-stimulated muscles may contribute to the elicitation of kinesthetic aftereffect. ..
  4. Proske U. Kinesthesia: the role of muscle receptors. Muscle Nerve. 2006;34:545-58 pubmed
    ..This has consequences for kinesthesia in the presence of the force of gravity. A contribution from central feedback mechanisms to the sense of effort is relevant to certain clinical conditions. ..
  5. Collins D, Refshauge K, Todd G, Gandevia S. Cutaneous receptors contribute to kinesthesia at the index finger, elbow, and knee. J Neurophysiol. 2005;94:1699-706 pubmed
    ..4 times compared with vibration (P < 0.05). Hence inputs from cutaneous receptors, muscle receptors, and combined inputs from both receptors likely subserve kinesthesia at joints throughout the body. ..
  6. Knoblich G, Flach R. Predicting the effects of actions: interactions of perception and action. Psychol Sci. 2001;12:467-72 pubmed
    ..The predictions were more accurate when participants watched themselves acting. This result provides evidence for the claim that perceptual input can be linked with the action system to predict future outcomes of actions. ..
  7. MacDonald P, Paus T. The role of parietal cortex in awareness of self-generated movements: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study. Cereb Cortex. 2003;13:962-7 pubmed
    ..As such, this region may contribute to the sense of 'agency' and its disturbances in disorders such as apraxia and schizophrenia. ..
  8. Gandevia S, Smith J, Crawford M, Proske U, Taylor J. Motor commands contribute to human position sense. J Physiol. 2006;571:703-10 pubmed
    ..These results establish for the first time a definitive role for 'outflow' signals in position sense. ..
  9. Sober S, Sabes P. Flexible strategies for sensory integration during motor planning. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:490-7 pubmed
  10. Farrer C, Franck N, Paillard J, Jeannerod M. The role of proprioception in action recognition. Conscious Cogn. 2003;12:609-19 pubmed
  11. Ashton Miller J, Wojtys E, Huston L, Fry Welch D. Can proprioception really be improved by exercises?. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2001;9:128-36 pubmed
    ..We argue that even if they were proven to improve proprioception, under the best circumstances such exercises could only prevent injury under slow to intermediate rate provocations to the joint musculoligamentous complex in question. ..
  12. Baldissera F, Cavallari P. Neural compensation for mechanical loading of the hand during coupled oscillations of the hand and foot. Exp Brain Res. 2001;139:18-29 pubmed
    ..This advance is enhanced when increasing the inertia of the hand system and attenuated when increasing its elasticity. ..
  13. Wycherley A, Helliwell P, Bird H. A novel device for the measurement of proprioception in the hand. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2005;44:638-41 pubmed
    ..The ease and portability of the device make it ideal for use in epidemiological studies of rheumatological disorders involving the hands, including joint hypermobility. ..
  14. Proske U. What is the role of muscle receptors in proprioception?. Muscle Nerve. 2005;31:780-7 pubmed
    ..A challenge for the future will be to reveal how the centrally derived sense of effort and peripherally derived afferent information interact to give us our kinesthetic sense. ..
  15. Kavounoudias A, Roll J, Anton J, Nazarian B, Roth M, Roll R. Proprio-tactile integration for kinesthetic perception: an fMRI study. Neuropsychologia. 2008;46:567-75 pubmed
    ..Finally, the involvement of the superior temporal sulcus in the feeling of biological movement and that of the cerebellum in the movement timing control are also discussed. ..
  16. Ageberg E, Flenhagen J, Ljung J. Test-retest reliability of knee kinesthesia in healthy adults. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2007;8:57 pubmed
    ..We, therefore, recommend that the TDPM be measured with a 20-degree starting position. ..
  17. Hagura N, Takei T, Hirose S, Aramaki Y, Matsumura M, Sadato N, et al. Activity in the posterior parietal cortex mediates visual dominance over kinesthesia. J Neurosci. 2007;27:7047-53 pubmed
    ..It is thus suggested that the human parietal cortex may play a critical role in the maintenance of a coherent body image when the brain receives potentially conflicting multisensory information from the body. ..
  18. Bosbach S, Cole J, Prinz W, Knoblich G. Inferring another's expectation from action: the role of peripheral sensation. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:1295-7 pubmed
    ..We suggest that this ability occurs through mental simulation of action dependent on internal motor representations, which require peripheral sensation for their maintenance. ..
  19. Fortier S, Basset F. The effects of exercise on limb proprioceptive signals. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2012;22:795-802 pubmed publisher
    ..The paper's final section describes in detail the effect of different muscle contraction types on kinaesthetic sense-in particular, on the sense of limb position. ..
  20. Hodgson C, Christian E, McMorris T. Performance on the portable rod and frame test predicts variation in learning the kayak roll. Percept Mot Skills. 2010;110:479-87 pubmed
    ..Learners with greater field independence may have an advantage when acquiring sport skills that require cognitive restructuring and a strong reliance on kinesthetic and proprioceptive feedback. ..
  21. Wiacek M, Zubrzycki I. The age-dependent divergence of strength and coordinating parameters among men and women: the cross-sectional studies. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2010;51:e75-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the battery of the tests indicate men as stronger with higher coordination level than women. The difference between the two genders increases along the aging. ..
  22. Giachritsis C, Wing A, Lovell P. The role of spatial integration in the perception of surface orientation with active touch. Atten Percept Psychophys. 2009;71:1628-40 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that the proprioceptive shoulder-elbow system may integrate redundant spatial information resulting from extended arm movements to improve orientation judgments. ..
  23. Jagaroo V, Wilkinson K. Further considerations of visual cognitive neuroscience in aided AAC: the potential role of motion perception systems in maximizing design display. Augment Altern Commun. 2008;24:29-42 pubmed
    ..The discussion is presented within the context of neuro-cognitive theory concerning the neurological bases for motion perception. ..
  24. Wiacek M, Hagner W, Hagner Derengowska M, Bluj B, Czereba J, Drozd M, et al. Deterioration of basic coordinative parameters defines life quality of elderly. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2009;49:212-4 pubmed publisher
  25. Theobald J, Ringach D, Frye M. Visual stabilization dynamics are enhanced by standing flight velocity. Biol Lett. 2010;6:410-3 pubmed publisher
    ..This implies that for flies stabilizing in sideslip, the control effort is strongly affected by the direction of background motion. ..
  26. Baker K, Lee J, Mavinkurve G, Russo G, Walter B, Delong M, et al. Somatotopic organization in the internal segment of the globus pallidus in Parkinson's disease. Exp Neurol. 2010;222:219-25 pubmed publisher
  27. Koskas P, Saad S, Belqadi S, Drunat O. [Gait analysis with simple and dual-task paradigm in community-dwelling old people attending a geriatric outpatient clinic]. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2010;166:321-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Nonetheless, clinical gait analysis could improve our understanding of the consequences of mild cognitive impairment and aging. ..
  28. Fushiki H, Maruyama M, Watanabe Y. Directional preponderance of vertical eye movements induced by cross-axis adaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex in the cat. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2010;37:570-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These results may be helpful for developing an optimal vestibular-compensation system by visual-vestibular mismatch/optokinetic training. ..
  29. Goldzak Kunik G, Friedman R, Spitz M, Sandler L, Leshem M. Intact sensory function in anorexia nervosa. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;95:272-82 pubmed publisher
    ..There is no systematic sensory-perceptual deficit in AN patients, and specifically, not in gustatory function. The few differences shown might be due to fear of food-related stimuli or comorbidity. ..
  30. Tsakiris M, Longo M, Haggard P. Having a body versus moving your body: neural signatures of agency and body-ownership. Neuropsychologia. 2010;48:2740-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Body-ownership involves a psychophysiological baseline, linked to activation of the brain's default mode network. Agency is linked to premotor and parietal areas involved in generating motor intentions and subsequent action monitoring. ..
  31. Varlet M, Coey C, Schmidt R, Richardson M. Influence of stimulus amplitude on unintended visuomotor entrainment. Hum Mov Sci. 2012;31:541-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the results indicate that the movement amplitude of environmental stimuli plays a significant role in the emergence of unintended visuomotor entrainment. ..
  32. Tsai J, Knoblich G, Sebanz N. On the inclusion of externally controlled actions in action planning. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 2011;37:1407-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Implications of these findings for theories of perception-action links and object processing are discussed. ..
  33. McKeon P, Hertel J. Plantar hypoesthesia alters time-to-boundary measures of postural control. Somatosens Mot Res. 2007;24:171-7 pubmed
    ..Sensory information from the plantar cutaneous receptors appears to be most important in the maintenance of AP postural control. ..
  34. Schrauf C, Call J. Great apes' performance in discriminating weight and achromatic color. Anim Cogn. 2009;12:567-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Subjects learned color discrimination faster than weight discrimination. Our results suggest that bonobos and orangutans are sensitive to differences in weight and able to learn discriminating objects that differ in this property. ..
  35. Akin F, Murnane O, Pearson A, Byrd S, Kelly K. Normative data for the subjective visual vertical test during centrifugation. J Am Acad Audiol. 2011;22:460-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We recommend the use of difference angles (on-axis SVV - off-axis SVV) to remove baseline bias and decrease the variability of the SVV angles for the off-axis conditions. ..
  36. Shapkova E, Terekhov A, Latash M. Arm motion coupling during locomotion-like actions: an experimental study and a dynamic model. Motor Control. 2011;15:206-20 pubmed
    ..The model makes predictions for future experiments. ..
  37. Pinder R, Renshaw I, Davids K. Information-movement coupling in developing cricketers under changing ecological practice constraints. Hum Mov Sci. 2009;28:468-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Considered with previous findings, results confirmed the need to ensure representative batting task constraints in practice, cautioning against an over-reliance on ball projection machines in cricket development programmes. ..
  38. Ringenbach S, Van Gemmert A, Shill H, Stelmach G. Auditory instructional cues benefit unimanual and bimanual drawing in Parkinson's disease patients. Hum Mov Sci. 2011;30:770-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The benefit of auditory cues may be related to the timing nature of the task or factors related to the auditory cues (e.g., reduced attentional demands, more kinesthetic focus). ..
  39. Chihak B, Plumert J, Ziemer C, Babu S, Grechkin T, Cremer J, et al. Synchronizing self and object movement: how child and adult cyclists intercept moving gaps in a virtual environment. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 2010;36:1535-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The General Discussion section focuses on possible sources of changes in perception-action coupling over development and on task-specific constraints that could underlie the observed interception strategy. ..
  40. Symes M, Waddington G, Adams R. Depth of ankle inversion and discrimination of foot positions. Percept Mot Skills. 2010;111:475-84 pubmed
    ..Thus, error in assessing movement position increased with inversion depth. Inversion movements that were made with the left foot were significantly better discriminated at all depths than those made with the right foot. ..
  41. da Silva J, Barbieri F, Gobbi L T. Adaptive locomotion for crossing a moving obstacle. Motor Control. 2011;15:419-33 pubmed
    ..In the slow condition, they used an anticipatory strategy in both phases. We conclude that obstacle speed affects the locomotor behavior and strategies were distinct in the obstacle avoidance phases. ..
  42. Assaiante C, Chabeauti P, Sveistrup H, Vaugoyeau M. Updating process of internal model of action as assessed from motor and postural strategies in young adults. Hum Mov Sci. 2011;30:227-37 pubmed publisher
    ..To conclude, young adults were able to immediately update their internal model of action in order to optimize motor control and vertical body orientation. ..
  43. Porcelli P, Kleiger J. The "Feeling of Movement": Notes on the Rorschach Human Movement Response. J Pers Assess. 2016;98:124-34 pubmed publisher
  44. Hansen S. Determining the temporal limits of a visual sample for visual regulation. J Mot Behav. 2010;42:107-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that short visual samples can be used to decrease movement time and increase accuracy and that knowledge of the impending visual context can impact the individual's subsequent behavior. ..
  45. Huysmans M, Hoozemans M, van der Beek A, de Looze M, van Dieen J. Submovement organization, pen pressure, and muscle activity are modulated to precision demands in 2D tracking. J Mot Behav. 2012;44:379-88 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, increased precision demands were accommodated by both a different organization of submovements and higher endpoint stability in a 2D tracking task performed with a pen on a digitizer tablet. ..
  46. Young S, Pratt J, Chau T. Target-directed movements at a comfortable pace: movement duration and Fitts's law. J Mot Behav. 2009;41:339-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that movements of various speeds have predictable patterns of movement duration. The results also suggest that individuals adjust more than the implicit target size when changing their desired movement speed. ..
  47. Golomer E, Gravenhorst R, Toussaint Y. Influence of vision and motor imagery styles on equilibrium control during whole-body rotations. Somatosens Mot Res. 2009;26:105-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that perceptual styles should be taken into consideration when training tasks that require fine equilibrium control because the factors that perturb balance differ depending on perceptual style. ..
  48. Okazaki S, Nishiike S, Watanabe H, Imai T, Uno A, Kitahara T, et al. Effects of repeated optic flow stimulation on gait termination in humans. Acta Otolaryngol. 2013;133:246-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The walking velocity at the start of the termination process showed short-term flexibility that denoted a gradual increase over the trial for within-set and long-term flexibility that denoted a gradual decrease for between-set. ..
  49. Severson K, Xu D, Van de Loo M, Bai L, Ginty D, O Connor D. Active Touch and Self-Motion Encoding by Merkel Cell-Associated Afferents. Neuron. 2017;94:666-676.e9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Merkel afferents send to the brain multiplexed information about whisker position and surface features, suggesting that proprioception and touch converge at the earliest neural level. ..
  50. Adamo D, Scotland S, Martin B. Upper limb kinesthetic asymmetries: gender and handedness effects. Neurosci Lett. 2012;516:188-92 pubmed publisher
  51. Sekine M, Takahashi M, Iida M. Analysis of posture and eye movement responses to Coriolis stimulation under 1 G and microgravity conditions. Tokai J Exp Clin Med. 2009;34:135-41 pubmed
    ..Vestibular ocular response may be maintained at ? G because the head reference is valid even after the external reference becomes arbitrary. ..
  52. Gallese V. Motor abstraction: a neuroscientific account of how action goals and intentions are mapped and understood. Psychol Res. 2009;73:486-98 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of this new account of the motor system, it is proposed that intersubjectivity is the best conceived of as intercorporeity. ..
  53. Streepey J, Mock M, Riskowski J, VanWye W, Vitvitskiy B, Mikesky A. Effects of quadriceps and hamstrings proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on knee movement sensation. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24:1037-42 pubmed publisher
    ..For coaches and trainers, these findings are consistent with previous reports of loss in muscle force and power immediately after stretching, suggesting that stretching just before competition may diminish performance. ..