Summary: Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.

Top Publications

  1. Punjabi M, Arnold M, Geary N, Langhans W, Pacheco López G. Peripheral glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and satiation. Physiol Behav. 2011;105:71-6 pubmed publisher two different sites to inhibit eating, they argue against a role of systemic increases in endogenous GLP-1 in satiation in chow-fed rats...
  2. Wiessing K, Xin L, McGill A, Budgett S, Strik C, Poppitt S. Sensitivity of ad libitum meals to detect changes in hunger. Restricted-item or multi-item testmeals in the design of preload appetite studies. Appetite. 2012;58:1076-82 pubmed publisher
    ..1% compensation; M(I): -993 kJ, 28.4% compensation). In preload studies measuring EI, increasing the variety of an ad lib testmeal may not decrease the sensitivity to detect changes in hunger and fullness. ..
  3. Chungchunlam S, Moughan P, Henare S, Ganesh S. Effect of time of consumption of preloads on measures of satiety in healthy normal weight women. Appetite. 2012;59:281-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Subjective ratings of appetite did not support a greater satiating effect of whey protein versus maltodextrin on food intake but there was evidence for a satiating effect of maltodextrin and whey protein versus the water control. ..
  4. Hogenkamp P, Brunstrom J, Stafleu A, Mars M, de Graaf C. Expected satiation after repeated consumption of low- or high-energy-dense soup. Br J Nutr. 2012;108:182-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Soup was served in a fixed amount on days 1-4 and ad libitum on day 5. 'Expected satiation' was measured on days 1, 2 and 5...
  5. Yeomans M. Flavour-nutrient learning in humans: an elusive phenomenon?. Physiol Behav. 2012;106:345-55 pubmed publisher
  6. Cassady B, Considine R, Mattes R. Beverage consumption, appetite, and energy intake: what did you expect?. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;95:587-93 pubmed publisher
    ..They are consistent with findings that clear, energy-yielding beverages pose a particular risk for positive energy balance. This study was registered at as NCT01070199. ..
  7. Brunstrom J. The control of meal size in human subjects: a role for expected satiety, expected satiation and premeal planning. Proc Nutr Soc. 2011;70:155-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The prevailing view is that meal size is governed by physiological and psychological events that promote satiation towards the end of a meal. This review explores an alternative and perhaps controversial proposition...
  8. Karl J, Young A, Montain S. Eating rate during a fixed-portion meal does not affect postprandial appetite and gut peptides or energy intake during a subsequent meal. Physiol Behav. 2011;102:524-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Ad libitum energy intake was not different between trials. In conclusion, the rate at which a fixed-portion meal is consumed does not appear to alter satiety despite a small effect on PP and CCK responses. ..
  9. Gilbert J, Bendsen N, Tremblay A, Astrup A. Effect of proteins from different sources on body composition. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011;21 Suppl 2:B16-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Protein intake enhances energy expenditure, satiety and fat loss, but there is no clear evidence to indicate whether there is a difference in the effect dependent on the source of the protein, i.e. from animal or plant-based foods. ..

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Cooper J, Watras A, Paton C, Wegner F, Adams A, Schoeller D. Impact of exercise and dietary fatty acid composition from a high-fat diet on markers of hunger and satiety. Appetite. 2011;56:171-8 pubmed publisher
    ..High saturated or unsaturated fat diets did not differ with respect to markers of hunger or satiety. Exercise decreased 24h leptin and insulin while increasing PYY regardless of FA composition. ..
  2. Valente L, Bower N, Johnston I. Postprandial expression of growth-related genes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) juveniles fasted for 1 week and fed a single meal to satiation. Br J Nutr. 2012;108:2148-57 pubmed publisher
    ..It is also suggested that local production of IGF-I within the muscle might suppress catabolic pathways depressing MAFbx/atrogin-1...
  3. Aeberli I, Erb A, Spliethoff K, Meier D, Götze O, Frühauf H, et al. Disturbed eating at high altitude: influence of food preferences, acute mountain sickness and satiation hormones. Eur J Nutr. 2013;52:625-35 pubmed publisher
    ..ascent to 4,559 m and to investigate to what extent hypoxia, acute mountain sickness (AMS), food preferences and satiation hormones influence eating behavior...
  4. Yeomans M, Chambers L. Satiety-relevant sensory qualities enhance the satiating effects of mixed carbohydrate-protein preloads. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94:1410-7 pubmed publisher
    Orosensory cues such as food texture and flavor have been shown to play a role in satiation, but their role in satiety remains less clear...
  5. Mehta S, Melhorn S, Smeraglio A, Tyagi V, Grabowski T, Schwartz M, et al. Regional brain response to visual food cues is a marker of satiety that predicts food choice. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96:989-99 pubmed publisher
    ..This trial was registered at as NCT01631045. ..
  6. Journel M, Chaumontet C, Darcel N, Fromentin G, Tome D. Brain responses to high-protein diets. Adv Nutr. 2012;3:322-9 pubmed publisher
  7. Ritter R. A tale of two endings: modulation of satiation by NMDA receptors on or near central and peripheral vagal afferent terminals. Physiol Behav. 2011;105:94-9 pubmed publisher
    ..glutamate receptors in the NTS increases food intake and attenuates reduction of food intake by vagally mediated satiation signals, such as cholecystokinin...
  8. Forde C, van Kuijk N, Thaler T, de Graaf C, Martin N. Oral processing characteristics of solid savoury meal components, and relationship with food composition, sensory attributes and expected satiation. Appetite. 2013;60:208-219 pubmed publisher
    ..To better design meals that promote greater feelings of satiation, we need an accurate picture of the oral processing characteristics of a range of solid food items that could be ..
  9. Oldham Cooper R, Hardman C, Nicoll C, Rogers P, Brunstrom J. Playing a computer game during lunch affects fullness, memory for lunch, and later snack intake. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93:308-13 pubmed publisher
    ..They may also help to explain the well-documented association between sedentary screen-time activities and overweight. ..
  10. Kanoski S, Zhao S, Guarnieri D, DiLeone R, Yan J, De Jonghe B, et al. Endogenous leptin receptor signaling in the medial nucleus tractus solitarius affects meal size and potentiates intestinal satiation signals. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012;303:E496-503 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these findings deepen the understanding of the distributed neuronal systems and behavioral mechanisms that mediate the effects of leptin receptor signaling on the control of food intake. ..
  11. Hogenkamp P, Stafleu A, Mars M, de Graaf C. Learning about the energy density of liquid and semi-solid foods. Int J Obes (Lond). 2012;36:1229-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The adjustments in intake were made irrespective of the food texture. ..
  12. Borg J, Simren M, Ohlsson B. Oxytocin reduces satiety scores without affecting the volume of nutrient intake or gastric emptying rate in healthy subjects. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2011;23:56-61, e5 pubmed publisher
    ..The oxytocin concentration in plasma was increased proportional to the oxytocin infusions. Infusion of oxytocin reduces satiety without affecting the volume of nutrient intake or gastric emptying in healthy subjects. ..
  13. Brogden N, Almiron Roig E. Food liking, familiarity and expected satiation selectively influence portion size estimation of snacks and caloric beverages in men. Appetite. 2010;55:551-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Twenty-seven men rated liking, familiarity and expected satiation (ES) of a chocolate bar, muffin, banana, cola, cornflakes, potato chips (crisps), hot chocolate drink and ice-..
  14. Hardman C, McCrickerd K, Brunstrom J. Children's familiarity with snack foods changes expectations about fullness. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94:1196-201 pubmed publisher
    ..We measured and quantified children's expected satiation across energy-dense snack foods by using a method of adjustment...
  15. Calvez J, Fromentin G, Nadkarni N, Darcel N, Even P, Tome D, et al. Inhibition of food intake induced by acute stress in rats is due to satiation effects. Physiol Behav. 2011;104:675-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that acute stress may affect ingestive behavior by increasing satiation and to some extent by enhancing grooming, and this may be due to stimulation of the hypothalamic POMC neurons.
  16. Lemmens S, Martens E, Kester A, Westerterp Plantenga M. Changes in gut hormone and glucose concentrations in relation to hunger and fullness. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94:717-25 pubmed publisher
    ..This study started in 2007, which means that it was not registered as a clinical trial. ..
  17. Perrigue M, Carter B, Roberts S, Drewnowski A. A low-calorie beverage supplemented with low-viscosity pectin reduces energy intake at a subsequent meal. J Food Sci. 2010;75:H300-5 pubmed publisher
    ..A short time interval between consumption of a low-calorie beverage and a meal also increased satiety and decreased food intake, reflecting the short-lived effect of volume. ..
  18. Bolhuis D, Lakemond C, de Wijk R, Luning P, de Graaf C. Effect of salt intensity in soup on ad libitum intake and on subsequent food choice. Appetite. 2012;58:48-55 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, a higher salt intensity lead to lower ad libitum intake of soup similar in palatability (LS vs. HS). In addition, salt intensity in soup does not predict sweet vs. savory food choice. ..
  19. Adebakin A, Bradley J, Gumusgoz S, Waters E, Lawrence C. Impaired satiation and increased feeding behaviour in the triple-transgenic Alzheimer's disease mouse model. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45179 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that 3×TgAD mice show increased feeding behaviour and insensitivity to satiation, which is possibly due to defective gut-brain signalling in response to endogenous satiety factors released by ..
  20. Abou Samra R, Keersmaekers L, Brienza D, Mukherjee R, Mace K. Effect of different protein sources on satiation and short-term satiety when consumed as a starter. Nutr J. 2011;10:139 pubmed publisher
    ..source of protein may play a role in its satiating effect, we investigated the effect of different proteins on satiation and short-term satiety. Two randomized single-blind cross-over studies were completed...
  21. Steinert R, Beglinger C. Nutrient sensing in the gut: interactions between chemosensory cells, visceral afferents and the secretion of satiation peptides. Physiol Behav. 2011;105:62-70 pubmed publisher
    ..a brief overview on gastrointestinal chemosensory mechanisms and their functional involvement in the secretion of satiation peptides with a focus on human studies albeit most evidence at present comes from in vitro or animal studies.
  22. Brunstrom J, Brown S, Hinton E, Rogers P, Fay S. 'Expected satiety' changes hunger and fullness in the inter-meal interval. Appetite. 2011;56:310-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Potential explanations are discussed, including the prospect that satiety is moderated by memories of expected satiety that are encoded around the time that a meal is consumed. ..
  23. Covasa M. Deficits in gastrointestinal responses controlling food intake and body weight. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;299:R1423-39 pubmed publisher
    ..It focuses on changes in sensitivity to satiation signals resulting from chronic ingestion of high-fat diet, which may lead to disordered appetite and ..
  24. Ranawana D, Henry C. Are caloric beverages compensated for in the short-term by young adults? An investigation with particular focus on gender differences. Appetite. 2010;55:137-46 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, females appeared to show a possible dysregulation, which requires further investigation. ..
  25. Marciani L, Hall N, Pritchard S, Cox E, Totman J, Lad M, et al. Preventing gastric sieving by blending a solid/water meal enhances satiation in healthy humans. J Nutr. 2012;142:1253-8 pubmed publisher
    ..01). Blending the solid/liquid meal to a soup delayed gastric emptying and increased the hormonal response to feeding, which may contribute to enhanced postprandial satiety...
  26. de Graaf C. Why liquid energy results in overconsumption. Proc Nutr Soc. 2011;70:162-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Foods that are eaten quickly may impair this association, and may therefore lead to overconsumption of energy, and ultimately to weight gain. ..
  27. Monsivais P, Carter B, Christiansen M, Perrigue M, Drewnowski A. Soluble fiber dextrin enhances the satiating power of beverages. Appetite. 2011;56:9-14 pubmed publisher
    ..023). Supplementing beverages with soluble fiber dextrin affects short term energy intake and may have implications for weight control. ..
  28. Crum A, Corbin W, Brownell K, Salovey P. Mind over milkshakes: mindsets, not just nutrients, determine ghrelin response. Health Psychol. 2011;30:424-9; discussion 430-1 pubmed publisher
    To test whether physiological satiation as measured by the gut peptide ghrelin may vary depending on the mindset in which one approaches consumption of food...
  29. Smeets P, Weijzen P, de Graaf C, Viergever M. Consumption of caloric and non-caloric versions of a soft drink differentially affects brain activation during tasting. Neuroimage. 2011;54:1367-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, implications for the effectiveness of non-caloric sweeteners in decreasing energy intake need to be established. ..
  30. de Lartigue G, Barbier de la Serre C, Espero E, Lee J, Raybould H. Leptin resistance in vagal afferent neurons inhibits cholecystokinin signaling and satiation in diet induced obese rats. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32967 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested the hypothesis that leptin resistance in VAN is responsible for reducing CCK signaling and satiation. Lean Zucker rats sensitive to leptin signaling, significantly reduced their food intake following ..
  31. Bolhuis D, Lakemond C, de Wijk R, Luning P, Graaf C. Both longer oral sensory exposure to and higher intensity of saltiness decrease ad libitum food intake in healthy normal-weight men. J Nutr. 2011;141:2242-8 pubmed publisher
    Orosensory exposure to sweetness has been shown to be important in satiation, whereas the effect of exposure to a salty taste on satiation is not known...
  32. Scaglioni S, Arrizza C, Vecchi F, Tedeschi S. Determinants of children's eating behavior. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94:2006S-2011S pubmed publisher
    ..Informed and motivated parents can become a model for children by offering a healthy, high-satiety, low-energy-dense diet and promoting self-regulation from the first years of life. ..
  33. Kissileff H, Thornton J, Torres M, Pavlovich K, Mayer L, Kalari V, et al. Leptin reverses declines in satiation in weight-reduced obese humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;95:309-17 pubmed publisher
    ..or leptin deficient have a lower energy expenditure coupled with higher hunger and disinhibition and/or delayed satiation compared with never-weight-reduced control subjects...
  34. Maersk M, Belza A, Holst J, Fenger Grøn M, Pedersen S, Astrup A, et al. Satiety scores and satiety hormone response after sucrose-sweetened soft drink compared with isocaloric semi-skimmed milk and with non-caloric soft drink: a controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012;66:523-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, there were no indications of ASSD increased appetite or EI compared with water. ..
  35. Sclafani A. Gut-brain nutrient signaling. Appetition vs. satiation. Appetite. 2013;71:454-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the availability of sugar-rich and fat-rich foods can override these satiation/satiety signals and lead to overeating and obesity...
  36. Ramaekers M, Luning P, Ruijschop R, Lakemond C, Bult J, Gort G, et al. Aroma exposure time and aroma concentration in relation to satiation. Br J Nutr. 2014;111:554-62 pubmed publisher investigated the effect of aroma exposure time and aroma concentration on ad libitum intake and subjective satiation. In a within-subject study, thirty-eight unrestrained, healthy female participants (age: 18-39 years; BMI: 18·5-..
  37. Ramsay S, Branen L, Fletcher J, Price E, Johnson S, Sigman Grant M. "Are you done?" Child care providers' verbal communication at mealtimes that reinforce or hinder children's internal cues of hunger and satiation. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2010;42:265-70 pubmed publisher
    ..verbal communication of child care providers regarding preschool children's internal and non-internal hunger and satiation cues...
  38. Hogenkamp P, Stafleu A, Mars M, Brunstrom J, de Graaf C. Texture, not flavor, determines expected satiation of dairy products. Appetite. 2011;57:635-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Our objective is to investigate the role of sensory attributes and means of consumption in the expected satiation of dairy products...
  39. Aimé P, Duchamp Viret P, Chaput M, Savigner A, Mahfouz M, Julliard A. Fasting increases and satiation decreases olfactory detection for a neutral odor in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2007;179:258-64 pubmed
    ..This would have an obvious eco-ethological role by increasing the relevance of olfactory inputs when seeking food. ..
  40. Almiron Roig E, Grathwohl D, Green H, Erkner A. Impact of some isoenergetic snacks on satiety and next meal intake in healthy adults. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2009;22:469-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the fibre-enriched drinking yogurt tended to be more satiating than the other foods. ..
  41. Grill H, Hayes M. The nucleus tractus solitarius: a portal for visceral afferent signal processing, energy status assessment and integration of their combined effects on food intake. Int J Obes (Lond). 2009;33 Suppl 1:S11-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, data support the view that the NTS and circuits within the hindbrain mediate the intake inhibition of GI signals, and that the effects of leptin on food intake result from the amplification of GI signal processing. ..
  42. Leidy H, Bossingham M, Mattes R, Campbell W. Increased dietary protein consumed at breakfast leads to an initial and sustained feeling of fullness during energy restriction compared to other meal times. Br J Nutr. 2009;101:798-803 pubmed
    ..05), but not HP-E (+274 (sem 165) au x 900 min; P = 0.188). The initial and sustained feelings of fullness following protein consumption at breakfast suggests that the timing of protein intake differentially influences satiety during ER. ..
  43. Malik S, McGlone F, Bedrossian D, Dagher A. Ghrelin modulates brain activity in areas that control appetitive behavior. Cell Metab. 2008;7:400-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This demonstrates that metabolic signals such as ghrelin may favor food consumption by enhancing the hedonic and incentive responses to food-related cues. ..
  44. Van Walleghen E, Orr J, Gentile C, Davy K, Davy B. Habitual physical activity differentially affects acute and short-term energy intake regulation in young and older adults. Int J Obes (Lond). 2007;31:1277-85 pubmed
    ..Future work is needed to determine if higher energy expenditure in older active vs older sedentary adults improves long-term EI regulation. ..
  45. Gourcerol G, Wang L, Wang Y, Million M, Tache Y. Urocortins and cholecystokinin-8 act synergistically to increase satiation in lean but not obese mice: involvement of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-2 pathway. Endocrinology. 2007;148:6115-23 pubmed
    ..Such synergy is lost in DIO mice, suggesting a resistance to the satiety signaling that may contribute to maintain obesity...
  46. Weijzen P, Liem D, Zandstra E, de Graaf C. Sensory specific satiety and intake: the difference between nibble- and bar-size snacks. Appetite. 2008;50:435-42 pubmed
    ..The data do not clearly support the idea that attention to consumption decreases intake. Hypothetically consumption of small foods and attentive consumption prolong the oral sensory stimulation, which results in a lower intake. ..
  47. Berthoud H. Vagal and hormonal gut-brain communication: from satiation to satisfaction. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2008;20 Suppl 1:64-72 pubmed publisher
    ..sends information to the brain regarding the quality and quantity of ingested nutrients, not only important for satiation and meal termination, but also for the appetitive phase of ingestive behaviour and the patterning of meals ..
  48. Higgs S. Cognitive influences on food intake: the effects of manipulating memory for recent eating. Physiol Behav. 2008;94:734-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data are consistent with evidence of hyperphagia in amnesic patients and laboratory animals with lesions to the hippocampus, an important substrate for learning and memory. ..
  49. Ueland O, Cardello A, Merrill E, Lesher L. Effect of portion size information on food intake. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009;109:124-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Consumers' concept of portion size is associated more with objective measures of food than with personal experience about the amount that would be appropriate to eat. ..
  50. Brennan A, Sweeney L, Liu X, Mantzoros C. Walnut consumption increases satiation but has no effect on insulin resistance or the metabolic profile over a 4-day period. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010;18:1176-82 pubmed publisher
    ..It has been proposed, mainly on the basis of observational studies, that nuts may provide superior satiation, may lead to reduced calorie consumption, and may decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes; but evidence from ..
  51. Odunsi S, Vazquez Roque M, Camilleri M, Papathanasopoulos A, Clark M, Wodrich L, et al. Effect of alginate on satiation, appetite, gastric function, and selected gut satiety hormones in overweight and obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010;18:1579-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The stomach signals satiation postprandially and may play an important role in control of calorie intake...
  52. Sanmiguel C, Aviv R, Policker S, Haddad W, Brody F, Soffer E. Association between gastric electromechanical activity and satiation in dogs. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007;15:2958-63 pubmed publisher
    ..of antral contractions and to determine the relationship between food-induced changes in gastric motility and satiation. In Experiment 1, three dogs were implanted with an antral strain gauge and bipolar electrodes for measurement ..
  53. Stoeckel L, Weller R, Giddings M, Cox J. Peptide YY levels are associated with appetite suppression in response to long-chain fatty acids. Physiol Behav. 2008;93:289-95 pubmed
    ..The close temporal correspondence between these variables supports the proposed role of this peptide in the intermediate-term control of intake, possibly acting to regulate appetite during the intermeal interval. ..