Summary: The field concerned with the interrelationship between the brain, behavior and the immune system. Neuropsychologic, neuroanatomic and psychosocial studies have demonstrated their role in accentuating or diminishing immune/allergic responses.

Top Publications

  1. Kiecolt Glaser J, McGuire L, Robles T, Glaser R. Emotions, morbidity, and mortality: new perspectives from psychoneuroimmunology. Annu Rev Psychol. 2002;53:83-107 pubmed
    ..Resources such as close personal relationships that diminish negative emotions enhance health in part through their positive impact on immune and endocrine regulation. ..
  2. Christian L. Psychoneuroimmunology in pregnancy: immune pathways linking stress with maternal health, adverse birth outcomes, and fetal development. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2012;36:350-61 pubmed publisher
    ..However, very limited research has examined stress-immune relationships in pregnancy. The application of psychoneuroimmunology research models to the perinatal period holds great promise for elucidating biological pathways by which ..
  3. Ader R. On the development of psychoneuroimmunology. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000;405:167-76 pubmed
    b>Psychoneuroimmunology, the study of interactions among behavioral, neural and endocrine, and immune processes, coalesced as an interdisciplinary field of study in the late 1970s...
  4. McCain N, Gray D, Walter J, Robins J. Implementing a comprehensive approach to the study of health dynamics using the psychoneuroimmunology paradigm. ANS Adv Nurs Sci. 2005;28:320-32 pubmed
    This article addresses psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) as an integrative paradigm for advancing both theoretical and empirical knowledge of physiological patterns that contribute to the dynamics of health...
  5. Kiecolt Glaser J, McGuire L, Robles T, Glaser R. Psychoneuroimmunology and psychosomatic medicine: back to the future. Psychosom Med. 2002;64:15-28 pubmed
    ..This article speculates on future directions for psychoneuroimmunology research, after reviewing the history of the field...
  6. Leonard B, Myint A. The psychoneuroimmunology of depression. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2009;24:165-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Such changes may provide evidence for the link between chronic depression and dementia in later life. ..
  7. Glaser R. Stress-associated immune dysregulation and its importance for human health: a personal history of psychoneuroimmunology. Brain Behav Immun. 2005;19:3-11 pubmed
    ..The field of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) is a field of research that deals with the complex interactions between the central nervous system, ..
  8. Kop W. The integration of cardiovascular behavioral medicine and psychoneuroimmunology: new developments based on converging research fields. Brain Behav Immun. 2003;17:233-7 pubmed
    ..g., mental stress and anger) can promote myocardial ischemia and plaque rupture. The psychoneuroimmunological pathways are described for each of these three types of psychological risk factors for acute coronary syndromes. ..
  9. Banks W. The blood-brain barrier in psychoneuroimmunology. Neurol Clin. 2006;24:413-9 pubmed
    The very term "psychoneuroimmunology" connotes separate compartments that interact. The BBB is the physical and physiologic dividing line between the immune system and the CNS and is the locale for interaction...

More Information


  1. Opp M. Sleep and psychoneuroimmunology. Neurol Clin. 2006;24:493-506 pubmed
  2. Ben Eliyahu S. The promotion of tumor metastasis by surgery and stress: immunological basis and implications for psychoneuroimmunology. Brain Behav Immun. 2003;17 Suppl 1:S27-36 pubmed
    This mini-review emphasizes a psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) perspective of the hypothesis that stress and surgical excision of the primary tumor can promote tumor metastasis...
  3. Ziemssen T, Kern S. Psychoneuroimmunology--cross-talk between the immune and nervous systems. J Neurol. 2007;254 Suppl 2:II8-11 pubmed
    b>Psychoneuroimmunology is a relatively new field of study that investigates interactions between behaviour and the immune system, mediated by the endocrine and nervous systems...
  4. Tausk F, Elenkov I, Moynihan J. Psychoneuroimmunology. Dermatol Ther. 2008;21:22-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) is a discipline that has evolved in the last 40 years to study the relationship between immunity, the endocrine system, and the central and peripheral nervous systems...
  5. Irwin M. Human psychoneuroimmunology: 20 years of discovery. Brain Behav Immun. 2008;22:129-39 pubmed
    An important component of psychoneuroimmunology research is to reveal the myriad ways that behaviors and health are inter-related, with a focus on the immunological mechanisms that underlie these interactions...
  6. Besedovsky H, Rey A. Physiology of psychoneuroimmunology: a personal view. Brain Behav Immun. 2007;21:34-44 pubmed
    ..We also discuss increasing evidence that brain-born cytokines play an important role in brain physiology and in the integration of the immune-neuro-endocrine network. ..
  7. Kiecolt Glaser J. Stress, food, and inflammation: psychoneuroimmunology and nutrition at the cutting edge. Psychosom Med. 2010;72:365-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A better understanding of how stressors, negative emotions, and unhealthy meals work together to enhance inflammation will benefit behavioral and nutritional research, as well as the broader biomedical community. ..
  8. Segerstrom S. Resources, stress, and immunity: an ecological perspective on human psychoneuroimmunology. Ann Behav Med. 2010;40:114-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, ecological models may aid in understanding the relationship between stress and immunity. ..
  9. Haroon E, Raison C, Miller A. Psychoneuroimmunology meets neuropsychopharmacology: translational implications of the impact of inflammation on behavior. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012;37:137-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, identification of mechanisms by which cytokines influence behavior may reveal a panoply of personalized treatment options that target the unique contributions of the immune system to depression. ..
  10. Kiecolt Glaser J, Page G, Marucha P, MacCallum R, Glaser R. Psychological influences on surgical recovery. Perspectives from psychoneuroimmunology. Am Psychol. 1998;53:1209-18 pubmed
    ..Recent work in psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) has demonstrated that stress delays wound healing...
  11. Su K. Mind-body interface: the role of n-3 fatty acids in psychoneuroimmunology, somatic presentation, and medical illness comorbidity of depression. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:151-7 pubmed
    ..Indeed, the role of n-3 PUFAs in immunity and mood function supports the promising psychoneuroimmunologic hypothesis of depression and provides an excellent interface shared by body and mind. ..
  12. Darnall B, Suarez E. Sex and gender in psychoneuroimmunology research: past, present and future. Brain Behav Immun. 2009;23:595-604 pubmed publisher
    To date, research suggests that sex and gender impact pathways central to the foci of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI). This review provides a historical perspective on the evolution of sex and gender in psychoneuroimmunology research...
  13. Pace T, Heim C. A short review on the psychoneuroimmunology of posttraumatic stress disorder: from risk factors to medical comorbidities. Brain Behav Immun. 2011;25:6-13 pubmed publisher
    ..This short article reviews immune alterations in PTSD, and considers possible mechanisms by which such changes may be related to neuroendocrine alterations and medical comorbidities of PTSD. ..
  14. Ellsworth Bowers E, Corwin E. Nutrition and the psychoneuroimmunology of postpartum depression. Nutr Res Rev. 2012;25:180-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Findings suggest that while n-3 PUFA levels have been shown to vary inversely with PPD and link with psychoneuroimmunology, there is mixed evidence regarding the ability of n-3 PUFA to prevent or treat PPD...
  15. Lutgendorf S, Costanzo E. Psychoneuroimmunology and health psychology: an integrative model. Brain Behav Immun. 2003;17:225-32 pubmed
    ..These interactions are discussed in the context of aging. ..
  16. Kiecolt Glaser J, Glaser R. Psychoneuroimmunology and cancer: fact or fiction?. Eur J Cancer. 1999;35:1603-7 pubmed
    ..These studies and others suggest that psychological or behavioural factors may influence the incidence or progression of cancer through psychosocial influences on immune function and other physiological pathways. ..
  17. DeKeyser F. Psychoneuroimmunology in critically ill patients. AACN Clin Issues. 2003;14:25-32 pubmed
    b>Psychoneuroimmunology is the study of the interactions among behavior, neural, and endocrine functions and the immune system...
  18. Cohen N, Kehrl H, Berglund B, O LEARY A, Ross G, Seltzer J, et al. Psychoneuroimmunology. Environ Health Perspect. 1997;105 Suppl 2:527-9 pubmed overview of the questions and hypotheses generated by a working group exploring the application of psychoneuroimmunology to chemical sensitivities...
  19. Ferguson E, Cassaday H. Theoretical accounts of Gulf War Syndrome: from environmental toxins to psychoneuroimmunology and neurodegeneration. Behav Neurol. 2001;13:133-47 pubmed
    ..This position contrasts with other immunological accounts of GWS that suggest that the immune system demonstrates a shift to a Th2 (allergy) profile. Evidence pertaining to these two contrasting positions is reviewed. ..
  20. Kiecolt Glaser J, Robles T, Heffner K, Loving T, Glaser R. Psycho-oncology and cancer: psychoneuroimmunology and cancer. Ann Oncol. 2002;13 Suppl 4:165-9 pubmed
  21. Corwin E, Pajer K. The psychoneuroimmunology of postpartum depression. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2008;17:1529-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this paper is to review the psychoneuroimmunology of PPD...
  22. Aubert A. Invertebrate studies and the evolution of comparative psychoneuroimmunology. Brain Behav Immun. 2007;21:290-1 pubmed
  23. Shi Y, Devadas S, Greeneltch K, Yin D, Allan Mufson R, Zhou J. Stressed to death: implication of lymphocyte apoptosis for psychoneuroimmunology. Brain Behav Immun. 2003;17 Suppl 1:S18-26 pubmed
  24. Kemeny M. Psychobiological responses to social threat: evolution of a psychological model in psychoneuroimmunology. Brain Behav Immun. 2009;23:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of cognitive processes in shaping the physiological response to the social world will be emphasized. ..
  25. Adamo S. Comparative psychoneuroimmunology: evidence from the insects. Behav Cogn Neurosci Rev. 2006;5:128-40 pubmed
    ..Because insects occupy a wide range of ecological niches, they will be useful in examining how some immune-behavioral interactions are sculpted by an animal's behavioral ecology. ..
  26. Antoni M. Stress management and psychoneuroimmunology in HIV infection. CNS Spectr. 2003;8:40-51 pubmed
    ..This article will review the major psychoneuroimmunologic findings that have emerged using this paradigm and suggest future research directions and clinical applications. ..
  27. Skinner R, Georgiou R, Thornton P, Rothwell N. Psychoneuroimmunology of stroke. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2009;29:359-79 pubmed publisher
    ..An early clinical trial suggests that inhibiting interleukin-1 may be of benefit in the treatment of acute stroke. ..
  28. Kiecolt Glaser J, McGuire L, Robles T, Glaser R. Psychoneuroimmunology: psychological influences on immune function and health. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2002;70:537-47 pubmed
    This review focuses on human psychoneuroimmunology studies published in the past decade...
  29. Armstrong L, Vanheest J. The unknown mechanism of the overtraining syndrome: clues from depression and psychoneuroimmunology. Sports Med. 2002;32:185-209 pubmed
    ..Novel recommendations are proposed for the treatment of overtrained athletes with antidepressant medications, and guidelines are provided for psychological counselling. ..
  30. Vedhara K, Fox J, Wang E. The measurement of stress-related immune dysfunction in psychoneuroimmunology. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 1999;23:699-715 pubmed
    ..e. the field of Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)...
  31. Prolo P, Chiappelli F, Fiorucci A, Dovio A, Sartori M, Angeli A. Psychoneuroimmunology: new avenues of research for the twenty-first century. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002;966:400-8 pubmed
    b>Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) investigates the relations between the psychophysiological and immunophysiological dimensions of living beings...
  32. Dantzer R. Innate immunity at the forefront of psychoneuroimmunology. Brain Behav Immun. 2004;18:1-6 pubmed
    The last 15 years of research in psychoneuroimmunology have been marked by a renewed interest in the mechanisms of inflammation and participation of the brain in these mechanisms...
  33. Kern S, Ziemssen T. Brain-immune communication psychoneuroimmunology of multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2008;14:6-21 pubmed
    ..While the exact mechanisms for these phenomena are still poorly understood, the young discipline of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI), which focuses on the mechanism underlying the brain to immune crosstalk, might offer some insights ..
  34. Goehler L, Lyte M, Gaykema R. Infection-induced viscerosensory signals from the gut enhance anxiety: implications for psychoneuroimmunology. Brain Behav Immun. 2007;21:721-6 pubmed
  35. Robins J, McCain N, Gray D, Elswick R, Walter J, McDade E. Research on psychoneuroimmunology: tai chi as a stress management approach for individuals with HIV disease. Appl Nurs Res. 2006;19:2-9 pubmed
    b>Psychoneuroimmunology is a framework for mind-body practice and research that combines cutting-edge scientific exploration with holistic philosophy to appreciate and understand stress responses...
  36. Kang D. Psychoneuroimmunology in nursing research: a biobehavioral model. Res Nurs Health. 2003;26:421-3 pubmed
  37. Ozura A, Ihan A, Musek J. Can the big five factors of personality predict lymphocyte counts?. Psychiatr Danub. 2012;24:66-72 pubmed
    ..Further studies with larger samples examining the Big five factors and immune system parameters are needed. ..
  38. Segerstrom S, Lubach G, Coe C. Identifying immune traits and biobehavioral correlates: generalizability and reliability of immune responses in rhesus macaques. Brain Behav Immun. 2006;20:349-58 pubmed
  39. Pucak M, Kaplin A. Unkind cytokines: current evidence for the potential role of cytokines in immune-mediated depression. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2005;17:477-83 pubmed
  40. Quinlan M. Ethnomedicine and ethnobotany of fright, a Caribbean culture-bound psychiatric syndrome. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2010;6:9 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, the cultural salience and beliefs about these medicines may give these medications extra psychoneuroimmune (i.e. mind-body) benefits, or placebo-like effects, for this stress-related folk illness. ..
  41. Walling A. Therapeutic modulation of the psychoneuroimmune system by medical acupuncture creates enhanced feelings of well-being. J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2006;18:135-43 pubmed
    ..Tertiary care provides a method to assist autonomic regulation when the body is no longer able to maintain homeostatic stability because of chronic illness or injury. ..
  42. Ader R. Conditioned immunomodulation: research needs and directions. Brain Behav Immun. 2003;17 Suppl 1:S51-7 pubmed
    Considering the brief time that psychoneuroimmunology has existed as a bona fide field of research, a great deal of data has been collected in support of the proposition that homeostatic mechanisms are the product of an integrated system ..
  43. Yan Q. Translational bioinformatics in psychoneuroimmunology: methods and applications. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;934:383-400 pubmed publisher
    Translational bioinformatics plays an indispensable role in transforming psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) into personalized medicine...
  44. Prolo P, Chiappelli F, Cajulis E, Bauer J, Spackman S, Romeo H, et al. Psychoneuroimmunology in oral biology and medicine: the model of oral lichen planus. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002;966:429-40 pubmed
    ..or complement. It is increasingly well characterized and recognized as a model for psychoneuroimmunology research in oral biology and medicine...
  45. Pardo C, Vargas D, Zimmerman A. Immunity, neuroglia and neuroinflammation in autism. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2005;17:485-95 pubmed
    ..A better understanding of the role of neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of autism may have important clinical and therapeutic implications. ..
  46. Jones H. Immune cells listen to what stress is saying: neuroendocrine receptors orchestrate immune function. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;934:77-87 pubmed publisher
    Over the past three decades, the field of psychoneuroimmunology research has blossomed into a major field of study, gaining interests of researchers across all traditionally accepted disciplines of scientific research...
  47. Arbelaez J, Ariyo A, Crum R, Fried L, Ford D. Depressive symptoms, inflammation, and ischemic stroke in older adults: a prospective analysis in the cardiovascular health study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007;55:1825-30 pubmed
    ..Inflammation, as measured according to CRP at baseline, did not appear to mediate the relationship between depressive symptoms and stroke. ..
  48. Figueira M, Ouakinin S. From psychosomatic to psychological medicine: what's the future?. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2008;21:412-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The ultimate goal of psychosomatic medicine may be the integration of different levels of individual functioning on a systemic basis. ..
  49. Nicolson M. Ask an expert: constructing labyrinths for patients with cancer. Clin J Oncol Nurs. 2002;6:296-7 pubmed
  50. Honeyman J. Psychoneuroimmunology and the Skin. Acta Derm Venereol. 2016;96:38-46 pubmed publisher
    ..This article reviews the psychological mechanisms involved in the development of skin diseases. ..
  51. Tomakowsky J, Lumley M, Markowitz N, Frank C. Optimistic explanatory style and dispositional optimism in HIV-infected men. J Psychosom Res. 2001;51:577-87 pubmed
    ..This latter relationship may be related to the unique stress and life experiences associated with having HIV. ..
  52. Kiecolt Glaser J, Glaser R. Psychological stress, telomeres, and telomerase. Brain Behav Immun. 2010;24:529-30 pubmed publisher
  53. Ader R, Kelley K. A global view of twenty years of Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. Brain Behav Immun. 2007;21:20-2 pubmed