food parasitology


Summary: The presence of parasites in food and food products. For the presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food, FOOD MICROBIOLOGY is available.

Top Publications

  1. Wicht B, de Marval F, Peduzzi R. Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense (Yamane et al., 1986) in Switzerland: first molecular evidence and case reports. Parasitol Int. 2007;56:195-9 pubmed
    ..latum (Linnaeus, 1758) but the increasing popularity of raw fish culinary specialities (sushi, carpaccio, tartare) brings out a new diagnostic problem, so that people can get infected by exotic species of tapeworms...
  2. Shimizu H, Kawakatsu H, Shimizu T, Yamada M, Tegoshi T, Uchikawa R, et al. Diphyllobothriasis nihonkaiense: possibly acquired in Switzerland from imported Pacific salmon. Intern Med. 2008;47:1359-62 pubmed
    ..The patient consumed imported salmon in Switzerland. This case highlights the globalization of D. nihonkaiense, which was once restricted to the Far East, and reflects the worldwide demand for seafood...
  3. Nyarango R, Aloo P, Kabiru E, Nyanchongi B. The risk of pathogenic intestinal parasite infections in Kisii Municipality, Kenya. BMC Public Health. 2008;8:237 pubmed publisher
    ..5%) and vegetables (75.9%) sold at the Municipal market were found to be contaminated with parasites hence the inhabitants requires a need for education on food safety, good distribution practices and improvement on sanitary conditions. ..
  4. Trung Dung D, van De N, Waikagul J, Dalsgaard A, Chai J, Sohn W, et al. Fishborne zoonotic intestinal trematodes, Vietnam. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:1828-33 pubmed publisher
    ..90.4% of all worms recovered). These results demonstrate that fishborne intestinal parasites are an unrecognized food safety risk in a country whose people have a strong tradition of eating raw fish. ..
  5. Smith H, Cacció S, Cook N, Nichols R, Tait A. Cryptosporidium and Giardia as foodborne zoonoses. Vet Parasitol. 2007;149:29-40 pubmed
  6. Dias J. [Notes about of Trypanosoma cruzi and yours bio-ecology characteristics with agents of the transmission by meals]. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2006;39:370-5 pubmed
    ..In particular, different aspects of the biology and biochemistry of the parasite are analyzed, especially in terms of its epidemiology and the possibilities of the prevention of the oral transmission of Chagas' disease. ..
  7. Smith H, Nichols R. Zoonotic protozoa--food for thought. Parassitologia. 2006;48:101-4 pubmed
    ..In addition, there is growing evidence for the role that water and food can play in the transmission of the microsporidia, Balantidium and Blastocystis to humans. ..
  8. Bobic B, Nikolic A, Klun I, Vujanic M, Djurkovic Djakovic O. Undercooked meat consumption remains the major risk factor for Toxoplasma infection in Serbia. Parassitologia. 2007;49:227-30 pubmed
    ..Of all the meat types mostly consumed in Serbia, only consumption of beef (RR = 1.006, 95% CI = 1.001-1.011, P = 0.027) was shown to influence Toxoplasma infection rates. ..
  9. Lopez A, Dodson D, Arrowood M, Orlandi P, da Silva A, Bier J, et al. Outbreak of cyclosporiasis associated with basil in Missouri in 1999. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;32:1010-7 pubmed
    ..This is the second documented outbreak of cyclosporiasis in the United States linked to fresh basil and the first US outbreak for which Cyclospora has been detected in an epidemiologically implicated food item...

More Information


  1. Chai J, Lee S. Food-borne intestinal trematode infections in the Republic of Korea. Parasitol Int. 2002;51:129-54 pubmed
    ..Host-parasite relationships, pathogenesis and pathology, immunity, clinical aspects, differential diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of these intestinal trematodes are briefly discussed. ..
  2. Fried B, Graczyk T, Tamang L. Food-borne intestinal trematodiases in humans. Parasitol Res. 2004;93:159-70 pubmed
    ..Because most of the implicated species are in the Echinostomatidae and Heterophyidae, emphasis in the review is placed on species in these families...
  3. Robertson L, Greig J, Gjerde B, Fazil A. The potential for acquiring cryptosporidiosis or giardiosis from consumption of mung bean sprouts in Norway: a preliminary step-wise risk assessment. Int J Food Microbiol. 2005;98:291-300 pubmed
    ..Not only does the risk assessment identify new areas of research, but it also demonstrates how risk assessment can be used as a tool to try to influence public health surveillance. ..
  4. Herwaldt B. Cyclospora cayetanensis: a review, focusing on the outbreaks of cyclosporiasis in the 1990s. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;31:1040-57 pubmed
  5. McAllister M. A decade of discoveries in veterinary protozoology changes our concept of "subclinical" toxoplasmosis. Vet Parasitol. 2005;132:241-7 pubmed
    ..Organizations and individuals that feed feral cats are unwittingly contributing to the dissemination of T. gondii, by sustaining artificially dense populations of a definitive host of this protozoal parasite. ..
  6. Boireau P, Vallee I, Roman T, Perret C, Mingyuan L, Gamble H, et al. Trichinella in horses: a low frequency infection with high human risk. Vet Parasitol. 2000;93:309-20 pubmed
    ..To address the continuing outbreaks of human trichinellosis due to infected horsemeat, the development and implementation of a quality assurance system for testing is being considered...
  7. Yera H, Estran C, Delaunay P, Gari Toussaint M, Dupouy Camet J, Marty P. Putative Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense acquired from a Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) eaten in France; genomic identification and case report. Parasitol Int. 2006;55:45-9 pubmed
    ..The species diagnosis was made by molecular analysis of two mitochondrial genes (COI & ND3). This case is rather unusual in that D. nihonkaiense has never been reported along the Pacific coast of North America...
  8. Adou Bryn K, Ouhon J, Nemer J, Yapo C, Assoumou A. [Serological survey of acquired toxoplasmosis in women of child-bearing age in Yopougon (Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire)]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2004;97:345-8 pubmed
  9. Belizario V, de Leon W, Bersabe M, Purnomo -, Baird J, Bangs M. A focus of human infection by Haplorchis taichui (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) in the southern Philippines. J Parasitol. 2004;90:1165-9 pubmed
    ..The most common clinical symptoms appeared as upper abdominal discomfort or pain and borborygmi. Praziquantel (75 mg/kg divided in 3 doses in 1 day) was a well-tolerated and effective treatment for infection by H. taichui...
  10. Chai J, Darwin Murrell K, Lymbery A. Fish-borne parasitic zoonoses: status and issues. Int J Parasitol. 2005;35:1233-54 pubmed
    ..The life cycles, distributions, epidemiology, clinical aspects, and, importantly, the research needed for improved risk assessments, clinical management and prevention and control of these important parasitic diseases are reviewed. ..
  11. Keiser J, Utzinger J. Emerging foodborne trematodiasis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:1507-14 pubmed
    ..This is supported by reviewing aquaculture development in countries endemic for foodborne trematodiasis over the past 10-50 years. Future and sustainable control of foodborne trematodiasis is discussed. ..
  12. Jacob A, Jacob S, Jacob S. "Fecal fettuccine": a silent epidemic?. Am J Med. 2006;119:284-5 pubmed
  13. Gamble H, Bessonov A, Cuperlovic K, Gajadhar A, van Knapen F, Noeckler K, et al. International Commission on Trichinellosis: recommendations on methods for the control of Trichinella in domestic and wild animals intended for human consumption. Vet Parasitol. 2000;93:393-408 pubmed
    ..These recommendations are subject to change as new scientific information becomes available. ..
  14. Keiser J, Utzinger J. Chemotherapy for major food-borne trematodes: a review. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2004;5:1711-26 pubmed
  15. Ando K, Ishikura K, Nakakugi T, Shimono Y, Tamai T, Sugawa M, et al. Five cases of Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense infection with discovery of plerocercoids from an infective source, Oncorhynchus masou ishikawae. J Parasitol. 2001;87:96-100 pubmed
    ..This is the first record of D. nihonkaiense plerocercoids from O. m. ishikawae...
  16. Jongsuksuntigul P, Imsomboon T. Opisthorchiasis control in Thailand. Acta Trop. 2003;88:229-32 pubmed
    ..The prevalence rate was remarkably high in the North and moderately high in the Northeast, while the prevalence in the Central region was considerably low and there was no evidence of disease transmission in the South. ..
  17. Chai J, Park J, Han E, Guk S, Shin E, Lin A, et al. Mixed infections with Opisthorchis viverrini and intestinal flukes in residents of Vientiane Municipality and Saravane Province in Laos. J Helminthol. 2005;79:283-9 pubmed
  18. Dawson D. Foodborne protozoan parasites. Int J Food Microbiol. 2005;103:207-27 pubmed
    ..g., where water supplies may become contaminated). ..
  19. Sampaio J, de Andrade V, Lucas M, Fung L, Gagliardi S, Santos S, et al. Diphyllobothriasis, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:1598-600 pubmed
    ..Only 1 case in Brazil was diagnosed by our institution from January 1998 to December 2003. By comparison, 18 cases were diagnosed from March 2004 to January 2005. All patients who became infected ate raw fish in sushi or sashimi...
  20. De N, Murrell K, Cong L, Cam P, Chau L, Toan N, et al. The food-borne trematode zoonoses of Vietnam. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2003;34 Suppl 1:12-34 pubmed
    ..Finally, the authors present recommendations for further research to provide a more comprehensive picture of the status of these zoonoses, and to obtain the risk assessment information needed to design prevention and control programs. ..
  21. Sithithaworn P, Haswell Elkins M. Epidemiology of Opisthorchis viverrini. Acta Trop. 2003;88:187-94 pubmed
    ..In this review, we present the basic population features and the factors influencing transmission between the different hosts...
  22. Kavallieratos N, Athanassiou C, Vayias B, Tomanović Z. Efficacy of insect growth regulators as grain protectants against two stored-product pests in wheat and maize. J Food Prot. 2012;75:942-50 pubmed publisher
    ..truncatus in treated maize. The tested IGRs may be considered viable grain protectants and therefore as potential components in stored-product integrated pest management. ..
  23. Ly J, Beall D, Sanders T, Folio L. Radiology corner. Answer to last month's radiology case and image (case #10): echinococcosis of the liver. Mil Med. 2007;172:vi-vii pubmed
  24. Janarthanan S, Sakthivelkumar S, Veeramani V, Radhika D, Muthukrishanan S. A new variant of antimetabolic protein, arcelin from an Indian bean, Lablab purpureus (Linn.) and its effect on the stored product pest, Callosobruchus maculatus. Food Chem. 2012;135:2839-44 pubmed publisher
    ..purpureus using an artificial diet confirmed the complete retardation of development of the stored product pest Callosobruchus maculatus at 0.2% w/w arcelin-incorporated artificial seeds. ..
  25. Pigott D. Foodborne illness. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2008;26:475-97, x pubmed publisher
    ..This article reviews a number of the most common causes of foodborne illness, as well as several less common pathogens with the potential for causing significant morbidity and mortality if not promptly identified and treated. ..
  26. Kaewpitoon N, Kaewpitoon S, Pengsaa P. Food-borne parasitic zoonosis: distribution of trichinosis in Thailand. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:3471-5 pubmed
    ..Human infections occur annually in northern Thailand during communal feasts celebrating the Thai New Year. Trichinosis causes have been reported every year, supporting the need for planning education programs. ..
  27. El Zawawy L, El Said D, Ali S, Fathy F. Disinfection efficacy of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NADCC) against common food-borne intestinal protozoa. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2010;40:165-85 pubmed
    ..It is also recommended for disinfection of food preparation surfaces and equipment. ..
  28. Mishra D, Kalra V, Aggarwal K. Awareness about taeniasis and neurocysticercosis among municipal schoolteachers in Delhi. J Commun Dis. 2007;39:225-8 pubmed
    ..The study revealed that, general information related to personal food hygiene was known to majority of the teachers but core information in the context of taeniasis/cysticercosis and seizure prevention was lacking...
  29. Shaapan R, Ghazy A. Isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from horse meat in Egypt. Pak J Biol Sci. 2007;10:174-7 pubmed
    ..gondii in horse meat which may be considered as an important source of infection to wild zoo-animals in Egypt and humans in some countries if consumed raw or insufficiently cooked. ..
  30. Davidson V, Ravel A, Nguyen T, Fazil A, Ruzante J. Food-specific attribution of selected gastrointestinal illnesses: estimates from a Canadian expert elicitation survey. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2011;8:983-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These results will be used to quantitatively assess the burden of foodborne illness in Canada as well as to analyze the uncertainty in our estimates. ..
  31. Li F, Cui J, Wang Z, Jiang P. Sensitivity and optimization of artificial digestion in the inspection of meat for Trichinella spiralis. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2010;7:879-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Further validation of digestion method incorporating these modifications is required with the use of larger samples of infected muscle from species such as swine, which are routinely tested for T. spiralis for the purpose of food safety...
  32. Sequeira G, Zbrun M, Soto L, Astesana D, Blajman J, Rosmini M, et al. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Human Trichinellosis Caused by Consumption of Pork Meat Sausages in Argentina. Zoonoses Public Health. 2016;63:167-76 pubmed publisher
    ..08). This model allowed assessing the impact of different factors influencing the risk of acquiring trichinellosis. The model may thus help to select possible strategies to reduce the risk in the chain of by-products of pork production. ..
  33. Wang D, Liu Y, Jiang T, Zhang G, Yuan G, He J, et al. Seroprevalence and genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from pigs intended for human consumption in Liaoning province, northeastern China. Parasit Vectors. 2016;9:248 pubmed publisher
    ..gondii to humans, therefore poses a potential public health concern. The genotyping results revealed the presence of genotype Chinese 1 in northeastern China, enriching the scope of T. gondii genotypes distribution in eastern Asia. ..
  34. Nyachuba D. Foodborne illness: is it on the rise?. Nutr Rev. 2010;68:257-69 pubmed publisher
  35. Lan Anh N, Phuong N, Murrell K, Johansen M, Dalsgaard A, Thu L, et al. Animal reservoir hosts and fish-borne zoonotic trematode infections on fish farms, Vietnam. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:540-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results, combined with data from previous investigations in this community, imply that domestic animals serve as reservoir hosts for FZT and therefore must be included in any control programs to prevent FZT infection in humans...
  36. Lacey L, Horton D, Jones D, Headrick H, Neven L. Efficacy of the biofumigant fungus Muscodor albus (Ascomycota: Xylariales) for control of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in simulated storage conditions. J Econ Entomol. 2009;102:43-9 pubmed
    ..albus VOCs indicate that the fungus could provide an alternative to broad spectrum chemical fumigants for codling moth control in storage and contribute to the systems approach to achieve quarantine security of exported apples. ..
  37. Ayvaz A, Albayrak S, Karaborklu S. Gamma radiation sensitivity of the eggs, larvae and pupae of Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Pest Manag Sci. 2008;64:505-12 pubmed publisher
    ..F(1) males from irradiated pupae were more sterile than parental males. To prevent larval emergence from irradiated eggs, a dose of 350 Gy is required. The same dose is required to prevent the larvae from reaching the adult stage. ..
  38. Cardoen S, Van Huffel X, Berkvens D, Quoilin S, Ducoffre G, Saegerman C, et al. Evidence-based semiquantitative methodology for prioritization of foodborne zoonoses. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2009;6:1083-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Principally, this method of prioritization is of general interest as it can be applied for any other ranking exercise and in any country. ..
  39. Al Binali A, Bello C, El Shewy K, Abdulla S. The prevalence of parasites in commonly used leafy vegetables in South Western, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J. 2006;27:613-6 pubmed
    ..The public health implications of our findings will be communicated to the Aseer regional health authorities for appropriate community health education and other necessary actions. ..
  40. Hulebak K, Rodricks J, Smith DeWaal C. Integration of animal health, food pathogen and foodborne disease surveillance in the Americas. Rev Sci Tech. 2013;32:529-38 pubmed
    ..No effective integration now exists, but there are signals that governments in the Americas are working together towards this goal. ..
  41. De Liberato C, Bossù T, Scaramozzino P, Nicolini G, Ceddia P, Mallozzi S, et al. Presence of anisakid larvae in the European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, fished off the Tyrrhenian coast of central Italy. J Food Prot. 2013;76:1643-8 pubmed publisher
    ..aduncum revealed that those with A. pegreffii were significantly heavier. The prevalence of anisakid larvae found in the present study is lower then that reported previously in E. encrasicolus collected in the Mediterranean Sea. ..
  42. Ogendi E, Maina N, Kagira J, Ngotho M, Mbugua G, Karanja S. Questionnaire survey on the occurrence of risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection amongst farmers in Thika District, Kenya. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2013;84:E1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..5%). Only one farmer (0.3%) had some knowledge about toxoplasmosis, but was not aware of the transmission mechanism. The study highlights the need for public health education to raise awareness of risk factors for toxoplasmosis. ..
  43. Costa A, Thomaz Soccol V, Paulino R, Alcântara de Castro E. Effect of vinegar on the viability of Giardia duodenalis cysts. Int J Food Microbiol. 2009;128:510-2 pubmed publisher
    ..The relative viability after corresponding treatments at 4 degrees C also decreased, but 23.6% to 48.8% remained viable after 60 min, and thus complete inactivation was not obtained with any treatment at that temperature. ..
  44. Belhassen García M, Pardo Lledias J, Arévalo Velasco A, Carpio Pérez A, Fernández Gónzalez M. [Exanthema after eating in the country]. Rev Clin Esp. 2008;208:199-200 pubmed
  45. Frazar C, Orlandi P. Evaluation of two DNA template preparation methods for post-immunomagnetic separation detection of Cryptosporidium parvum in foods and beverages by PCR. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:7474-6 pubmed
    ..Also reflected in this study was that the matrix played an important role in the ability to recover oocysts, as sample turbidity, pH, and PCR inhibitors all influenced detection. ..
  46. Sanchez Borges M, Suárez Chacón R, Capriles Hulett A, Caballero Fonseca F, Fernández Caldas E. Anaphylaxis from ingestion of mites: pancake anaphylaxis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;131:31-5 pubmed publisher
    ..A variety of this syndrome can occur during physical exercise (dust mite ingestion-associated exercise-induced anaphylaxis)...
  47. Yoshikawa M, Ouji Y, Nishiofuku M, Moriya K, Kasahara K, Mikasa K, et al. Visceral toxocariasis from regular consumption of raw cow liver. Intern Med. 2008;47:1289-90 pubmed
  48. Nieuwenhuizen N, Lopata A. Anisakis--a food-borne parasite that triggers allergic host defences. Int J Parasitol. 2013;43:1047-57 pubmed publisher
    ..This review outlines current knowledge on Anisakis as a food-borne parasite, with special focus on the underlying immunological mechanisms resulting in allergic host defence responses. ..
  49. Bassetto C, da Silva B, Fernandes S, do Amarante A. [Pasture contamination with infective larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes after grazing by sheep resistant or susceptible to parasitic infection]. Rev Bras Parasitol Vet. 2009;18:63-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the susceptible animals should be eliminated from the flock in order to reduce pasture contamination and optimize the prophylaxis of gastrointestinal nematode infections. ..
  50. Murrell K. Zoonotic foodborne parasites and their surveillance. Rev Sci Tech. 2013;32:559-69 pubmed
  51. Cruz Licea V, Plancarte Crespo A, Morán Alvarez C, Valencia Rojas S, Rodríguez Sásnchez G, Vega Franco L. Blastocystis hominis among food vendors in Xochimilco markets. Rev Latinoam Microbiol. 2003;45:12-5 pubmed
    ..The prevalence reported is high when compared with other populations studied. The relevance of this report lies on the fact that food vendors handle foods and could transmit the infection to consumers...
  52. Maiga Y, Diallo M, Bouteille B, Konate A, Diarra M, Maiga M, et al. [About an autochtonous case of neurocysticercosis in Mali]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2009;102:211-4 pubmed
    ..The origin of contamination remains unknown and further investigations are needed, particularly with veterinary research team and the National League against epilepsy recently founded in Mali. ..
  53. Geysen D, Kanobana K, Victor B, Rodriguez Hidalgo R, De Borchgrave J, Brandt J, et al. Validation of meat inspection results for Taenia saginata cysticercosis by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. J Food Prot. 2007;70:236-40 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data demonstrate the difficulties of visual meat inspection and their objective interpretation, emphasizing the need to improve current assays to strengthen the control of bovine cysticercosis...