Summary: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of fungi, and MYCOSES.

Top Publications

  1. Luong M, Clancy C, Vadnerkar A, Kwak E, Silveira F, Wissel M, et al. Comparison of an Aspergillus real-time polymerase chain reaction assay with galactomannan testing of bronchoalvelolar lavage fluid for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in lung transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52:1218-26 pubmed publisher
    ..A. fumigatus- and A. terreus-specific real-time PCR assays may be useful in rapidly identifying the most common cause of IPA and a species that is intrinsically resistant to amphotericin B, respectively. ..
  2. Coulibaly O, Marinach Patrice C, Cassagne C, Piarroux R, Mazier D, Ranque S. Pseudallescheria/Scedosporium complex species identification by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. Med Mycol. 2011;49:621-6 pubmed publisher
    ..boydii sl. and to validate its use in the routine clinical laboratory for identifying clinically relevant moulds...
  3. Dhiman N, Hall L, Wohlfiel S, Buckwalter S, Wengenack N. Performance and cost analysis of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry for routine identification of yeast. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:1614-6 pubmed publisher
    ..8) for 138 common and 103 archived strains of yeast. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry is accurate, rapid (5.1 min of hands-on time/identification), and cost-effective ($0.50/sample) for yeast identification in the clinical laboratory. ..
  4. White P, Bretagne S, Klingspor L, Melchers W, McCulloch E, Schulz B, et al. Aspergillus PCR: one step closer to standardization. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:1231-40 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA should be eluted in volumes of <100 microl. ..
  5. Lau A, Chen S, Sleiman S, Sorrell T. Current status and future perspectives on molecular and serological methods in diagnostic mycology. Future Microbiol. 2009;4:1185-222 pubmed publisher
    ..Both the galactomannan and the serum beta-D-glucan test have value for diagnosing infection and monitoring therapeutic response. ..
  6. Posteraro B, De Carolis E, Vella A, Sanguinetti M. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry in the clinical mycology laboratory: identification of fungi and beyond. Expert Rev Proteomics. 2013;10:151-64 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, the authors discuss how the MALDI-TOF MS technology is destined to become a powerful tool for routine mycological diagnostics. ..
  7. Millon L, Grenouillet F, Legrand F, Loewert S, Bellanger A, Gbaguidi Haore H, et al. Ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA target for real-time PCR diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:1058-63 pubmed publisher
    ..This study also confirms that a positive PCR result is associated with a poor prognosis in these patients and should lead to specific antifungal therapy being introduced immediately...
  8. Aquino V, Nagel F, Andreolla H, De Paris F, Xavier M, Goldani L, et al. The performance of real-time PCR, galactomannan, and fungal culture in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in ventilated patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Mycopathologia. 2012;174:163-9 pubmed publisher
    ..PCR was positive for 10 patients in the study but did not differentiate Aspergillus colonization from infection. The combination of PCR and GM in respiratory samples may be an interesting alternative to diagnose IA in COPD patients. ..
  9. White P, Perry M, Loeffler J, Melchers W, Klingspor L, Bretagne S, et al. Critical stages of extracting DNA from Aspergillus fumigatus in whole-blood specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:3753-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The study investigated each step of the EAPCRI protocol by elimination and monitored the influence on Aspergillus PCR performance. ..

More Information


  1. Cabañes F, Vega S, Castella G. Malassezia cuniculi sp. nov., a novel yeast species isolated from rabbit skin. Med Mycol. 2011;49:40-8 pubmed publisher
    ..8S rRNA gene sequences. The results of these studies confirm the separation of this new species from the other species of the genus Malassezia, as well as the presence of Malassezia yeasts on lagomorphs. ..
  2. Reinwald M, Hummel M, Kovalevskaya E, Spiess B, Heinz W, Vehreschild J, et al. Therapy with antifungals decreases the diagnostic performance of PCR for diagnosing invasive aspergillosis in bronchoalveolar lavage samples of patients with haematological malignancies. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012;67:2260-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the effect of antifungal treatment on the performance of an Aspergillus-specific PCR assay in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples...
  3. Miceli M, Diaz J, Lee S. Emerging opportunistic yeast infections. Lancet Infect Dis. 2011;11:142-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Although rare yeasts are emerging as opportunistic human pathogens, diagnosis remains challenging and treatment suboptimal. ..
  4. Ciardo D, Lucke K, Imhof A, Bloemberg G, Bottger E. Systematic internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis for identification of clinical mold isolates in diagnostic mycology: a 5-year study. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:2809-13 pubmed publisher
    ..of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing for routine identification of molds in the diagnostic mycology laboratory was analyzed in a 5-year study...
  5. Dantigny P, Guilmart A, Bensoussan M. Basis of predictive mycology. Int J Food Microbiol. 2005;100:187-96 pubmed
    ..However, some mould specificities should be taken into account. The use of specific models for predicting germination and growth of fungi was advocated previously []. This paper provides a short review of fungal modelling studies. ..
  6. Pincus D, Coleman D, Pruitt W, Padhye A, Salkin I, Geimer M, et al. Rapid identification of Candida dubliniensis with commercial yeast identification systems. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:3533-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, it is the rapidity of the assimilation achieved with the commercial systems that allows the differentiation of C. dubliniensis from C. albicans. ..
  7. Muller F, Werner K, Kasai M, Francesconi A, Chanock S, Walsh T. Rapid extraction of genomic DNA from medically important yeasts and filamentous fungi by high-speed cell disruption. J Clin Microbiol. 1998;36:1625-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that mechanical disruption of fungal cells by HSCD is a safe, rapid, and efficient procedure for extracting genomic DNA from medically important yeasts and especially from filamentous fungi. ..
  8. Ahmad S, Khan Z, Mustafa A, Khan Z. Seminested PCR for diagnosis of candidemia: comparison with culture, antigen detection, and biochemical methods for species identification. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:2483-9 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the improved detection of cases of candidemia caused by more than one Candida species is an additional advantage. ..
  9. Koneman E, Gade W. Mycology at a distance. Clin Lab Sci. 2002;15:131-5 pubmed
    GermWare Mycology is an image-rich, CD-ROM-based instruction divided into tutorial and reference programs...
  10. Scherer W, Scherer M. A comparison of results from two mycology laboratories for the diagnosis of onychomycosis: a study of 85 cases in a geriatric population. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2004;94:528-34 pubmed
    An investigative study was performed to compare the results from two mycology laboratories for the diagnosis of onychomycosis in a geriatric population and to determine the possible pharmacologic treatments based on the two laboratories' ..
  11. Donnelly J. Polymerase chain reaction for diagnosing invasive aspergillosis: getting closer but still a ways to go. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;42:487-9 pubmed
  12. Kami M, Machida U, Okuzumi K, Matsumura T, Mori Si S, Hori A, et al. Effect of fluconazole prophylaxis on fungal blood cultures: an autopsy-based study involving 720 patients with haematological malignancy. Br J Haematol. 2002;117:40-6 pubmed
    ..0086). The sensitivity of blood cultures decreased when patients received antifungal chemoprophylaxis. Unless these agents are inactivated in culture bottles, conventional blood cultures might produce false-negative results. ..
  13. Sautour M, Dalle F, Olivieri C, L Ollivier C, Enderlin E, Salome E, et al. A prospective survey of air and surface fungal contamination in a medical mycology laboratory at a tertiary care university hospital. Am J Infect Control. 2009;37:189-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Baseline values of fungal contamination in a clinical mycology laboratory have not been determined to date...
  14. Capilla J, Clemons K, Stevens D. Animal models: an important tool in mycology. Med Mycol. 2007;45:657-84 pubmed
    Animal models of fungal infections are, and will remain, a key tool in the advancement of the medical mycology. Many different types of animal models of fungal infection have been developed, with murine models the most frequently used, ..
  15. Romeo O, Racco C, Criseo G. Amplification of the hyphal wall protein 1 gene to distinguish Candida albicans from Candida dubliniensis. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:2590-2 pubmed
    ..Performed with a new primer set, CRR-f/CRR-r, PCR produced two different fragments: one of 1,180 bp for C. albicans, and one of 930 bp for C. dubliniensis. ..
  16. Tortorano A, Prigitano A, Biraghi E, Viviani M. The European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) survey of candidaemia in Italy: in vitro susceptibility of 375 Candida albicans isolates and biofilm production. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2005;56:777-9 pubmed
    ..pattern of 375 Candida albicans bloodstream isolates recovered during the European Confederation of Medical Mycology survey of candidaemia performed in Lombardia, Italy and to test the ability to form biofilm...
  17. Severo C, Pinto G, Sotilli J, Garcia M, Gazzoni A, Oliveira F, et al. Cryptococcuria as manifestation of disseminated cryptococcosis: Staib agar as a selective identification medium. Mycoses. 2011;54:e760-6 pubmed publisher
    ..a retrospective study of 58 cases of cryptococcosis (1986-2008) with urine test positive for Cryptococcus sp, in Mycology Laboratory, Santa Casa-Hospital Complex, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil...
  18. Relloso S, Arechavala A, Guelfand L, Maldonado I, Walker L, Agorio I, et al. [Onychomycosis: multicentre epidemiological, clinical and mycological study]. Rev Iberoam Micol. 2012;29:157-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Dermatophytes were prevalent in toenails of both sexes, and in finger nails yeast were prevalent in females, and dermatophytes in males. Non-dermatophyte moulds corresponded to 4.8% of toenail and 2.05% of fingernails isolates. ..
  19. Salariato D, Diorio L, Mouso N, Forchiassin F. Extraction and characterization of polygalacturonase of Fomes sclerodermeus produced by solid-state fermentation. Rev Argent Microbiol. 2010;42:57-62 pubmed publisher
    ..of agitation. In a scale-up system, PG activity per gram of dry substrate decreased about 60% compared with the activity obtained in an Erlenmeyer flask; however, high total PG activity was obtained. ..
  20. Hrncirova K, Lengerova M, Kocmanova I, Racil Z, Volfova P, Palousova D, et al. Rapid detection and identification of mucormycetes from culture and tissue samples by use of high-resolution melt analysis. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:3392-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This seminested real-time PCR uses mucormycete-specific primers and is followed by species identification using high-resolution melt (HRM) analysis. The method is highly suitable for routine clinical diagnostics. ..
  21. Freifeld A, Wheat L, Kaul D. Histoplasmosis in solid organ transplant recipients: early diagnosis and treatment. Curr Opin Organ Transplant. 2009;14:601-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Diagnosis is usually made by a combinatorial approach, including antigen tests, radiology and appropriate biopsies for culture and histology. Treatment with available antifungals is associated with more than 95% success. ..
  22. Babady N, Miranda E, Gilhuley K. Evaluation of Luminex xTAG fungal analyte-specific reagents for rapid identification of clinically relevant fungi. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:3777-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Further evaluation will be necessary to confirm the sensitivities of some of the mold ASRs. Implementation of these ASRs will allow same-day detection of fungal DNA in clinical specimens. ..
  23. Nishiyama Y, Abe M, Ikeda R, Uno J, Oguri T, Shibuya K, et al. [A study for testing the antifungal susceptibility of yeast by the Japanese Society for Medical Mycology (JSMM) method. The proposal of the modified JSMM method 2009]. Nihon Ishinkin Gakkai Zasshi. 2010;51:153-63 pubmed
    The Japanese Society for Medical Mycology (JSMM) method used for testing the antifungal susceptibility of yeast, the MIC end point for azole antifungal agents, is currently set at IC(80)...
  24. Shin J, Kim M, Jang S, Ju M, Kim S, Shin M, et al. Detection of amphotericin B resistance in Candida haemulonii and closely related species by use of the Etest, Vitek-2 yeast susceptibility system, and CLSI and EUCAST broth microdilution methods. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:1852-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides the first data on the efficacy of the Etest-MH and its excellent agreement with Vitek-2 for discriminating AMB-resistant from AMB-susceptible isolates of these Candida species. ..
  25. Hirose N, Suganami M, Ogawa Y, Hiruma M, Ogawa H. Screening examination and treatment of Trichophyton tonsurans infection in judo athletes affiliated with the University Judo Federation of Tokyo. Mycoses. 2011;54:e35-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Control of T. tonsurans infection among judo athletes could be achieved by educating athletes, trainers and coaches in judo clubs concerning detection, prevention, and treatment of T. tonsurans infection. ..
  26. Anita K, Fernandez V, Rao R. Fungal endophthalmitis caused by Paecilomyces variotii, in an immunocompetent patient, following intraocular lens implantation. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2010;28:253-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Direct microscopy revealed hyphae. Further studies helped identify the fungus to belong to genus Paecilomyces. This is a rare case of fungal endophthalmitis caused by Paecilomyces variotii in an immunocompetent person. ..
  27. Jarboui M, Sellami A, Sellami H, Cheikhrouhou F, Makni F, Ben Arab N, et al. Molecular diagnosis of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. Mycoses. 2010;53:329-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Using the nested-PCR, additional clinical cases can be diagnosed, but there is then an obvious risk of detecting subclinical colonisation by P. jiroveci. ..
  28. Pritsch K, Courty P, Churin J, Cloutier Hurteau B, Ali M, Damon C, et al. Optimized assay and storage conditions for enzyme activity profiling of ectomycorrhizae. Mycorrhiza. 2011;21:589-600 pubmed publisher
    ..No optimal means for longer-term storage by freezing at -20 °C or storage in 100% ethanol were recommended. ..
  29. Caldini C, Xander P, Kioshima E, Bachi A, de Camargo Z, Mariano M, et al. Synthetic peptides mimic gp75 from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in the diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis. Mycopathologia. 2012;174:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Its application for serological diagnosis of PCM may contribute to the development and standardization of simpler, faster and highly reproducible immunodiagnostic tests at low cost. ..
  30. Mallus F, Martis S, Serra C, Loi G, Camboni T, Manzin A. Usefulness of capillary electrophoresis-based multiplex PCR assay for species-specific identification of Candida spp. J Microbiol Methods. 2013;92:150-2 pubmed publisher
    ..The Seeplex assay was found to be a rapid and useful method for identifying large numbers of yeast isolates in the clinical laboratory context. ..
  31. Lu Y, Ling G, Qiang C, Ming Q, Wu C, Wang K, et al. PCR diagnosis of Pneumocystis pneumonia: a bivariate meta-analysis. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:4361-3 pubmed publisher
    ..93). Respiratory specimen PCR results are sufficient to confirm or exclude the disease for at-risk patients suspected of having Pneumocystis pneumonia. ..
  32. Alonso M, Escribano P, Guinea J, Recio S, Simón A, Pelaez T, et al. Rapid detection and identification of Aspergillus from lower respiratory tract specimens by use of a combined probe-high-resolution melting analysis. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:3238-43 pubmed publisher
    ..With culture as the gold standard, our assay shows 100% sensitivity and specificity and constitutes an efficient alternative for identification of Aspergillus in lower respiratory tract samples. ..
  33. Gupta A, Simpson F. Diagnosing onychomycosis. Clin Dermatol. 2013;31:540-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Each of these tests has individual strengths in satisfying the three criteria, with a minimum of two positive diagnostic tests being the gold standard for confirming all three diagnostic criteria. ..
  34. Colombo A, Cortes J, Zurita J, Guzmán Blanco M, Alvarado Matute T, de Queiroz Telles F, et al. [Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America. Grupo Proyecto Épico]. Rev Iberoam Micol. 2013;30:150-7 pubmed publisher
  35. Seah C, Richardson S, Tsui G, Yu B, Thornback J, McTaggart L, et al. Comparison of the FXG™: RESP (Asp+) real-time PCR assay with direct immunofluorescence and calcofluor white staining for the detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii in respiratory specimens. Med Mycol. 2012;50:324-7 pubmed publisher
    ..5% sensitivity, 95.1% specificity, 70.5% positive predictive value, and 99.1% negative predictive value. Its high negative predictive value suggests a role of the Myconostica PCR assay in ruling out Pneumocystis pneumonia. ..
  36. Konkol N, McNamara C, Mitchell R. Fluorometric detection and estimation of fungal biomass on cultural heritage materials. J Microbiol Methods. 2010;80:178-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The fluorometric assay was used to monitor fungal biomass on a variety of cultural heritage materials non-destructively, and without the introduction of chemicals or solvents to the surfaces. ..
  37. Alexander C, Shankland G, Carman W, Williams C. Introduction of a dermatophyte polymerase chain reaction assay to the diagnostic mycology service in Scotland. Br J Dermatol. 2011;164:966-72 pubmed publisher
    Dermatophytes are the major cause of superficial mycoses in samples submitted to Clinical Mycology, Glasgow. The most prevalent species is Trichophyton rubrum as identified classically by microscopy and culture...
  38. Siachoque N, Jewtuchowicz V, Iovannitti C, Mujica M. [CAP59 gene amplification in Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii directly from a yeast suspension]. Rev Argent Microbiol. 2010;42:91-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This procedure was quick, simple, and inexpensive and required no PCR steps. This is important for taxonomic studies in laboratories with implemented molecular biology tools. ..
  39. Bacelo K, da Costa K, Ferreira J, Candido R. Biotype stability of Candida albicans isolates after culture storage determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and phenotypical methods. Mycoses. 2010;53:468-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the low reproducibility observed after storage in SDA and distilled water by morphotyping (DI = 0.853) and enzymotyping (DI = 0.521), the use of these techniques is not recommended on stored isolates. ..
  40. Lalaymia I, Cranenbrouck S, Draye X, Declerck S. Preservation at ultra-low temperature of in vitro cultured arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi via encapsulation-drying. Fungal Biol. 2012;116:1032-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This method opens the door for the long-term maintenance at ultra-low temperature of AMF isolates within international repositories. ..
  41. Ahmad S, Khan Z. Invasive candidiasis: a review of nonculture-based laboratory diagnostic methods. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2012;30:264-9 pubmed publisher
    ..While these immunological and molecular tools mark a significant advance towards early and specific diagnosis of candidemia and invasive candidiasis, further evaluation of these approaches in different clinical settings is warranted. ..
  42. Scognamiglio T, Zinchuk R, Gumpeni P, Larone D. Comparison of inhibitory mold agar to Sabouraud dextrose agar as a primary medium for isolation of fungi. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:1924-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the 840 fungal isolates recovered, 69.3% grew on both IMA and SDA; 24.9% grew only on IMA; and 5.8% grew only on SDA, showing that IMA is superior (P=0.003). ..
  43. Hsu J, Ruoss S, Bower N, Lin M, Holodniy M, Stevens D. Diagnosing invasive fungal disease in critically ill patients. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2011;37:277-312 pubmed publisher
    ..While other current diagnostic tests perform moderately well, many lack timeliness, efficacy, and are negatively affected by treatments common to critically ill patients. New nucleic acid-based research is promising. ..
  44. Misra R, Malik A, Singhal S. Comparison of the activities of amphotericin B, itraconazole, and voriconazole against clinical and environmental isolates of Aspergillus species. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2011;54:112-6 pubmed publisher
    ..flavus 13 (19%), and A. terreus 7(10%). All isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, itraconazole, and voriconazole. Among the three agents tested, voriconazole exhibited lowest MICs (?1 ?g/ml) against all Aspergillus species. ..
  45. McTaggart L, Wengenack N, Richardson S. Validation of the MycAssay Pneumocystis kit for detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens by comparison to a laboratory standard of direct immunofluorescence microscopy, real-time PCR, or conventional PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:1856-9 pubmed publisher
    ..jirovecii in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens. The approach may also be useful for the clinical laboratory validation of other sensitive real-time PCR assays. ..
  46. Peman J, Zaragoza R, Quindos G, Alkorta M, Cuétara M, Camarena J, et al. Clinical factors associated with a Candida albicans Germ Tube Antibody positive test in Intensive Care Unit patients. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:60 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that detection of CAGTA may be important for the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis in surgical patients admitted in ICU. ..
  47. Kjer J, Debbab A, Aly A, Proksch P. Methods for isolation of marine-derived endophytic fungi and their bioactive secondary products. Nat Protoc. 2010;5:479-90 pubmed publisher
    ..From sampling in marine environment to completion of the structure elucidation and bioactivity screening, a period of at least 3 months has to be scheduled. ..
  48. Pereira L, Bassi A, Avansini S, Neto A, Brasileiro B, Ceccato Antonini S, et al. The physiological characteristics of the yeast Dekkera bruxellensis in fully fermentative conditions with cell recycling and in mixed cultures with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2012;101:529-39 pubmed publisher
    ..The difficulty of using this yeast for ethanol production is that it requires the elimination of the Custer effect to allow an increase in the assimilation of sugar under anaerobic conditions. ..
  49. Dhillon G, Brar S, Kaur S, Verma M. Green approach for nanoparticle biosynthesis by fungi: current trends and applications. Crit Rev Biotechnol. 2012;32:49-73 pubmed publisher
    ..This review describes an overview of the current green approaches for the synthesis of nanoparticles with particular emphasis on fungi, which are gaining worldwide popularity as nano-factories for the green synthesis of nanoparticles. ..
  50. Perenha Viana M, Gonzales I, Brockelt S, Machado L, Svidzinski T. Serological diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis through a Western blot technique. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:616-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results prove WB analysis to be a sensitive technique and suggest its inclusion among routine laboratory assays as a safe method for PCM diagnosis. ..
  51. White P, Perry M, Moody A, Follett S, Morgan G, Barnes R. Evaluation of analytical and preliminary clinical performance of Myconostica MycAssay Aspergillus when testing serum specimens for diagnosis of invasive Aspergillosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:2169-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The performance of the MAP assay is comparable to that of the IHP assay and to those in previously reported studies evaluating commercial tests (galactomannan enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). ..
  52. Abuzahra F, Spöler F, Först M, Brans R, Erdmann S, Merk H, et al. Pilot study: optical coherence tomography as a non-invasive diagnostic perspective for real time visualisation of onychomycosis. Mycoses. 2010;53:334-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, OCT offers the opportunity to screen several areas of the same nail plate and to detect fungal elements during local or systemic therapy. ..
  53. Radnai M, Whiley R, Friel T, Wright P. Effect of antifungal gels incorporated into a tissue conditioning material on the growth of Candida albicans. Gerodontology. 2010;27:292-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Immersion of the discs in water showed an inverse relationship between time of immersion and degree of inhibition. Miconazole added in gel form to Visco-gel(®) had an inhibitory effect on the growth of C. albicans in vitro. ..