periodic acid schiff reaction


Summary: A histochemical technique for staining carbohydrates. It is based on PERIODIC ACID oxidation of a substance containing adjacent hydroxyl groups. The resulting aldehydes react with Schiff reagent to form a colored product.

Top Publications

  1. Sugihara A, Nakasho K, Yamada N, Nakagomi N, Tsujimura T, Terada N, et al. Neuroendocrine differentiation of periodic-acid Schiff and Alcian blue-negative signet-ring cell-like cells and tubular adenocarcinoma cells within a gastric cancer. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2004;39:795-800 pubmed
    ..The present case is a gastric tubular adenocarcinoma with Muc 1-positive, neutral- and acid mucin-negative signet-ring cell-like cells, which is associated with neuroendocrine differentiation. ..
  2. Tanii I, Yoshinaga K, Toshimori K. Morphogenesis of the acrosome during the final steps of rat spermiogenesis with special reference to tubulobulbar complexes. Anat Rec. 1999;256:195-201 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the TBC eliminate excess acrosomal contents prior to spermiation. ..
  3. Park K, Lee Y, Kang K. In vitro neuronal and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from human umbilical cord blood. J Vet Sci. 2006;7:343-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it is suggested that the MSCs from UCB might be a good alternative to bone marrow cells for transplantation or cell therapy. ..
  4. Haase E, Bonstein T, Palmer R, Scannapieco F. Environmental influences on Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans biofilm formation. Arch Oral Biol. 2006;51:299-314 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, strain, growth medium and conditioning film all affect biofilm formation. The RVs produce biofilms of unique architecture that may serve to protect the bacterium from environmental perturbations. ..
  5. Kim L, Liao J, Zhang M, Talamonti M, Bentrem D, Rao S, et al. Clear cell carcinoma of the pancreas: histopathologic features and a unique biomarker: hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta. Mod Pathol. 2008;21:1075-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta is a useful marker to identify these clear cell carcinomas, and its overexpression may aid in stratifying survival rate. ..
  6. Alowami S, Malik A, Hanna W. Vulvar poroid hidradenoma. Am J Dermatopathol. 2002;24:523-5 pubmed
  7. Dundr P, Povysil C, Tvrdík D, Mara M. Uterine leiomyomas with inclusion bodies: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis of 12 cases. Pathol Res Pract. 2007;203:145-51 pubmed
    ..However, to the best of our knowledge, these inclusions have not been found in typical uterine leiomyomas to date. ..
  8. Al Arashi M, Byers H. Cutaneous clear cell squamous cell carcinoma in situ : clinical, histological and immunohistochemical characterization. J Cutan Pathol. 2007;34:226-33 pubmed
    ..2 and CK15. Antibodies that did not label ORS cells, but did label eccrine glands (CK7 and CK18) or sebocytes (EMA), also did not label the cases. Clear cell change in SCCIS is part of a spectrum which displays ORS differentiation. ..
  9. Burdan F, Siezieniewska Z, Maciejewski R, Madej B, Radzikowska E, Wojtowicz Z. Hepatic lysosomal enzymes activity and liver morphology after short-time omeprazole administration. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2002;53:453-9 pubmed
    ..It could be concluded that observed differences of hepatic lysosomal enzyme activities were the result of accompanied chemical-induced peritonitis as previously reported, and not a direct drug-toxic effect. ..

More Information


  1. Rund C, Carmichael B, Harris A, Schaffner V. Small bowel biopsy in a 6-week-old infant. Microvillous inclusion disease of the small intestine. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2006;130:e19-21 pubmed
  2. Resch L, Yu W, Fraser R, Lawen J, Acott P, Crocker J, et al. T-cell/periodic acid-Schiff stain: a useful tool in the evaluation of tubulointerstitial infiltrates as a component of renal allograft rejection. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2002;6:122-4 pubmed
    ..The method simply combines two routine stains, immunoperoxidase staining for T cells (CD3) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining for tubular basement membrane, on the same section. ..
  3. Seigel G, Lotery A, Kummer A, Bernard D, Greene N, Turmaine M, et al. Retinal pathology and function in a Cln3 knockout mouse model of juvenile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (batten disease). Mol Cell Neurosci. 2002;19:515-27 pubmed
  4. Fry L, Curioso W, Lazenby A, Monkemuller K. Whipple's disease. Gastrointest Endosc. 2004;59:538-9 pubmed
  5. Brunetti B, Sarli G, Marcato P, Benazzi C. Histochemical and immunohistochemical characterization of canine mammary mucinous carcinoma. J Comp Pathol. 2003;129:131-6 pubmed
    ..5 and 1.0, and mucicarmine positivity...
  6. Gourdine J, Smith Ravin E. Electrophoretic separation of gill proteins of the clam Codakia orbicularis. Prep Biochem Biotechnol. 2002;32:341-53 pubmed
    ..Their pI values are in the range between 4.5 and 5.6. These protein profiles are different from those observed for Lucina pectinata, a clam which has been the subject of earlier studies in the literature. ..
  7. Odashiro D, Nguyen G. Pulmonary well-differentiated fetal adenocarcinoma diagnosed by bronchial brush and immunocytochemistry. Diagn Cytopathol. 2006;34:308-10 pubmed
  8. Forouzanfar A, Anwar M, Ahmad M, Al Ghazal S. Eccrine porocarcinoma. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2008;18:234-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, it is important for clinicians to recognize it and formulate treatment accordingly. A case report typifying the pitfalls in the diagnosis of this neoplasm in relation to SCC is presented. ..
  9. Vartanian A, Stepanova E, Gutorov S, Solomko E, Grigorieva I, Sokolova I, et al. Prognostic significance of periodic acid-Schiff-positive patterns in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Can J Urol. 2009;16:4726-32 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that the combination of PAS-positive networks and TP expression may identify patients with the highest risk of cancer recurrence. ..
  10. Lee A, Rees H, Owen D, Huntsman D. Periodic acid-schiff is superior to hematoxylin and eosin for screening prophylactic gastrectomies from CDH1 mutation carriers. Am J Surg Pathol. 2010;34:1007-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, doing PAS staining instead of H&E on CDH1 mutation-positive prophylactic gastrectomy specimens may increase the detection rate of adenocarcinoma while reducing screening time. ..
  11. Hamelin M, Prince G, Gomez A, Kinkead R, Boivin G. Human metapneumovirus infection induces long-term pulmonary inflammation associated with airway obstruction and hyperresponsiveness in mice. J Infect Dis. 2006;193:1634-42 pubmed
    ..This animal model will be of a great benefit in the evaluation of novel therapeutic and prophylactic modalities. ..
  12. Braund K, Amling K. Muscle biopsy samples for histochemical processing: alterations induced by storage. Vet Pathol. 1988;25:77-82 pubmed
    ..Morphometry from samples stored at 0 C for 6 hours or longer is not recommended, due to the statistically significant increase in diameter (from 21 to 25%) of type I and type II fibers. ..
  13. Herculiani P, Pires Neto R, Bueno H, Zorzetto J, Silva L, Santos A, et al. Effects of chronic exposure to crack cocaine on the respiratory tract of mice. Toxicol Pathol. 2009;37:324-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The vasoconstriction index increased in the pulmonary arteries of the exposed group. Chronic crack cocaine inhalation causes extensive histological changes along the entire respiratory tract. ..
  14. Celik A, Kutun S, Pak I, Seki A, Cetin A. Secretory breast carcinoma with extensive intraductal component: case report. Ultrastruct Pathol. 2004;28:361-3 pubmed
    ..Incidences of pediatric and adult patients are similar. Prognosis is favorable in both groups, but distant metastases have been reported. The authors describe a case of secretory breast carcinoma with extensive intraductal component. ..
  15. Reza Kermanshahi T, Rhatigan R. Comparison between PAS and GMS stains for the diagnosis of onychomycosis. J Cutan Pathol. 2010;37:1041-4 pubmed publisher
    ..concluded that GMS is superior to PAS. We conducted a similar study with the addition of repeating PAS stain and compared the newly stained PAS and GMS slides in tandem...
  16. Petrakakou E, Grapsa D, Stergiou M, Mikou P, Tsarpalis D, Polyzos A, et al. Ascitic fluid cytology of yolk sac tumor of the ovary: a case report. Acta Cytol. 2009;53:701-3 pubmed
    ..The diagnosis of YST in ascitic fluid specimens may be challenging and requires the use of immunocytochemistry and the correlation of cytology with the remaining clinical and laboratory data. ..
  17. Wang S, Bao Y, Rosenberger C, Tesfaigzi Y, Stark J, Harrod K. IL-12p40 and IL-18 modulate inflammatory and immune responses to respiratory syncytial virus infection. J Immunol. 2004;173:4040-9 pubmed
    ..These findings implicate a role for IL-12 and IL-18 in modulating respiratory syncytial virus-induced airway inflammation distinct from that of viral clearance. ..
  18. Zhu H, Wang Y, Chen J, Cheng G, Xue J. Transgenic mice expressing hepatitis B virus X protein are more susceptible to carcinogen induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Exp Mol Pathol. 2004;76:44-50 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that HBx gene expression alone is not sufficient for carcinogenesis, but may act as a promoter for malignant transformation. ..
  19. Kennedy S, Di Guardo G, McConnell S, Moffett D, Agrimi U. Histological, histochemical and ultrastructural features of hyaline inclusions in hepatocytes of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). J Comp Pathol. 1993;109:179-85 pubmed
    ..A central or eccentric core of highly electron-dense material was usually apparent. The inclusions were probably of lysosomal origin. ..
  20. Volpi N, Dondi M, Bolognani A. Characterization of a small chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan isolated from the mucus surrounding the embryos of Viviparus ater (Mollusca Gastropoda). Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1380:239-48 pubmed
  21. Wagner S, Enss M, Cornberg M, Mix H, Schumann S, Kirchner G, et al. Morphological and molecular characterization of human gastric mucous cells in long-term primary culture. Pflugers Arch. 1998;436:871-81 pubmed
    ..This primary cell culture model enables the regulation of mucin secretion and mucin gene expression in man to be investigated. ..
  22. Agnes V, Akbarsha M. Pale vacuolated epithelial cells in epididymis of aflatoxin-treated mice. Reproduction. 2001;122:629-41 pubmed
  23. Zakout Y, Salih M, Ahmed H. The effect of fixatives and temperature on the quality of glycogen demonstration. Biotech Histochem. 2010;85:93-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Fixation of tissues with NBF at 37 degrees C gave the best quality staining. We concluded that the quality of glycogen staining in paraffin sections is greatly affected by both the fixative and the temperature of fixation...
  24. Cao X, Wang W. Histology and mucin histochemistry of the digestive tract of yellow catfish, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Anat Histol Embryol. 2009;38:254-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study will be helpful for understanding the digestive physiology and diagnosing some gastrointestinal diseases in yellow catfish. ..
  25. Chowers I, Folberg R, Livni N, Pe er J. Comparison of microcirculation patterns and MIB-1 immunoreactivity in iris and posterior uveal melanoma. Ophthalmology. 2001;108:367-71 pubmed
    ..Both features are consistent with the relatively benign nature of iris lesions compared with melanomas involving the ciliary body or choroid. ..
  26. Kumar Y, Bhatia A, Kumar V, Vaiphei K. Intrarenal pure yolk sac tumor: an extremely rare entity. Int J Surg Pathol. 2007;15:204-6 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this report is to add a rare tumor to the differential diagnosis of pediatric renal neoplasms...
  27. Al Amiri A, Chatrath V, Bhawan J, Stefanato C. The periodic acid-Schiff stain in diagnosing tinea: should it be used routinely in inflammatory skin diseases?. J Cutan Pathol. 2003;30:611-5 pubmed
  28. Gray Y, Schwartz S. Dutcher bodies in chronic synovitis. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2002;126:199-201 pubmed
    ..This case illustrates that Dutcher bodies may rarely occur in benign reactive conditions, such as chronic synovitis. ..
  29. Morrissey C, Buser A, Scolaro J, O Sullivan J, Moquin A, Tenniswood M. Changes in hormone sensitivity in the ventral prostate of aging Sprague-Dawley rats. J Androl. 2002;23:341-51 pubmed
    ..These changes are accompanied by changes in lipofuscin accumulation and levels of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and manganese (Mn) superoxide dismutase in the gland. ..
  30. Matsubara M, Kamei Y, Takeda S, Mukai K, Ishii Y, Ito S. Histologic and histochemical changes in rabbit cornea produced by an orthokeratology lens. Eye Contact Lens. 2004;30:198-204; discussion 205-6 pubmed
    ..The thickness of the corneal epithelium showed topographical variation consistent with the effect of orthokeratology. The result of histochemical studies suggested that there were no marked alterations in epithelial function. ..
  31. Rau A, Kini H, Verghese R. Tigroid background in fine-needle aspiration cytology of clear cell sarcoma. Diagn Cytopathol. 2006;34:355-7 pubmed
    ..quot; Though this tigroid background is a nonspecific feature and has been described in various other tumors, to the best of our knowledge, it has not been described in CCS. This feature may be useful in the recognition of CCS...
  32. Nijhawan R, Rajwanshi A, Gautam U, Gupta S. Cytoplasmic vacuolation, intracytoplasmic lumina, and DPAS staining in ductal carcinoma of the breast. Diagn Cytopathol. 2003;28:291-4 pubmed
    ..Larger studies are required to establish a role for DPAS staining in separating borderline, in situ, and invasive breast lesions, and to see if such positvity can be incorporated into the grading systems for breast carcinoma. ..
  33. Pedrycz A, Wieczorski M, Czerny K. Histological and histochemical assessment of the effects of a single dose adriamycin on fetal rat kidney. Acta Histochem. 2005;107:215-20 pubmed
    ..Changes in fetal rat kidney as observed light microscopically appeared to be similar to those described in kidneys of adult rats with NS induced by adriamycin, but were less distinct. ..
  34. Valentine B, Cooper B. Development of polyglucosan inclusions in skeletal muscle. Neuromuscul Disord. 2006;16:603-7 pubmed
    ..Based on morphologic findings and pattern of ubiquitin staining, a sequence of events, beginning with abnormal glycogen storage followed by ubiquitination and eventual development of amylase resistance, is proposed. ..
  35. Cherian P, Beer T. Clear cell change in eccrine glands is not associated with diabetes. Am J Dermatopathol. 2010;32:56-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Clear cell change within the secretory portion of eccrine glands seems to be an incidental finding, with no clear clinicopathological implication. In particular, there does not seem to be any association with diabetes. ..
  36. Shivapathasundharam B, Bertin A. Clear cell variant of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Report of a case and a review of clear cell lesions of the oral cavity. Indian J Dent Res. 2003;14:23-8 pubmed
  37. Yoshikawa H, Kuwayama N, Enose Y. Histochemical detection of carbohydrates of Blastocystis hominis. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 1995;42:70-4 pubmed
    ..The staining intensity of the central vacuole varied from cell to cell. The presence of membrane fusions of the cytoplasmic vesicles with the central vacuole indicated the accumulation of carbohydrates in the central vacuole. ..
  38. Devirgiliis V, Panasiti V, Borroni R, Rossi M, Curzio M, Riggio R, et al. Cutaneous cryptococcosis in a patient affected by chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: a case report. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2008;21:463-6 pubmed
    ..We report a case of cutaneous cryptococcosis in a patient affected by chronic lymphocytic leukaemia...
  39. Nishio J, Iwasaki H, Sakashita N, Haraoka S, Isayama T, Naito M, et al. Undifferentiated (embryonal) sarcoma of the liver in middle-aged adults: smooth muscle differentiation determined by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Hum Pathol. 2003;34:246-52 pubmed
    ..Tumor cells of UESL with smooth muscle differentiation in middle-aged adults show phenotypic diversity comparable to those of malignant fibrous histiocytoma with myofibroblastic differentiation. ..
  40. Dhawan P, Alvares J, Vora I, Joseph T, Bhatia S, Amarapurkar A, et al. Prevalence of short segments of specialized columnar epithelium in distal esophagus: association with gastroesophageal reflux. Indian J Gastroenterol. 2001;20:144-7 pubmed
    ..One patient with SCE had dysplasia. Prevalence of short segments of SCE in the distal esophagus amongst Indians is low and is usually associated with inflammation in the esophagus. ..
  41. Zhao H, Gu X. Study on vasculogenic mimicry in malignant esophageal stromal tumors. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:2430-3 pubmed
  42. Sauter C, Kurrer M. Intracellular bacteria in Hodgkin's disease and sclerosing mediastinal B-cell lymphoma: sign of a bacterial etiology?. Swiss Med Wkly. 2002;132:312-5 pubmed
    ..After gastric MALT-lymphoma and gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma it appears that Hodgkin's disease and sclerosing mediastinal B-cell lymphomas may also be human tumors related bacteria. ..
  43. Martinez M, Egea A, López J, Benítez E. Intestinal microvillous atrophy in a patient with Down syndrome and aganglionic megacolon. Ultrastruct Pathol. 2002;26:41-5 pubmed
    ..The patient condition improved after a colostomy performed in the setting of the treatment of Hirschprung disease. ..
  44. Hsiao Y, Lin H, Wu T, Shih H, Wei S, Wang Y, et al. A comparative study of KOH test, PAS staining and fungal culture in diagnosis of onychomycosis in Taiwan. J Dermatol Sci. 2007;45:138-40 pubmed
  45. Newland J. Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Case of the Month. Chronic hyperplastic candidiasis. Tex Dent J. 2002;119:175, 184 pubmed
  46. Hidayat A, Cockerham G. Epithelial metaplasia of the corneal endothelium in Fuchs endothelial dystrophy. Cornea. 2006;25:956-9 pubmed
  47. Lee M, Wheelock A, Boland B, Plopper C. Long-term ozone exposure attenuates 1-nitronaphthalene-induced cytotoxicity in nasal mucosa. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2008;38:300-9 pubmed
  48. Ito U, Nagasao J, Kawakami E, Oyanagi K. Fate of disseminated dead neurons in the cortical ischemic penumbra: ultrastructure indicating a novel scavenger mechanism of microglia and astrocytes. Stroke. 2007;38:2577-83 pubmed
    ..The dispersed fragmented pieces were phagocytized by the microglia and astrocytes late, at 8 to 24 weeks postischemia. ..
  49. Fong Y, Lopez Terrada D, Zhai Q. Primary Ewing sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the vulva. Hum Pathol. 2008;39:1535-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This report described another very rare case of ES/pPNET arising in the vulva and confirmed by molecular analysis. ..
  50. Bal M, de Vries W, Steendijk P, Homoet van der Kraak P, van der Leij F, Baan J, et al. Histopathological changes of the heart after neonatal dexamethasone treatment: studies in 4-, 8-, and 50-week-old rats. Pediatr Res. 2009;66:74-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Because previous studies in rats showed premature death, suggesting cardiac failure, cardiovascular follow-up of preterm infants treated with glucocorticoids should be considered. ..
  51. Takahashi M, Morita T, Sawada M, Uemura T, Haruna A, Shimada A. Glomerulocystic kidney in a domestic dog. J Comp Pathol. 2005;133:205-8 pubmed
    ..The findings indicate that glomerular cystic changes may have developed as a consequence of glomerulo-tubular junctional stenosis due to thickened Bowman's BMs and focal periglomerular fibrosis in the urinary pole side of the kidneys. ..
  52. Erdogan H, Arici D, Toker M, Arici M, Fariz G, Topalkara A. Conjunctival impression cytology in pseudoexfoliative glaucoma and pseudoexfoliation syndrome. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2006;34:108-13 pubmed
    ..It has been shown that PEXG and PEX syndrome cause conjunctival surface changes and reduction of tear film functions. ..
  53. Thiele J, Titius B, Kopsidis C, Fischer R. Atypical micromegakaryocytes, promegakaryoblasts and megakaryoblasts: a critical evaluation by immunohistochemistry, cytochemistry and morphometry of bone marrow trephines in chronic myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes. Virchows Arch B Cell Pathol Incl Mol Pathol. 1992;62:275-82 pubmed
    ..Thus cytochemistry provides a better insight into alterations of these cell lineages in various pathological conditions. ..