Summary: A branch of embryology for the study of congenital malformations and developmental abnormalities.

Top Publications

  1. . Professor David Poswillo, CBE, 1927-2003. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2003;41:215-7 pubmed
  2. Heynick L, Merritt J. Radiofrequency fields and teratogenesis. Bioelectromagnetics. 2003;Suppl 6:S174-86 pubmed
    ..The findings of studies on pregnancy outcomes of female physiotherapists occupationally exposed while treating patients with RFEMF were mixed, but taken collectively, the findings were negative. ..
  3. Kirby R, Seaver L. Birth defects research: improving surveillance methods and addressing epidemiologic questions and public health issues. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2005;73:645 pubmed
  4. Ujhazy E, Mach M, Dubovicky M, Navarova J, Brucknerova I. Developmental toxicology - an integral part of safety evaluation of new drugs. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2005;149:209-12 pubmed
    ..Taking into account the altered susceptibility to different drugs in a pregnant individual, it could be said that administration of any drug during the first trimester is an experiment in human teratology.
  5. Stahl A, Tourame P. [From teratology to mythology: ancient legends]. Arch Pediatr. 2010;17:1716-24 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Teratology reports on monstrous births, which have constituted the factual basis from which the imagination conceived ..
  6. Obican S, Jahnke G, Soldin O, Scialli A. Teratology public affairs committee position paper: iodine deficiency in pregnancy. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2012;94:677-82 pubmed publisher
    ..To achieve this goal, we recommend that all pregnant and lactating women take daily iodine supplementation of 150 micrograms. ..
  7. Jelínek R. The contribution of new findings and ideas to the old principles of teratology. Reprod Toxicol. 2005;20:295-300 pubmed
    Although the last generally accepted concept of principles of teratology was issued more than 30 years ago, the cause of less than 50% of all congenital anomalies is known and no substantial change in their incidence has been observed ..
  8. Reamon Buettner S, Borlak J. A new paradigm in toxicology and teratology: altering gene activity in the absence of DNA sequence variation. Reprod Toxicol. 2007;24:20-30 pubmed
    ..In this paper, we provide an overview of epigenetic mechanisms focusing on recent reviews and studies to serve as an entry point into the realm of 'environmental epigenetics'. ..
  9. McCaffery P, Simons C. Prospective teratology of retinoic acid metabolic blocking agents (RAMBAs) and loss of CYP26 activity. Curr Pharm Des. 2007;13:3020-37 pubmed
    ..The possible effects of RAMBAs on the adult brain are also described that have the potential for harm but, in the right circumstances, may also be beneficial. ..

More Information


  1. De Santis M, Cesari E, Cavaliere A, Ligato M, Nobili E, Visconti D, et al. Paternal exposure and counselling: experience of a Teratology Information Service. Reprod Toxicol. 2008;26:42-6 pubmed publisher
    We describe paternal exposure and counselling in a selected population calling to an Italian Teratology Information Service (TIS)...
  2. Rasmussen S, Erickson J, Reef S, Ross D. Teratology: from science to birth defects prevention. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2009;85:82-92 pubmed publisher
  3. Kalter H. Teratology in the 20th century: environmental causes of congenital malformations in humans and how they were established. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2003;25:131-282 pubmed
  4. Lohiya N, Suthar R, Khandelwal A, Goyal S, Ansari A, Manivannan B. Sperm characteristics and teratology in rats following vas deferens occlusion with RISUG and its reversal. Int J Androl. 2010;33:e198-206 pubmed publisher
    ..The body weight, organ weight, sperm characteristics, fertility test and teratology, including skeletal morphology were evaluated in vas occlusion and reversal animals and in F(1) progenies to ..
  5. Friedman J. The principles of teratology: are they still true?. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2010;88:766-8 pubmed publisher
    James Wilson originally proposed a set of "Principles of Teratology" in 1959, the year before he helped to found the Teratology Society...
  6. Bushnell P, Kavlock R, Crofton K, Weiss B, Rice D. Behavioral toxicology in the 21st century: challenges and opportunities for behavioral scientists. Summary of a symposium presented at the annual meeting of the neurobehavioral teratology society, June, 2009. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2010;32:313-28 pubmed publisher
    ..A symposium was convened at the annual meeting of the Neurobehavioral Teratology Society in Rio Grande, Puerto Rico in June, 2009 to discuss the potential challenges and opportunities for ..
  7. Fisher B, Rose N, Carey J. Principles and practice of teratology for the obstetrician. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2008;51:106-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Common clinical problems of counseling patients about potential teratogenic risks in pregnancy are presented and principles of teratogenicity assessment. ..
  8. Shepard T, Barr M, Brent R, Hendrickx A, Kochhar D, Oakley G, et al. An updated history of the Teratology Society. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2010;88:263-85 pubmed publisher
    The 49-year history of the Teratology Society is reviewed. An abbreviated history is outlined in table form, with listings of the Warkany Lectures, the Continuing Education Courses, and officers of the society...
  9. Hancock R, Koren G, Einarson A, Ungar W. The effectiveness of Teratology Information Services (TIS). Reprod Toxicol. 2007;23:125-32 pubmed
    ..Evidence-based information on these topics is provided by Teratology Information Services (TIS)...
  10. Adams J. The neurobehavioral teratology of retinoids: a 50-year history. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2010;88:895-905 pubmed publisher
    This review of the central nervous system (CNS) and behavioral teratology of the retinoids over the last 50 years is a commemorative retrospective organized by decade to show the prominent research focus within each period and the most ..
  11. Hendrickx A, Peterson P. Perspectives on the use of the baboon in embryology and teratology research. Hum Reprod Update. 1997;3:575-92 pubmed
    ..The baboon, in addition to the cynomologus monkey and macaque, has been used as a model in teratology research to assess the potential risk of thalidomide, sex steroids, Bendectin and rubella virus, as well as to ..
  12. Grajewski B, Coble J, Frazier L, McDiarmid M. Occupational exposures and reproductive health: 2003 Teratology Society Meeting Symposium summary. Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2005;74:157-63 pubmed
  13. Arndt T, Stodgell C, Rodier P. The teratology of autism. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2005;23:189-99 pubmed
    ..In addition, it is possible to duplicate a number of anatomic and behavioral features characteristic of human cases by exposing rat embryos to a teratogenic dose of valproic acid at the time of neural tube closure. ..
  14. Fried P. Conceptual issues in behavioral teratology and their application in determining long-term sequelae of prenatal marihuana exposure. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2002;43:81-102 pubmed
    Behavioral teratology, particularly as it is applied to the evaluation of cognition and behavior of children beyond the toddler stage, has become an area of burgeoning activity...
  15. Armenti V. Immunosuppression and teratology: evolving guidelines. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004;15:2759-60 pubmed
  16. Charon P. [Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (1772-1844) and anencephaly: Contribution of one naturalist to medical knowledge]. Hist Sci Med. 2004;38:365-83 pubmed
    ..His works will be continued by his son, Isidore, doctor, who is considered as the Teratology science founder.
  17. Klunker R, Göbbel L, Musil A, Tonnies H, Schultka R. [Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833) and modern teratology]. Ann Anat. 2002;184:535-40 pubmed
    ..Two objects (brainless malformation, Halle I, and neural tube defect, Halle II) were analysed by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). These results obtained are published in Toennies et al. (2002). ..
  18. Allen A, Barnhart H. Joint models for toxicology studies with dose-dependent number of implantations. Risk Anal. 2002;22:1165-73 pubmed
    ..In a simulation study, our approach has smaller bias and variance than the multiple imputation procedure of Dunson. ..
  19. De Santis M, Straface G, Cavaliere A, Carducci B, Caruso A. Early first-trimester sibutramine exposure : pregnancy outcome and neonatal follow-up. Drug Saf. 2006;29:255-9 pubmed
    ..to sibutramine in the first trimester of pregnancy, when they were unaware of being pregnant, contacted our Teratology Information Service...
  20. Tyl R. In honor of the Teratology Society's 50th anniversary: The role of Teratology Society members in the development and evolution of in vivo developmental toxicity test guidelines. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today. 2010;90:99-102 pubmed publisher
    Members of the Teratology Society (established in 1960) were involved in the first governmental developmental and reproductive toxicity testing guidelines (1966) by FDA following the thalidomide epidemic, followed by other national and ..
  21. Cooper M. Regenerative medicine: stem cells and the science of monstrosity. Med Humanit. 2004;30:12-22 pubmed
    The nineteenth century science of teratology concerned itself with the study of malformations or "monstrosities", as they were then called...
  22. Pataricza D. [Monsters of Phlegon--hermaphrodites, sex-changers and other strange beings in Phlegon's marvellous stories]. Orvostort Kozl. 2010;56:153-69 pubmed
    ..The article discusses the aspects of hermaphroditism in ancient times as well as ancient teratology. These stories might have had a core of truth...
  23. Allais L, Reynaud L. Teratology studies in the rabbit. Methods Mol Biol. 2013;947:139-56 pubmed publisher
  24. Augustine Rauch K. Predictive teratology: teratogenic risk-hazard identification partnered in the discovery process. Curr Drug Metab. 2008;9:971-7 pubmed
    ..This review discusses approaches that can be applied for proactive assessment of compounds for teratogenic liability. ..
  25. Shepard T. Annual commentary on human teratogens. Teratology. 2002;66:275-7 pubmed
  26. Shahin I, Einarson A. Knowledge transfer and translation: examining how teratogen information is disseminated. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2011;91:956-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The objectives were twofold: (1) to explore the knowledge transfer process of teratology information from the research community to health care providers, pregnant women, and the general public; and (2)..
  27. Markowski V. Report of the 26th annual meeting of the Behavioral Toxicology Society. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2007;29:586-7 pubmed
  28. Tendron Franzin A, Gouyon J, Guignard J, Decramer S, Justrabo E, Gilbert T, et al. Long-term effects of in utero exposure to cyclosporin A on renal function in the rabbit. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004;15:2687-93 pubmed
    ..A long-term clinical survey is mandatory in infants who are born to mothers who were treated with cyclosporin during pregnancy. ..
  29. Hansen J. In vivo models of developmental toxicology. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;889:7-13 pubmed publisher
    The founding principles of teratology/developmental toxicology state that a developmental toxicants cause dysmorphogenesis when conceptuses are exposed at a sufficient dosage during a sensitive period of development in a sensitive species...
  30. Pratten M, Ahir B, Smith Hurst H, Memon S, Mutch P, Cumberland P. Primary cell and micromass culture in assessing developmental toxicity. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;889:115-46 pubmed publisher
  31. Burdan F, Bełzek A, Szumiło J, Dudka J, Korobowicz A, Tokarska E, et al. [Wilson's principles--a base of modern teratology]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2006;20:358-61 pubmed
    ..Manifestations of deviant development depends on the dosage and exposure frequency. In case of abnormal development the final manifestations include death of embryo or fetus, malformation, growth retardation and functional disorder. ..
  32. Drake V, Koprowski S, Lough J, Smith S. Gastrulating chick embryo as a model for evaluating teratogenicity: a comparison of three approaches. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2006;76:66-71 pubmed
    b>Teratology studies must be carefully designed to minimize potential secondary effects of vehicle and delivery routes. A systematic method to evaluate chick models of early embryogenesis is lacking...
  33. Mylchreest E, Harris S. Historical control data in reproductive and developmental toxicity studies. Methods Mol Biol. 2013;947:275-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Supernumerary rib will be used as an example of how historical control data can be used for data interpretation. ..
  34. Singh N, Sharma A, Patil R, Rahman S, Leishangthem G, Kumar M. Effect of feeding graded doses of Citrinin on clinical and teratology in female Wistar rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2014;52:159-67 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that CIT has adverse effects on fetal development which may be due to the longer bioavailability of citrinin in the animals. ..
  35. Koren G. Fetal risks of maternal pharmacotherapy: identifying signals. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2011;205:285-94 pubmed publisher
    ..This chapter will review the principles of teratology and the pharmacoepidemiological evidence for drug safety/risk in human gestation.
  36. Spezia F, Barrow P. The teratology testing of cosmetics. Methods Mol Biol. 2013;947:91-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This chapter presents the three scientifically validated animal alternative methods for the assessment of embryotoxicity: the embryonic stem cell test (EST), the micromass (MM) assay, and the whole embryo culture (WEC) assay. ..
  37. QUINN D. Funding for teratology information services: up, down, and all around. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2012;94:660-3 pubmed publisher
    Funding for Teratology Information Services has been an ongoing struggle over the 25 years of its existence. Traditional and novel funding mechanisms have been explored with varying success...
  38. Adam M. The all-or-none phenomenon revisited. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2012;94:664-9 pubmed publisher
    One of the more pervasive tenets of teratology is the "all-or-none" phenomenon, which refers to the concept that embryonic exposure that occurs before organogenesis results in either no adverse embryonic outcome or in embryonic ..
  39. Campagnolo L, Massimiani M, Magrini A, Camaioni A, Pietroiusti A. Physico-chemical properties mediating reproductive and developmental toxicity of engineered nanomaterials. Curr Med Chem. 2012;19:4488-94 pubmed
  40. Haas D, Hebert M, Soldin O, Flockhart D, Madadi P, Nocon J, et al. Pharmacotherapy and pregnancy: highlights from the Second International Conference for Individualized Pharmacotherapy in Pregnancy. Clin Transl Sci. 2009;2:439-43 pubmed publisher
    ..pharmacogenetics in pregnancy; the role of CYP2D6 in pregnancy; treating addiction in pregnancy; the power of teratology networks to inform clinical decisions; the use of anti-depressants in pregnancy; and how to utilize computer-..
  41. Diav Citrin O, Shechtman S, Bar Oz B, Cantrell D, Arnon J, Ornoy A. Pregnancy outcome after in utero exposure to valproate : evidence of dose relationship in teratogenic effect. CNS Drugs. 2008;22:325-34 pubmed
    ..All callers who contacted the Israeli Teratology Information Service (TIS) between 1994 and 2004 for information about gestational exposure to valproate were ..
  42. Chico Ponce de León F, Castro Sierra E. Holoprosencephaly in Mexico: first reported autopsy case by Dr. Agustín Arellano. Childs Nerv Syst. 2007;23:601-10 pubmed
    ..Manuel Carpio in 1836, is the direct forerunner of the present Gaceta Médica de México, the oldest currently published journal in the Americas. ..
  43. Lemire R. J. Bruce Beckwith: scholar, fisherman, and friend. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2005;8:270-81 pubmed
    ..The ones I have chosen to share for the most part represent "middle ground." Many can never be told. ..
  44. West J, Blake C. Fetal alcohol syndrome: an assessment of the field. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2005;230:354-6 pubmed
    ..It is directed not only to investigators working in the field but to a diverse group of scientists working in the biological and biomedical fields to stimulate cross-disciplinary awareness, interest, and collaboration. ..
  45. Schumacher G. Teratology in cultural documents and today. Ann Anat. 2004;186:539-46 pubmed
    b>Teratology is the science of congenital malformations. The incidence of birth defects amounts to 2-3%, but it doubles postnatal owing to the fact that many dysfunctions are not discernible at birth...
  46. Fukui Y, Ema M, Fujiwara M, Higuchi H, Inouye M, Iwase T, et al. Comments from the Behavioral Teratology Committee of the Japanese Teratology Society on OECD guideline for the testing of chemicals, proposal for a new guideline 426, developmental neurotoxicity study, draft document (September 2003). Congenit Anom (Kyoto). 2004;44:172-7 pubmed
    ..The member of the Behavioral Teratology (BT) Committee of the Japanese Teratology Society (JTS) reviewed, discussed and commented on the draft Test ..
  47. Fulcheri E. [Fortunato Liceti: a turning point in the study of "monsters" and the beginning of modern teratology]. Pathologica. 2002;94:263-8 pubmed
  48. Shepard T, Barr M, Brent R, Hendrickx A, Kochhar D, Oakley G, et al. A history of the Teratology Society. Teratology. 2000;62:301-16 pubmed
    The 39-year history of the Teratology Society is reviewed. An abbreviated history is outlined in table form, along with listings of the Warkany Lectures, the postgraduate courses, and officers of the Society...
  49. Czeizel A. Specified critical period of different congenital abnormalities: a new approach for human teratological studies. Congenit Anom (Kyoto). 2008;48:103-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The author of this Commentary proposes a detailed database for this approach for discussion because a consensus may be achieved only after the confirmation or modification of these critical periods. ..
  50. Danielsson B, Danielsson C, Nilsson M. Embryonic cardiac arrhythmia and generation of reactive oxygen species: common teratogenic mechanism for IKr blocking drugs. Reprod Toxicol. 2007;24:42-56 pubmed
    ..A second aim of this review is to demonstrate that the conventional design of teratology studies is not optimal to detect malformations caused by IKr blocking drugs...
  51. Wolff E, Le Douarin N. L'Ecole de Nogent: the contributions of Etienne Wolff and Nicole Le Douarin. Int J Dev Biol. 2005;49:79-83 pubmed
    ..What were its main scientific orientations? Two fields of research dominated Etienne Wolff's work: Experimental Teratology and Intersexuality...
  52. Leconte I, Mouche I. Frog embryo teratogenesis assay on Xenopus and predictivity compared with in vivo mammalian studies. Methods Mol Biol. 2013;947:403-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on this experience, the predictivity of FETAX is 81% with a minimal proportion of false positive results. ..
  53. Hawgood B. Professor David Poswillo CBE (1927-2003): Skilled oral and maxillofacial surgeon, influential scientist, teacher and adviser. J Med Biogr. 2014;22:47-55 pubmed publisher
    ..work on amniotic puncture at a critical period came to international notice and he was given the first Chair in Teratology of the Royal College of Surgeons...