Summary: The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.

Top Publications

  1. Kaufman M. The embryology of conjoined twins. Childs Nerv Syst. 2004;20:508-25 pubmed
    ..Fusion of monozygotic twins is no longer believed to be the basis of conjoined twinning. Accounts are provided of the anatomical features of each of the commonly encountered varieties. ..
  2. Richardson M, Narraway J. A treasure house of comparative embryology. Int J Dev Biol. 1999;43:591-602 pubmed
    The Embryo Collection of the Hubrecht Laboratory is a treasure house of comparative embryology. It is the largest and most important collection of its kind in the world, and consists of thousands of vertebrate embryos stored in alcohol, ..
  3. Lawrence P. Theoretical embryology: a route to extinction?. Curr Biol. 2004;14:R7-8 pubmed
  4. Vajta G. Vitrification in human and domestic animal embryology: work in progress. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2013;25:719-27 pubmed publisher
    ..application of vitrification is one of the greatest achievements in domestic animal and especially human embryology during the first decade of our century...
  5. Arce J, Ziebe S, Lundin K, Janssens R, Helmgaard L, Sørensen P. Interobserver agreement and intraobserver reproducibility of embryo quality assessments. Hum Reprod. 2006;21:2141-8 pubmed
    ..80-0.91). Embryo quality can be determined with a good degree of interobserver agreement independently of the method of evaluation. Embryologists classify embryos with excellent intraobserver reproducibility. ..
  6. Baxter Bendus A, Mayer J, Shipley S, Catherino W. Interobserver and intraobserver variation in day 3 embryo grading. Fertil Steril. 2006;86:1608-15 pubmed
    ..Such variability could alter both the expected quality of embryos transferred, as well as the number transferred, both of which directly impact IVF program success. ..
  7. Castilla J, Ruiz de Assin R, Gonzalvo M, Clavero A, Ramírez J, Vergara F, et al. External quality control for embryology laboratories. Reprod Biomed Online. 2010;20:68-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Results from an EQC programme for embryology laboratories are presented...
  8. Echevarria D, Vieira C, Martinez S. Mammalian neural tube grafting experiments: an in vitro system for mouse experimental embryology. Int J Dev Biol. 2001;45:895-902 pubmed
    ..This in vitro system constitutes a powerful experimental embryological tool which can have other applications including time-lapse imaging and electrophysiology. ..
  9. Reichenbach M, Lim T, Reichenbach H, Guengoer T, Habermann F, Matthiesen M, et al. Germ-line transmission of lentiviral PGK-EGFP integrants in transgenic cattle: new perspectives for experimental embryology. Transgenic Res. 2010;19:549-56 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Paternot G, Devroe J, Debrock S, D Hooghe T, Spiessens C. Intra- and inter-observer analysis in the morphological assessment of early-stage embryos. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2009;7:105 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the intra- and inter-observer variability in the evaluation of embryo quality. Multilevel images of embryos on day 1, day 2 and day 3, were analysed using different morphological parameters...
  2. Ogura T. In vivo electroporation: a new frontier for gene delivery and embryology. Differentiation. 2002;70:163-71 pubmed
    ..In addition to these experimental advantages, retrovirus-mediated gene delivery, and recently, adenovirus-mediated misexpression have been employed routinely in chick embryos (Leber et al., 1996; Morgan and Fekete, 1996). ..
  3. Nieder G, Nagy F. Analysis of medical students' use of web-based resources for a gross anatomy and embryology course. Clin Anat. 2002;15:409-18 pubmed
    An extensive Web site supporting our gross anatomy and embryology course, which includes various course management pages as well as online lectures, has been in use for the past 2 years...
  4. Weninger W, Meng S, Streicher J, Müller G. A new episcopic method for rapid 3-D reconstruction: applications in anatomy and embryology. Anat Embryol (Berl). 1998;197:341-8 pubmed
  5. Nieder G, Parmelee D, Stolfi A, Hudes P. Team-based learning in a medical gross anatomy and embryology course. Clin Anat. 2005;18:56-63 pubmed
  6. Hopwood N. A history of normal plates, tables and stages in vertebrate embryology. Int J Dev Biol. 2007;51:1-26 pubmed
    ..and normal tables, shows how these standards have shaped and been shaped by disciplinary change in vertebrate embryology. The article highlights the Normal Plates of the Development of the Vertebrates edited by the German anatomist ..
  7. Silva Lopes V, Monteiro Leal L. Creating a histology-embryology free digital image database using high-end microscopy and computer techniques for on-line biomedical education. Anat Rec B New Anat. 2003;273:126-31 pubmed
    ..uerj.br/~micron/atlas/atlasenglish/index.htm) that, in association with a multimedia microscopy laboratory, intends to help in the reduction of the IT educational gap between developed and underdeveloped regions. ..
  8. Vasan N, DeFouw D, Holland B. Modified use of team-based learning for effective delivery of medical gross anatomy and embryology. Anat Sci Educ. 2008;1:3-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that a TBL approach in teaching anatomy allowed us to create an active learning environment that helped to improve students' performances. Based on our experience, other preclinical courses are now piloting TBL. ..
  9. Shankar N, Roopa R. Evaluation of a modified team based learning method for teaching general embryology to 1st year medical graduate students. Indian J Med Sci. 2009;63:4-12 pubmed
    ..in the learning process, the authors introduced a modified team based learning (TBL) method to cover two general embryology topics in the 1st year MBBS curriculum...
  10. Kuratani S. Modularity, comparative embryology and evo-devo: developmental dissection of evolving body plans. Dev Biol. 2009;332:61-9 pubmed publisher
  11. Exposito A, Matorras R, Mendoza R, Crisol L, Martinez Astorquiza T, Prieto B. Daily workload in the embryology laboratory and in vitro fertilization results. J Reprod Med. 2010;55:49-54 pubmed
    ..4%, 25.2% and 28.3%, respectively) or when the activity on the day of ET was level I, II or III (29.6%, 37.3% and 23.7%, respectively). We failed to show any adverse results on our IVF program associated with the daily workload. ..
  12. Moss R. The life and times of John Beard, DSc (1858-1924). Integr Cancer Ther. 2008;7:229-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This therapy created a worldwide controversy, and although rejected in his day, persists in the world of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) today. ..
  13. ZALLEN J. Jennifer Zallen: decoding the developmental dance. Interview by Ruth Williams. J Cell Biol. 2008;180:850-1 pubmed publisher
  14. Olsson L. A clash of traditions: the history of comparative and experimental embryology in Sweden as exemplified by the research of Gösta Jägersten and Sven Hörstadius. Theory Biosci. 2007;126:117-29 pubmed
    ..In developmental biology, the comparative, phylogenetic embryology advocated most forcefully by Ernst Haeckel co-existed with the "Entwickelungsmechanik" tradition ..
  15. Rawles M. Origin of pigment cells from the neural crest in the mouse embryo. Physiol Zool. 1947;20:248-66 pubmed
  16. Patel K, Scaal M. Special issue dedicated to Bodo Christ. Anat Embryol (Berl). 2006;211 Suppl 1:1-2 pubmed
  17. Steinhardt R. Three stages (and a dividend) on my personal road to Ca2+ activation at fertilization. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2006;17:226-8 pubmed
    ..Observations of membrane resealing after microinjections led eventually to the new understanding of membrane repair as an active exocytotic process. ..
  18. Lagercrantz H. Nobel Prizes in paediatrics: Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852-1934) and the founding of neuroembryology. Acta Paediatr. 2006;95:130-1 pubmed
  19. Mikhailov A. Russian comparative embryology takes form: a conceptual metamorphosis toward "evo-devo". Evol Dev. 2012;14:9-19 pubmed publisher
    ..The focus on comparative evolutionary embryology, which was established by Kowalevsky and Mechnikoff, still continues to be popular in present-day "evo-devo&..
  20. Ferrer Colomer M, Pastor L. The preembryo's short lifetime. The history of a word. Cuad Bioet. 2012;23:677-94 pubmed
    ..Once this goal had been achieved, the term was gradually abandoned. ..
  21. Schatz O, Golenser E, Ben Arie N. Clearing and photography of whole mount X-gal stained mouse embryos. Biotechniques. 2005;39:650, 652, 654 passim pubmed
  22. Yamada S, Uwabe C, Nakatsu Komatsu T, Minekura Y, Iwakura M, Motoki T, et al. Graphic and movie illustrations of human prenatal development and their application to embryological education based on the human embryo specimens in the Kyoto collection. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:468-77 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, a computer-based self-learning program of human embryology is being developed for educational purposes, using the photographs, histological sections, MR images, and 3D ..
  23. Bownes M, Hames B. Accumulation and degradation of three major yolk proteins in Drosophila melanogaster. J Exp Zool. 1977;200:149-56 pubmed
    ..The accumulation and degradation of the three yolk proteins by oocytes and embryos was asynchronous suggesting that independent controls may exist. ..
  24. Gerhart J. Evolution of the organizer and the chordate body plan. Int J Dev Biol. 2001;45:133-53 pubmed
    ..This addition to the organizer is seen as a major event in chordate evolution, bringing body organization beyond that achieved by oocyte organization and meso-endoderm induction in other groups. ..
  25. Hamoir G. [The egg-cell of Edouard Van Beneden and molecular embryology]. Rev Med Liege. 2001;56:171-80 pubmed
    b>Embryology started in the XIXe eeuw as a morphological study. Edouard Van Beneden contributed largely to its development through his works on the female sexual cell and on the development of the tunicates...
  26. Hall B. Francis Maitland Balfour (1851-1882): a founder of evolutionary embryology. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2003;299:3-8 pubmed
  27. Eisner B, Bloom D. Wolff and Müller: fundamental eponyms of embryology, nephrology and urology. J Urol. 2002;168:425-8 pubmed
    ..19th centuries, respectively, contributed significantly to the study of the biological sciences, specifically embryology and the development of the genitourinary tract...
  28. Perkowska U. [The social activity of Professor Emil Godlewski Jr]. Arch Hist Filoz Med. 2002;65:1-22 pubmed
    Emil Godlewski Jr. (1875-1944), a professor of embryology at the Faculty of Medicine at the Jagiellonian University of Cracow [UJ] belonged to the group of learned doctors who did scientific research, and at the same time carried out ..
  29. Rucci L, Ferlito A, Bradley P, Romagnoli P, Rinaldo A, Anniko M. Can embryology influence clinicians concerning the "best therapy" for glottic cancer?. Acta Otolaryngol. 2002;122:796-8 pubmed
  30. Pijnenborg R, Vercruysse L. A.A.W. Hubrecht and the naming of the trophoblast. Placenta. 2013;34:314-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the latter idea has obviously become out of date, Hubrecht's writings provide a fascinating insight in the evolutionary thinking at that time, and therefore still merit a close study. ..
  31. Dunnebacke T. The Zoology Department at Washington University (1944-1954): from undergraduate to graduate studies with Viktor Hamburger. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2001;19:133-8 pubmed
    ..Now, on this occasion of his 100th birthday, I wish to express my appreciation to the Chairman, Dr. Viktor Hamburger, for his teachings, his encouragement, and his friendship that has lasted over the past 56 years. ..
  32. Ernst S. Offerings from an urchin. Dev Biol. 2011;358:285-94 pubmed publisher
  33. Nagy A, Rossant J. Chimaeras and mosaics for dissecting complex mutant phenotypes. Int J Dev Biol. 2001;45:577-82 pubmed
    Back at the first half of the 1980s, there was no mammalian experimental embryology in Hungary. One of us, AN, took up the challenge of establishing a small group in the field...
  34. Marco Cuellar R, Aréchaga J. Early bases of modern embryology in Spain: microscopical anatomy and the introduction of cell theory and histology in their scientific and social European context. Int J Dev Biol. 2009;53:1123-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The historical, scientific and social framework of that period also helped the approach to important biological concepts such as the cell and tissue, which are previous and essential ideas for a correct understanding of Development. ..
  35. Kozhukhar V. [Aleksei Georgievich Knorre at the department of histology and embryology of the Leningrad Pediatric medical school (1955-1981)]. Morfologiia. 2002;121:101-2 pubmed
  36. Gener Galbis C. [Historical antecedents of ocular morphogenesis studies]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2002;77:523-4 pubmed
  37. Grim M, Druga R. [Professor R. Cihák-anatomist and embryologist--on his 80th birthday]. Cas Lek Cesk. 2008;147:401-5 pubmed
  38. Weinstein D. Teaching resources. Mesodermal differentiation: signal integration during development. Sci STKE. 2005;2005:tr23 pubmed
  39. Decq P. [Embryology applied to neurosurgery. Introduction to part II]. Neurochirurgie. 2003;49:484-5 pubmed
  40. Catala M. [Neurosurgical Embryology. Part 2: Recent data on normal and pathological development of the cortex]. Neurochirurgie. 2003;49:431-40 pubmed
    ..Reelin is responsible for a human syndrome associating pachygyria and cerebellar hypotrophy. Subventricular heterotopia can be X- inherited and are due to a mutation of the gene coding for filamin 1. ..
  41. Semchenko V, Taskaev I, Sergeeva E, Barashkova S, Khizhniak A. [Main directions of the improvement of quality of educational literature in histology, cytology and embryology]. Morfologiia. 2006;129:95-7 pubmed
  42. Chang A, Appasani K. Stem cells & regenerative medicine: from molecular embryology to tissue engineering and therapeutics. Regen Med. 2006;1:385-92 pubmed
  43. Oligny L. Human molecular embryogenesis: an overview. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2001;4:324-43 pubmed
    Molecular embryology is a rapidly evolving field of great complexity. This overview is primarily for the newcomer to this field, in an attempt to demystify the processes by which a human single-celled zygote eventually forms an embryo...
  45. Thieffry D. Rationalizing early embryogenesis in the 1930s: Albert Dalcq on gradients and fields. J Hist Biol. 2001;34:149-81 pubmed
    ..Moreover, I will show the embryological research program of Dalcq and his pupil Jean Brachet has been largely instrumental in the development of molecular biology in Belgium. ..
  46. Maienschein J, Laubichler M. The Embryo Project: an integrated approach to history, practices, and social contexts of embryo research. J Hist Biol. 2010;43:1-16 pubmed
    ..We invite others to join the effort, both in this particular project and in joining together in digital collection, archiving, and knowledge generation at the borders of biology and history. ..
  47. Elinson R, Kezmoh L. Molecular Haeckel. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:1905-18 pubmed publisher
    ..The Molecular Haeckels emphasize that, based on gene expression, there is a greater similarity among vertebrate embryos than even Haeckel might have imagined. ..
  48. Mendez M, Ramirez M, Varela A, Chavez B, Pedernera E. Follicle-stimulating hormone increases cell proliferation in the ovary and the testis of the chick embryo. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2003;133:181-8 pubmed
    ..In the chick embryo testis, FSH stimulates cell proliferation in seminiferous tubules and peritubular cells. ..
  49. Arthur W. Developmental constraint and natural selection. Evol Dev. 2003;5:117-8 pubmed
  50. Fokin S. Life of Alexander Onufrievich Kowalevsky (1840-1901). Evol Dev. 2012;14:3-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A short description of the life of the famous Russian embryologist and zoologist Alexander O. Kowalevsky is presented, including some rare photos of the scientist. ..
  51. Kubis N, Checoury A, Tedgui A, Levy B. [Neurosurgical embryology. Part 8: Post-natal angiogenesis and remodeling]. Neurochirurgie. 2003;49:511-7 pubmed
    ..Our purpose is to overview the molecular mechanisms and the stimuli giving rise to these processes. ..
  52. Li Y, Farrell M, Liu R, Mohanty N, Kirby M. Double-stranded RNA injection produces null phenotypes in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2000;217:394-405 pubmed
    ..1 and resulted in absent or greatly reduced eye and forebrain development, similar to the phenotype seen in mouse mutants. Simultaneous injection of Pax6.1 and Zf-T resulted in embryos lacking notochords, eyes, and brain structures. ..
  53. Bavister B. How animal embryo research led to the first documented human IVF. Reprod Biomed Online. 2002;4 Suppl 1:24-9 pubmed
    ..These observations suggested that human IVF might be useful for alleviation of infertility. ..