comparative anatomy


Summary: The comparative study of animal structure with regard to homologous organs or parts. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Labbe A, Liang H, Martin C, Brignole Baudouin F, Warnet J, Baudouin C. Comparative anatomy of laboratory animal corneas with a new-generation high-resolution in vivo confocal microscope. Curr Eye Res. 2006;31:501-9 pubmed
    ..This new device may be useful for evaluating the cornea during experimental animal studies. ..
  2. Li T, Zhang H. Application of microscopy in authentication of traditional Tibetan medicinal plants of five Rhodiola (Crassulaceae) alpine species by comparative anatomy and micromorphology. Microsc Res Tech. 2008;71:448-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The study indicated that light microscopy and related techniques provide a method that is convenient, feasible, and can be unambiguously applied to the authentication of species of Rhodiola...
  3. Heller R. The comparative anatomy of islets. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;654:21-37 pubmed publisher
  4. Sharma Y, Xu T, Graf W, Fobbs A, Sherwood C, Hof P, et al. Comparative anatomy of the locus coeruleus in humans and nonhuman primates. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:963-71 pubmed publisher
  5. Bozkus H, Crawford N, Chamberlain R, Valenzuela T, Espinoza A, Yuksel Z, et al. Comparative anatomy of the porcine and human thoracic spines with reference to thoracoscopic surgical techniques. Surg Endosc. 2005;19:1652-65 pubmed
    ..A thoracoscopic approach in a porcine model probably is best performed from the right side. The best general working area is between T6 and T10. ..
  6. Sherwood C. Comparative anatomy of the facial motor nucleus in mammals, with an analysis of neuron numbers in primates. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2005;287:1067-79 pubmed
    ..In this review, the comparative anatomy of this brainstem nucleus is examined...
  7. Diogo R, Abdala V, Aziz M, Lonergan N, Wood B. From fish to modern humans--comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the pectoral and forelimb musculature. J Anat. 2009;214:694-716 pubmed publisher
    ..Abdala [(2007) J Morphol 268, 504-517] reported the results of the first part of a research project on the comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the pectoral muscles of osteichthyans (bony fish and tetrapods)...
  8. Hill R. Comparative anatomy and histology of xenarthran osteoderms. J Morphol. 2006;267:1441-60 pubmed
    ..Certain osteological structures, however, are consistently associated with specific soft-tissue complexes and therefore represent a relatively robust foundation upon which to base soft-tissue reconstructions of extinct xenarthrans...
  9. Schroedl F, De Stefano M, Reese S, Brehmer A, Neuhuber W. Comparative anatomy of nitrergic intrinsic choroidal neurons (ICN) in various avian species. Exp Eye Res. 2004;78:187-96 pubmed
    ..The temporo-cranial accumulation of ICN in galliformes and the belt-like arrangement in anseriformes may reflect special functional requirements in regions of high visual acuity. ..

More Information


  1. Ostrovsky A, O Dea A, Rodriguez F. Comparative anatomy of internal incubational sacs in cupuladriid bryozoans and the evolution of brooding in free-living cheilostomes. J Morphol. 2009;270:1413-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate that prominent skeletal brood chambers are disadvantageous to a free-living mode of life that demands easy movement through sediment in instable sea-floor settings...
  2. González Isáis M, Domínguez H. Comparative anatomy of the superfamily Myliobatoidea (Chondrichthyes) with some comments on phylogeny. J Morphol. 2004;262:517-35 pubmed
    ..Mobulids (Mobula and Manta) are the sister group of myliobatoids-rhinopterids. ..
  3. Barger N, Stefanacci L, Semendeferi K. A comparative volumetric analysis of the amygdaloid complex and basolateral division in the human and ape brain. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2007;134:392-403 pubmed
  4. Pearce J. The development of spinal cord anatomy. Eur Neurol. 2008;59:286-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Anatomy advanced gradually to yield discoveries of the complex tracts and grey matter elements of the cord and their functions. Amongst many distinguished exponents, the works of Blasius, Huber, Vicq d'Azyr and Stilling are emphasised. ..
  5. Diogo R, Abdala V, Lonergan N, Wood B. From fish to modern humans--comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the head and neck musculature. J Anat. 2008;213:391-424 pubmed publisher
    In a recent paper Diogo (2008) reported the results of the first part of an investigation of the comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the head and neck muscles of osteichthyans (bony fish + tetrapods)...
  6. Farris S. Evolutionary convergence of higher brain centers spanning the protostome-deuterostome boundary. Brain Behav Evol. 2008;72:106-22 pubmed publisher
  7. de Jong I, Colbert M, Witte F, Richardson M. Polymorphism in developmental timing: intraspecific heterochrony in a Lake Victoria cichlid. Evol Dev. 2009;11:625-35 pubmed publisher
    ..For this reason, it is imperative to consider patterns of embryonic variability when measuring developmental time. ..
  8. Owen C, Howard A, Binder D. Hippocampus minor, calcar avis, and the Huxley-Owen debate. Neurosurgery. 2009;65:1098-104; discussion 1104-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this relatively obscure neuroanatomic landmark served as a pivotal point of contention in the most popularized and acrimonious evolutionary debate of the 19th century. ..
  9. Lee M, Scanlon J. Snake phylogeny based on osteology, soft anatomy and ecology. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2002;77:333-401 pubmed
    ..This challenges the widespread view that snake evolution has involved progressive, directional elaboration of the jaw apparatus to feed on larger prey. ..
  10. Kim N, Lee H, Chung I, Kim H, Kim S. Morphometric study of the pedicles of thoracic and lumbar vertebrae in Koreans. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1994;19:1390-4 pubmed
    ..Using a screw longer than 40 mm is dangerous in the lower thoracic spine of a Korean. A statistical difference exists between the transverse diameter of the pedicles of Westerners and Koreans. ..
  11. Byers J. TAXOKEY: a universal taxonomic key program using DOS text files and graphics. Comput Appl Biosci. 1996;12:185-9 pubmed
    ..PCX graphic images for use with TAXOKEY. A second text file can be searched by TAXOKEY for information on particular species descriptions, notes and references. ..
  12. Rieppel O, Kley N, Maisano J. Morphology of the skull of the white-nosed blindsnake, Liotyphlops albirostris (Scolecophidia: Anomalepididae). J Morphol. 2009;270:536-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Both anomalepidids and typhlopids evolved a condition known as an "outer shell design," but did so in different ways. Leptotyphlopids combine elements of both the anomalepidid and typhlopid snout morphologies. ..
  13. Harvey T, Dong X, Donoghue P. Are palaeoscolecids ancestral ecdysozoans?. Evol Dev. 2010;12:177-200 pubmed publisher
    The reconstruction of ancestors is a central aim of comparative anatomy and evolutionary developmental biology, not least in attempts to understand the relationship between developmental and organismal evolution...
  14. Nomaksteinsky M, Röttinger E, Dufour H, Chettouh Z, Lowe C, Martindale M, et al. Centralization of the deuterostome nervous system predates chordates. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1264-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These neuroanatomical features, whatever their homologies with the chordate CNS, imply that nervous system centralization predates the evolutionary separation of chordate and hemichordate lineages. ..
  15. Guenther M. Influence of sequence heterochrony on hadrosaurid dinosaur postcranial development. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2009;292:1427-41 pubmed publisher
  16. Dumont E. Bone density and the lightweight skeletons of birds. Proc Biol Sci. 2010;277:2193-8 pubmed publisher
    ..They also reconcile the conundrum of how bird skeletons can appear to be thin and delicate, yet contribute just as much to total body mass as do the skeletons of terrestrial mammals. ..
  17. Rocca J. WLH Duckworth (1870-1956) and his translation of Galen's Anatomical Procedures. J Med Biogr. 2007;15:134-8 pubmed
    ..In his eighth decade Duckworth turned his considerable gifts to the history of medicine. This paper examines the circumstances of his English translation of the second half of Anatomical Procedures, one of Galen's most important works. ..
  18. Wang X, Mabrey J, Agrawal C. An interspecies comparison of bone fracture properties. Biomed Mater Eng. 1998;8:1-9 pubmed
    ..This interspecies comparison facilitates a better understanding of animal models and suitable use of the animal models in future bone fracture studies. ..
  19. Antón S. Natural history of Homo erectus. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2003;Suppl 37:126-70 pubmed
    ..A number of issues remain unresolved, including the significance of diversity in size and shape in the early African and Georgian records. ..
  20. Britz R, Johnson G. Occipito-vertebral fusion in ocean sunfishes (Teleostei: Tetraodontiformes: Molidae) and its phylogenetic implications. J Morphol. 2005;266:74-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the shared occipito-vertebral fusion in molids and ostraciids and its otherwise extremely rare occurrence among teleosts provide support for a sister-group relationship of the two families...
  21. Morris V. Origins of radial symmetry identified in an echinoderm during adult development and the inferred axes of ancestral bilateral symmetry. Proc Biol Sci. 2007;274:1511-6 pubmed
    ..Homologies with the early echinoderms of the Cambrian era and between the dorsal hydrocoele, the chordate notochord and the proboscis coelom of hemichordates become evident. ..
  22. Teul Swiniarska I. [Pneumatization of the mastoid process in medieval and contemporary skulls in light of radiologic and anthropometric measurements]. Ann Acad Med Stetin. 2001;47:25-35 pubmed
    ..No correlation was found between anthropometric parameters of the skull and the extent of pneumatization of the mastoid process. ..
  23. Krubitzer L. In search of a unifying theory of complex brain evolution. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1156:44-67 pubmed publisher
    ..While this cortical plasticity is a defining feature of mammalian neocortex, it appears to be exaggerated in humans and could be considered a unique derivation of our species. ..
  24. Filoramo N, Schwenk K. The mechanism of chemical delivery to the vomeronasal organs in squamate reptiles: a comparative morphological approach. J Exp Zool A Ecol Genet Physiol. 2009;311:20-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings falsify the Gillingham and Clark (1981. Can J Zool 59:1651-1657) hypothesis for lizards lacking forked, retractile tongues. ..
  25. Diogo R. Osteology and myology of the cephalic region and pectoral girdle of Pimelodus blochii, comparison with other pimelodines, and comments on the synapomorphies and phylogenetic relationships of the Pimelodinae (Ostariophysi: Siluriformes). Eur J Morphol. 2005;42:115-26 pubmed
    ..The subfamilies Pimelodinae, Heptapterinae and Pseudopimelodinae seem to constitute a monophyletic assemblage, thus contradicting the commonly accepted idea that the family Pimelodidae is a polyphyletic clade. ..
  26. Ruta M, Wagner P, Coates M. Evolutionary patterns in early tetrapods. I. Rapid initial diversification followed by decrease in rates of character change. Proc Biol Sci. 2006;273:2107-11 pubmed
    ..Thus, the results implicate biological explanations for this pattern. ..
  27. Gu F, Zhang X. [Study of comparing the multiple MR sequenc in the articular cartilage of knee joint]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2008;88:245-9 pubmed
    ..The cartilage SNR, the CNR between cartilage and adjacent tissue and their efficiency are high in 3D-BFFE-WATS and it can be used in the clinical examination. ..
  28. Ackermann R. Variation in Neandertals: a response to Harvati. J Hum Evol. 2005;48:643-6; discussion 653-60 pubmed
  29. Smeets W, Marin O, Gonzalez A. Evolution of the basal ganglia: new perspectives through a comparative approach. J Anat. 2000;196 ( Pt 4):501-17 pubmed
    ..However, the intriguing question whether the basal forebrain organisation of nontetrapods differs essentially from that observed in tetrapods still needs to be answered. ..
  30. Campbell P, Reep R, Stoll M, Ophir A, Phelps S. Conservation and diversity of Foxp2 expression in muroid rodents: functional implications. J Comp Neurol. 2009;512:84-100 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a generalized model for Foxp2-modulated pathways in the adult brain including, but not limited to, fine motor production and auditory perception. ..
  31. Marotta R, Melone G, Bright M, Ferraguti M. Spermatozoa and sperm aggregates in the vestimentiferan Lamellibrachia luymesi compared with those of Riftia pachyptila (Polychaeta: Siboglinidae: Vestimentifera). Biol Bull. 2005;209:215-26 pubmed
    ..We propose a new set of autapomorphies characterizing vestimentiferan spermatozoa. Our analysis suggests that spermatozoal characters are useful to the understanding of the phylogeny of the group. ..
  32. DePalma A. The classic. Origin and comparative anatomy of the pectoral limb. Surgery of the shoulder. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins;1950:1-14. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008;466:531-42 pubmed publisher
  33. Antoniazzi M, Pedroso C, Knysak I, Martins R, Guizze S, Jared C, et al. Comparative morphological study of the venom glands of the centipede Cryptops iheringi, Otostigmus pradoi and Scolopendra viridicornis. Toxicon. 2009;53:367-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate a great similarity both in morphology and primary chemical composition of the venom among the studied species, except for the size of the glands, which is proportional to the body dimensions of each species. ..
  34. Alibardi L. Morphological and cellular aspects of tail and limb regeneration in lizards. A model system with implications for tissue regeneration in mammals. Adv Anat Embryol Cell Biol. 2010;207:iii, v-x, 1-109 pubmed
    ..The review concludes by stressing the importance of the lizard model of tissue regeneration for medical studies and applications. ..
  35. Brigandt I. Homology in comparative, molecular, and evolutionary developmental biology: the radiation of a concept. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2003;299:9-17 pubmed
    ..Once it migrated from comparative anatomy into new biological fields, the homology concept changed in accordance with the theoretical aims and ..
  36. Forey P, Fortey R, Kenrick P, Smith A. Taxonomy and fossils: a critical appraisal. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2004;359:639-53 pubmed
    ..These advantages over conventional outlets will only be realized with careful Web design and a commitment to maintenance. ..
  37. Vacher C. [Anatomic facial and behavioral features of Australopithecus africanus. Apropos of the Taung child]. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac. 2003;104:330-3 pubmed
    ..Unlike homo individuals, there is no proof Australopithecus africanus made tools. The definition of Man is not an anatomic definition but rather a socio-cultural definition. ..
  38. Benito Gutiérrez E, Arendt D. CNS evolution: new insight from the mud. Curr Biol. 2009;19:R640-2 pubmed publisher
  39. Deniz M, Kilinc M, Hatipoglu E. Morphologic study of left ventricular bands. Surg Radiol Anat. 2004;26:230-4 pubmed
    ..They were composed of muscle tissue in various proportions in human and dog hearts, and of connective and conductive tissue in sheep and goat hearts. ..
  40. Allen V, Paxton H, Hutchinson J. Variation in center of mass estimates for extant sauropsids and its importance for reconstructing inertial properties of extinct archosaurs. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2009;292:1442-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Nonetheless in the best cases these methods allow rigorous estimation of inertial properties. ..
  41. Buckley D, Wake M, Wake D. Comparative skull osteology of Karsenia koreana (Amphibia, Caudata, Plethodontidae). J Morphol. 2010;271:533-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis of the anatomy of the new Asiatic lineage illuminates some potential mechanisms underlying adaptive morphological evolution within the Plethodontidae...
  42. Wessels A, Sedmera D. Developmental anatomy of the heart: a tale of mice and man. Physiol Genomics. 2003;15:165-76 pubmed
    ..In this review we discuss some aspects of the comparative anatomy, with emphasis on the atrial anatomy, the valvuloseptal complex, and ventricular myocardial development...
  43. Jeffery N, Spoor F. The primate subarcuate fossa and its relationship to the semicircular canals part I: prenatal growth. J Hum Evol. 2006;51:537-49 pubmed
  44. Horner J, Goodwin M. Extreme cranial ontogeny in the upper cretaceous dinosaur pachycephalosaurus. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7626 pubmed publisher
    ..Marginocephalians (pachycephalosaurids + ceratopsids) undergo comparable and extreme cranial morphological change during ontogeny...
  45. Hieronymus T, Witmer L, Tanke D, Currie P. The facial integument of centrosaurine ceratopsids: morphological and histological correlates of novel skin structures. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2009;292:1370-96 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that social selection (a broad form of intraspecific competition) is a more appropriate explanation for the diversity of centrosaurine ceratopsian ornaments in the Late Cretaceous...
  46. Rauschecker J, Scott S. Maps and streams in the auditory cortex: nonhuman primates illuminate human speech processing. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12:718-24 pubmed publisher
    ..A new model connects structures in the temporal, frontal and parietal lobes linking speech perception and production. ..
  47. Wright B. Craniodental biomechanics and dietary toughness in the genus Cebus. J Hum Evol. 2005;48:473-92 pubmed
    ..However, adaptations for anterior dental use do not tightly constrain the diet of Cebus apella. This approach can be used to clarify the dietary adaptations of fossil taxa...
  48. Wiest G, Baloh R. The personal and scientific feud between Ernst Brücke and Josef Hyrtl. Otol Neurotol. 2006;27:570-5 pubmed
    ..Based on their shape, Hyrtl concluded that they were important for directional hearing, whereas based on animal experiments, Brücke concluded that they were sense organs for equilibrium. ..
  49. Golding R, Ponder W, Byrne M. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the odontophoral cartilages of Caenogastropoda (Mollusca: Gastropoda) using micro-CT: Morphology and phylogenetic significance. J Morphol. 2009;270:558-87 pubmed publisher
  50. Strausfeld N, Seyfarth E. Johann Flögel (1834-1918) and the birth of comparative insect neuroanatomy and brain nomenclature. Arthropod Struct Dev. 2008;37:434-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we give a biographical sketch of his life and summarize his remarkable achievements. ..
  51. Wong P, Kaas J. Architectonic subdivisions of neocortex in the Galago (Otolemur garnetti). Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2010;293:1033-69 pubmed publisher
    ..The resulting architectonic maps of cortical areas in galagos can usefully guide future studies of cortical organizations and functions...
  52. Kawashima T, Akita K, Sato K, Sasaki H. Evolutionary and comparative anatomical investigations of the autonomic cardiac nervous system in the African Cercopithecidae. J Morphol. 2007;268:771-90 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, these findings are considered with regard to the morphology of the last common ancestors of the Cercopithecidae. ..
  53. Meijler F, Strackee J. Evolution and scaling of atrioventricular conduction time in mammals: part 1. Am Heart Hosp J. 2006;4:53-7; quiz 58 pubmed
    ..This review deals with the problem of the apparent mismatch in scaling of the atrioventricular delay (PR interval) in relation to the size of the mammalian heart from mouse to whale. ..