synovial membrane

Summary

Summary: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.

Top Publications

  1. Ducreux J, Durez P, Galant C, Nzeusseu Toukap A, Van den Eynde B, Houssiau F, et al. Global molecular effects of tocilizumab therapy in rheumatoid arthritis synovium. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2014;66:15-23 pubmed publisher
  2. Lee J, Min H, Park H, Lee S, Seong S, Lee M. Synovial membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells supported by platelet-rich plasma can repair osteochondral defects in a rabbit model. Arthroscopy. 2013;29:1034-46 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to determine the in vivo effectiveness of synovial membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cell (SDSC)-encapsulated injectable platelet-rich plasma (PRP) gel in the repair of damaged articular cartilage in the rabbit.
  3. Ritter S, Subbaiah R, Bebek G, Crish J, Scanzello C, Krastins B, et al. Proteomic analysis of synovial fluid from the osteoarthritic knee: comparison with transcriptome analyses of joint tissues. Arthritis Rheum. 2013;65:981-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We undertook this study to perform a proteomic analysis of knee SF from OA patients and control subjects and to compare the results to microarray expression data from cartilage and synovium...
  4. Pitzalis C, Kelly S, Humby F. New learnings on the pathophysiology of RA from synovial biopsies. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2013;25:334-44 pubmed publisher
    ..To critically appraise the literature related to the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) focusing on the contribution of synovial tissue pathology (synovitis) in determining diverse clinical outcome/therapeutic response...
  5. Manferdini C, Maumus M, Gabusi E, Piacentini A, Filardo G, Peyrafitte J, et al. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells exert antiinflammatory effects on chondrocytes and synoviocytes from osteoarthritis patients through prostaglandin E2. Arthritis Rheum. 2013;65:1271-81 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the effect of different sources of good manufacturing practice clinical grade adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) on inflammatory factors in osteoarthritic (OA) chondrocytes and synoviocytes...
  6. Scanzello C, Goldring S. The role of synovitis in osteoarthritis pathogenesis. Bone. 2012;51:249-57 pubmed publisher
    ..These inflammatory mediators represent potential targets for therapeutic interventions designed to reduce both symptoms and structural joint damage in OA. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Osteoarthritis"...
  7. Horie M, Driscoll M, Sampson H, Sekiya I, Caroom C, Prockop D, et al. Implantation of allogenic synovial stem cells promotes meniscal regeneration in a rabbit meniscal defect model. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012;94:701-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the effect of implantation of synovial tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells on meniscal regeneration in a rabbit model of partial meniscectomy...
  8. Ha M, Song Y, Jeong S, Lee H, Jung J, Kim B, et al. Emodin inhibits proinflammatory responses and inactivates histone deacetylase 1 in hypoxic rheumatoid synoviocytes. Biol Pharm Bull. 2011;34:1432-7 pubmed
    ..Overall, these findings suggest that emodin inhibits proinflammatory cytokines and VEGF productions, and HDAC1 activity in hypoxic RA synoviocytes...
  9. Bottini N, Firestein G. Duality of fibroblast-like synoviocytes in RA: passive responders and imprinted aggressors. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2013;9:24-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Pathophysiological characteristics of FLS in RA, as well as progress in targeting these cells, are reviewed in this manuscript...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Finnegan S, Clarke S, Gibson D, McAllister C, Rooney M. Synovial membrane immunohistology in early untreated juvenile idiopathic arthritis: differences between clinical subgroups. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011;70:1842-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This study of the synovial membrane characterises the immunohistochemical features in early untreated, newly diagnosed JIA and compares findings ..
  2. Izquierdo E, Canete J, Celis R, del Rey M, Usategui A, Marsal S, et al. Synovial fibroblast hyperplasia in rheumatoid arthritis: clinicopathologic correlations and partial reversal by anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy. Arthritis Rheum. 2011;63:2575-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was undertaken to evaluate the fibroblast-specific marker Hsp47 as a quantitative marker for SFs and to analyze its clinicopathologic correlates and evolution after anti-tumor necrosis factor ? (anti-TNF?) therapy...
  3. Takahashi T, Muneta T, Tsuji K, Sekiya I. BMP-7 inhibits cartilage degeneration through suppression of inflammation in rat zymosan-induced arthritis. Cell Tissue Res. 2011;344:321-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, intra-articular injections of BMP-7 had a protective effect on cartilage degeneration in the inflammatory arthritis model by enhancing levels of BMP-7 in cartilage and suppressing the production of IL-1? in synovium...
  4. van Kuijk A, Tak P. Synovitis in psoriatic arthritis: immunohistochemistry, comparisons with rheumatoid arthritis, and effects of therapy. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2011;13:353-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, a model for proof-of-principle study design using serial synovial biopsies is described, which could be used to predict clinical (in)efficacy in early clinical trial design in PsA...
  5. de Lange Brokaar B, Ioan Facsinay A, van Osch G, Zuurmond A, Schoones J, Toes R, et al. Synovial inflammation, immune cells and their cytokines in osteoarthritis: a review. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2012;20:1484-99 pubmed publisher
    ..This narrative systematic review summarizes the knowledge of inflammatory properties, immune cells and their cytokines in synovial tissues (STs) of OA patients...
  6. Hirohata S, Nagai T, Asako K, Tomita T, Yoshikawa H. Induction of type B synoviocyte-like cells from plasmacytoid dendritic cells of the bone marrow in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Clin Immunol. 2011;140:276-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that pDC is one of the progenitors of type B synoviocytes, suggesting that BM pDC might be involved in the pathogenesis of RA and OA...
  7. Eljaafari A, Tartelin M, Aissaoui H, Chevrel G, Osta B, Lavocat F, et al. Bone marrow-derived and synovium-derived mesenchymal cells promote Th17 cell expansion and activation through caspase 1 activation: contribution to the chronicity of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64:2147-57 pubmed publisher
    ..e., interleukin-17A [IL-17A], tumor necrosis factor ? [TNF?], and/or interferon-? [IFN?]), promote Th17 cell expansion and activation...
  8. Lowin T, Weidler C, Jenei Lanzl Z, Capellino S, Baerwald C, Buttgereit F, et al. Relationship between placenta growth factor 1 and vascularization, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate to dehydroepiandrosterone conversion, or aromatase expression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and patients with osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64:1799-808 pubmed publisher
    ..We undertook this study to investigate similarities between proliferating pannus and placental tissue by focusing on angiogenic placenta growth factor 1 (PlGF-1) in patients with OA and patients with RA...
  9. Yoon H, You S, Yoo S, Kim N, Kwon H, Yoon C, et al. NF-AT5 is a critical regulator of inflammatory arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2011;63:1843-52 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the role of NF-AT5, an osmoprotective transcription factor, in synovial hyperplasia and angiogenesis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
  10. Wähämaa H, Schierbeck H, Hreggvidsdottir H, Palmblad K, Aveberger A, Andersson U, et al. High mobility group box protein 1 in complex with lipopolysaccharide or IL-1 promotes an increased inflammatory phenotype in synovial fibroblasts. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011;13:R136 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we examined the toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and IL-1RI requirement for the cytokine-enhancing effects of the investigated HMGB1-ligand complexes...
  11. Saber T, Veale D, Balogh E, McCormick J, Nicanultaigh S, Connolly M, et al. Toll-like receptor 2 induced angiogenesis and invasion is mediated through the Tie2 signalling pathway in rheumatoid arthritis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23540 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigates the effect of TLR2 on angiogenesis, EC adhesion and invasion using microvascular endothelial cells and RA whole tissue synovial explants ex-vivo...
  12. Gheorghe K, Sadique S, Leclerc P, Idborg H, Wobst I, Catrina A, et al. Limited effect of anti-rheumatic treatment on 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase in rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue. Arthritis Res Ther. 2012;14:R121 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we aimed to evaluate the localization of 15-PGDH in the synovial tissue of healthy individuals or patients with inflammatory arthritis and determine the influence of common RA therapy on its expression...
  13. Kamperidis P, Kamalati T, Ferrari M, Jones M, Garrood T, Smith M, et al. Development of a novel recombinant biotherapeutic with applications in targeted therapy of human arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2011;63:3758-67 pubmed publisher
    ..To isolate recombinant antibodies with specificity for human arthritic synovium and to develop targeting reagents with joint-specific delivery capacity for therapeutic and/or diagnostic applications...
  14. Siebuhr A, Wang J, Karsdal M, Bay Jensen A, Y J, Q Z. Matrix metalloproteinase-dependent turnover of cartilage, synovial membrane, and connective tissue is elevated in rats with collagen induced arthritis. J Transl Med. 2012;10:195 pubmed publisher
    ..The thickness of the synovial membrane increases and surrounding tissue degrades, leading to altered collagen balance in the tissues...
  15. Lin J, Zhou Z, Huo R, Xiao L, Ouyang G, Wang L, et al. Cyr61 induces IL-6 production by fibroblast-like synoviocytes promoting Th17 differentiation in rheumatoid arthritis. J Immunol. 2012;188:5776-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study also suggests that targeting of Cyr61 may represent a novel strategy in RA treatment...
  16. Mor Vaknin N, Kappes F, Dick A, Legendre M, Damoc C, Teitz Tennenbaum S, et al. DEK in the synovium of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: characterization of DEK antibodies and posttranslational modification of the DEK autoantigen. Arthritis Rheum. 2011;63:556-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Since DEK has been identified in the synovial fluid (SF) of patients with JIA, this study was undertaken to investigate how DEK protein and/or autoantibodies may contribute to the pathogenesis of JIA...
  17. Lee A, Qiao Y, Grigoriev G, Chen J, Park Min K, Park S, et al. Tumor necrosis factor ? induces sustained signaling and a prolonged and unremitting inflammatory response in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts. Arthritis Rheum. 2013;65:928-38 pubmed publisher
    ..To identify the contribution of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) to the perpetuation of synovitis, we investigated the molecular mechanisms that govern the tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?)-driven inflammatory program in human FLS...
  18. Muir P, Kelly J, Marvel S, Heinrich D, Schaefer S, Manley P, et al. Lymphocyte populations in joint tissues from dogs with inflammatory stifle arthritis and associated degenerative cranial cruciate ligament rupture. Vet Surg. 2011;40:753-61 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate lymphocyte populations in stifle synovium and synovial fluid of dogs with degenerative cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR)...
  19. Gutierrez Roelens I, Galant C, Theate I, Lories R, Durez P, Nzeusseu Toukap A, et al. Rituximab treatment induces the expression of genes involved in healing processes in the rheumatoid arthritis synovium. Arthritis Rheum. 2011;63:1246-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We undertook this study to investigate the global molecular effects of rituximab in synovial biopsy samples obtained from anti-TNF-resistant RA patients before and after administration of the drug...
  20. Lambert C, Mathy Hartert M, Dubuc J, Montell E, Vergés J, Munaut C, et al. Characterization of synovial angiogenesis in osteoarthritis patients and its modulation by chondroitin sulfate. Arthritis Res Ther. 2012;14:R58 pubmed publisher
    ..pro- and anti-angiogenic factors by normal/reactive (N/R) or inflammatory (I) areas of the osteoarthritic synovial membrane. The effects of interleukin (IL)-1? and chondroitin sulfate (CS) on the expression of pro- and anti-..
  21. Connolly M, Veale D, Fearon U. Acute serum amyloid A regulates cytoskeletal rearrangement, cell matrix interactions and promotes cell migration in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011;70:1296-303 pubmed publisher
    ..This study characterises the mechanism of A-SAA-induced cytoskeletal rearrangement and migration in synovial fibroblasts and microvascular endothelial cells (human dermal endothelial cells; HDEC)...
  22. Kurth T, Dell accio F, Crouch V, Augello A, Sharpe P, De Bari C. Functional mesenchymal stem cell niches in adult mouse knee joint synovium in vivo. Arthritis Rheum. 2011;63:1289-300 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously reported that human synovium contains cells that, after culture expansion, display properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The objective of this study was to identify MSCs in native synovium in vivo...
  23. Niederer F, Trenkmann M, Ospelt C, Karouzakis E, Neidhart M, Stanczyk J, et al. Down-regulation of microRNA-34a* in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts promotes apoptosis resistance. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64:1771-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the expression and effect of the microRNA-34 (miR-34) family on apoptosis in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASFs)...
  24. Philippe L, Alsaleh G, Suffert G, Meyer A, Georgel P, Sibilia J, et al. TLR2 expression is regulated by microRNA miR-19 in rheumatoid fibroblast-like synoviocytes. J Immunol. 2012;188:454-61 pubmed publisher
  25. Ishijima M, Watari T, Naito K, Kaneko H, Futami I, Yoshimura Ishida K, et al. Relationships between biomarkers of cartilage, bone, synovial metabolism and knee pain provide insights into the origins of pain in early knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011;13:R22 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested the hypothesis that there exist relationships between the onset of early stage radiographically defined knee osteoarthritis (OA), pain and changes in biomarkers of joint metabolism...
  26. Ju J, Heo Y, Cho M, Jhun J, Park J, Lee S, et al. Modulation of STAT-3 in rheumatoid synovial T cells suppresses Th17 differentiation and increases the proportion of Treg cells. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64:3543-52 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the impact of STAT-3-mediated regulation on Th17 differentiation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
  27. Chang C, Han S, Kim E, Lee S, Seong S, Lee M. Chondrogenic potentials of human synovium-derived cells sorted by specific surface markers. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2013;21:190-9 pubmed publisher
  28. Gheorghe K, Thurlings R, Westman M, Boumans M, Malmstrom V, Trollmo C, et al. Prostaglandin E2 synthesizing enzymes in rheumatoid arthritis B cells and the effects of B cell depleting therapy on enzyme expression. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16378 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore we investigated the expression of PGE(2) pathway enzymes in RA B cells and evaluated the effects of B cell depleting therapy on their expression in RA tissue...
  29. Waldburger J, Palmer G, Seemayer C, Lamacchia C, Finckh A, Christofilopoulos P, et al. Autoimmunity and inflammation are independent of class II transactivator type PIV-dependent class II major histocompatibility complex expression in peripheral tissues during collagen-induced arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2011;63:3354-63 pubmed publisher
  30. Hot A, Miossec P. Effects of interleukin (IL)-17A and IL-17F in human rheumatoid arthritis synoviocytes. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011;70:727-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, they enhance metalloprotease secretion leading to cartilage damage. These properties support the combined inhibition of IL-17A and -F to control RA inflammation and joint destruction...
  31. Matsuo K, Arito M, Noyori K, Nakamura H, Kurokawa M, Masuko K, et al. Arthritogenicity of annexin VII revealed by phosphoproteomics of rheumatoid synoviocytes. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011;70:1489-95 pubmed publisher
    ..To identify novel proteins involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to characterise the identified proteins based on pathogenic and therapeutic aspects...
  32. Cooles F, Isaacs J. Pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2011;23:233-40 pubmed publisher
    ..To provide a summary of recent advances in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis...
  33. Kennedy A, Ng C, Chang T, Biniecka M, O Sullivan J, Heffernan E, et al. Tumor necrosis factor blocking therapy alters joint inflammation and hypoxia. Arthritis Rheum. 2011;63:923-32 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the effect of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blocking therapy on hypoxia in vivo, macroscopic and microscopic inflammation, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results in patients with inflammatory arthritis...
  34. Klarenbeek P, de Hair M, Doorenspleet M, van Schaik B, Esveldt R, van de Sande M, et al. Inflamed target tissue provides a specific niche for highly expanded T-cell clones in early human autoimmune disease. Ann Rheum Dis. 2012;71:1088-93 pubmed publisher
  35. Gao W, Sweeney C, Connolly M, Kennedy A, Ng C, McCormick J, et al. Notch-1 mediates hypoxia-induced angiogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64:2104-13 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the effect of hypoxia on Notch-1 signaling pathway components and angiogenesis in inflammatory arthritis...
  36. Fueldner C, Mittag A, Knauer J, Biskop M, Hepp P, Scholz R, et al. Identification and evaluation of novel synovial tissue biomarkers in rheumatoid arthritis by laser scanning cytometry. Arthritis Res Ther. 2012;14:R8 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we tested several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against cellular-surface molecules on cells likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of RA...
  37. van Lent P, Blom A, Schelbergen R, Sloetjes A, Lafeber F, Lems W, et al. Active involvement of alarmins S100A8 and S100A9 in the regulation of synovial activation and joint destruction during mouse and human osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64:1466-76 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate whether alarmins S100A8 and S100A9 are involved in mediating cartilage destruction during murine and human osteoarthritis (OA)...
  38. Ultaigh S, Saber T, McCormick J, Connolly M, Dellacasagrande J, Keogh B, et al. Blockade of Toll-like receptor 2 prevents spontaneous cytokine release from rheumatoid arthritis ex vivo synovial explant cultures. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011;13:R33 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to examine the effect of blocking Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial cells...
  39. Nakamura T, Fujihara S, Yamamoto Nagata K, Katsura T, Inubushi T, Tanaka E. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound reduces the inflammatory activity of synovitis. Ann Biomed Eng. 2011;39:2964-71 pubmed publisher
    ..was to examine the effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on the cell proliferation and growth of synovial membrane cells stimulated with inflammatory cytokines, and to evaluate the effectiveness of LIPUS treatment of ..
  40. Wei Z, Wang F, Song J, Lu Q, Zhao P, Xia Y, et al. Norisoboldine inhibits the production of interleukin-6 in fibroblast-like synoviocytes from adjuvant arthritis rats through PKC/MAPK/NF-?B-p65/CREB pathways. J Cell Biochem. 2012;113:2785-95 pubmed publisher
    ..It was concluded that preventing IL-6 release from FLS might be an important mechanism for NOR displaying anti-RA property, and the action of NOR was relative to inhibition of PKC/MAPKs/p65/CREB pathways...
  41. Wang Y, Li D, Xu N, Tao W, Zhu R, Sun R, et al. Follistatin-like protein 1: a serum biochemical marker reflecting the severity of joint damage in patients with osteoarthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011;13:R193 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study is to detect FSTL1 expression and to further assess its potential utility as a biomarker of joint damage in osteoarthritis (OA) patients...
  42. Warnock J, Fox D, Stoker A, Cook J. Evaluation of in vitro growth factor treatments on fibrochondrogenesis by synovial membrane cells from osteoarthritic and nonosteoarthritic joints of dogs. Am J Vet Res. 2011;72:500-11 pubmed publisher
    To determine the in vitro effects of selected growth factors on fibrochondrogenesis by synovial membrane cells from nonosteoarthritic (normal) and osteoarthritic joints of dogs...
  43. Alsaleh G, François A, Knapp A, Schickel J, Sibilia J, Pasquali J, et al. Synovial fibroblasts promote immunoglobulin class switching by a mechanism involving BAFF. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:2113-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we showed that the mechanism by which RA FLSs induce CSR is mostly BAFF-dependent. Our results support the hypothesis that CSR can be induced outside the ectopic lymphoid structures in RA...
  44. Noordenbos T, Yeremenko N, Gofita I, van de Sande M, Tak P, Canete J, et al. Interleukin-17-positive mast cells contribute to synovial inflammation in spondylarthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64:99-109 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent observations have indicated a marked synovial mast cell infiltration in psoriatic SpA. We therefore undertook the present study to investigate the potential contribution of mast cells to synovial inflammation in SpA...
  45. Domenech E, Berná Serna J, Polo L, Reus M, Berná Mestre J, Canteras M. Effect of SonoVue on the synovial membrane in rabbit knees. J Ultrasound Med. 2011;30:1241-6 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of intra-articular injection of SonoVue (sulfur hexafluoride with a phospholipid shell; Bracco SpA, Milan, Italy) on the synovial membrane in an animal model.
  46. Chang X, Zhao Y, Yan X, Pan J, Fang K, Wang L. Investigating a pathogenic role for TXNDC5 in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011;13:R124 pubmed publisher
    ..Our previous study detected increased TXNDC5 expression in the synovial tissues of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients using proteomic methods. The current study investigated a pathogenic role for TXNDC5 in RA...
  47. van de Sande M, de Hair M, van der Leij C, Klarenbeek P, Bos W, Smith M, et al. Different stages of rheumatoid arthritis: features of the synovium in the preclinical phase. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011;70:772-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It is currently unknown whether the disease process starts in the synovium, the primary target of RA, or at other sites in the body...
  48. Karouzakis E, Gay R, Gay S, Neidhart M. Epigenetic deregulation in rheumatoid arthritis. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2011;711:137-49 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, we discuss the possible use of epigenetic therapy and describe future experiments that can elucidate further the epigenetic changes observed in the disease...
  49. Moran E, Heydrich R, Ng C, Saber T, McCormick J, Sieper J, et al. IL-17A expression is localised to both mononuclear and polymorphonuclear synovial cell infiltrates. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24048 pubmed publisher
    ..This study examines the expression of IL-17A-secreting cells within the inflamed synovium and the relationship to in vivo joint hypoxia measurements...
  50. Duro C, Ciena A, de Almeida S, Righetti M, Grisolia D, Issa J, et al. Qualitative study of young, adult, and aged Wistar rats temporomandibular synovial membrane employing light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Microsc Res Tech. 2012;75:1522-7 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to analyze the rat temporomandibular joint (TMJ) synovial membrane at different ages using light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy...
  51. Kim K, Kim H, Park J, Park J, Oh H, Woo Y, et al. Interleukin-22 promotes osteoclastogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis through induction of RANKL in human synovial fibroblasts. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64:1015-23 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the regulatory role of interleukin-22 (IL-22) in the expression of RANKL and induction of osteoclastogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
  52. Adams S, Setton L, Kensicki E, Bolognesi M, Toth A, Nettles D. Global metabolic profiling of human osteoarthritic synovium. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2012;20:64-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Metabolites specific to collagen metabolism, branched-chain amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism and tryptophan metabolism were amongst the most significant compounds, suggesting an altered metabolic state with disease progression...
  53. Zuo W, Wu Z, Wu N, Duan Y, Wu J, Wang H, et al. Adiponectin receptor 1 mediates the difference in adiponectin- induced prostaglandin E2 production in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis synovial fibroblasts. Chin Med J (Engl). 2011;124:3919-24 pubmed