spinal canal


Summary: The cavity within the SPINAL COLUMN through which the SPINAL CORD passes.

Top Publications

  1. Aikawa T, Kanazono S, Yoshigae Y, Sharp N, Munana K. Vertebral stabilization using positively threaded profile pins and polymethylmethacrylate, with or without laminectomy, for spinal canal stenosis and vertebral instability caused by congenital thoracic vertebral anomalies. Vet Surg. 2007;36:432-41 pubmed
    To describe diagnostic findings, surgical technique, and outcome in dogs with thoracic spinal canal stenosis and vertebral instability secondary to congenital vertebral anomalies.
  2. Bunck A, Kröger J, Jüttner A, Brentrup A, Fiedler B, Schaarschmidt F, et al. Magnetic resonance 4D flow characteristics of cerebrospinal fluid at the craniocervical junction and the cervical spinal canal. Eur Radiol. 2011;21:1788-96 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the applicability of 4D phase contrast (4D PC) MR imaging in the assessment of cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in healthy volunteers and patients with lesions at the craniocervical junction or the cervical spinal canal.
  3. Farrugia A, Raul J, Geraut A, Ludes B. Ricochet of a bullet in the spinal canal: a case report and review of the literature on bullet migration. J Forensic Sci. 2010;55:1371-4 pubmed publisher
    Ricochet of a bullet in the spinal canal is well known by neurosurgeons but relatively not a common event in usual medico-legal autopsy practice...
  4. Hirabayashi S, Yamada H, Motosuneya T, Watanabe Y, Miura M, Sakai H, et al. Comparison of enlargement of the spinal canal after cervical laminoplasty: open-door type and double-door type. Eur Spine J. 2010;19:1690-4 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of enlargement of the spinal canal between two methods of cervical laminoplasty (open-door laminoplasty and double-door laminoplasty) and to determine their appropriate surgical ..
  5. Menezes A. Surgical approaches: postoperative care and complications "posterolateral-far lateral transcondylar approach to the ventral foramen magnum and upper cervical spinal canal". Childs Nerv Syst. 2008;24:1203-7 pubmed publisher
    Lesions that affect the lower clivus, foramen magnum, the craniocervical junction, and the upper cervical spinal canal that are anterolateral and at times intradural require access ventral to the cerebellum and spinal cord...
  6. Reina M, Franco C, Lopez A, De Andres J, van Zundert A. Clinical implications of epidural fat in the spinal canal. A scanning electron microscopic study. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg. 2009;60:7-17 pubmed
    ..This review of articles summarizes recent developments in relation to fat located in the epidural space and also in dural sleeves of spinal nerve roots in order to improve our understanding of the clinical effects of the epidural blockade...
  7. Banik S, Rangayyan R, Boag G. Automatic segmentation of the ribs, the vertebral column, and the spinal canal in pediatric computed tomographic images. J Digit Imaging. 2010;23:301-22 pubmed publisher
    We propose methods to perform automatic identification of the rib structure, the vertebral column, and the spinal canal in computed tomographic (CT) images of pediatric patients...
  8. Otani K, Sato K, Yabuki S, Iwabuchi M, Kikuchi S. A segmental partial laminectomy for cervical spondylotic myelopathy: anatomical basis and clinical outcome in comparison with expansive open-door laminoplasty. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009;34:268-73 pubmed publisher
    ..A comparative study regarding the clinical outcome of the 2-different surgical procedures for patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM)...
  9. Kalata W, Martin B, Oshinski J, Jerosch Herold M, Royston T, Loth F. MR measurement of cerebrospinal fluid velocity wave speed in the spinal canal. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2009;56:1765-8 pubmed publisher
    Noninvasive measurement of the speed with which the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) velocity wave travels through the spinal canal is of interest as a potential indicator of CSF system pressure and compliance, both of which may play a role in ..

More Information


  1. Kato F, Yukawa Y, Suda K, Yamagata M, Ueta T. Normal morphology, age-related changes and abnormal findings of the cervical spine. Part II: Magnetic resonance imaging of over 1,200 asymptomatic subjects. Eur Spine J. 2012;21:1499-507 pubmed
    The aim of this study is to establish standard MRI values for the cervical spinal canal, dural tube, and spinal cord, to evaluate age-related changes in healthy subjects, and to assess the prevalence of abnormal findings in asymptomatic ..
  2. Geisser M, Haig A, Tong H, Yamakawa K, Quint D, Hoff J, et al. Spinal canal size and clinical symptoms among persons diagnosed with lumbar spinal stenosis. Clin J Pain. 2007;23:780-5 pubmed
    ..The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between clinical symptoms associated with LSS and osseous anterior-posterior (AP) spinal canal diameter as measured on axial magnetic resonance imaging.
  3. Kim K, Isu T, Sugawara A, Matsumoto R, Isobe M. Comparison of the effect of 3 different approaches to the lumbar spinal canal on postoperative paraspinal muscle damage. Surg Neurol. 2008;69:109-13; discussion 113 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the effect of 3 different surgical approaches on paraspinal muscle atrophy in patients undergoing lumbar back surgery, we compared their pre- and postoperative CT scans and their serum Hb, CRP, and CPK levels...
  4. Arthurs O, Murray M, Zubier M, Tooley J, Kelsall W. Ultrasonographic determination of neonatal spinal canal depth. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2008;93:F451-4 pubmed publisher
    To determine by ultrasound (US) the spinal canal depth (SCD) in neonates and subsequently establish a nomogram and simple formula for calculating this distance.
  5. Adachi A, Kaminou T, Ogawa T, Kawai T, Takaki Y, Sugiura K, et al. Heat distribution in the spinal canal during radiofrequency ablation for vertebral lesions: study in swine. Radiology. 2008;247:374-80 pubmed publisher
    ..To prospectively evaluate the safety of radiofrequency (RF) ablation for vertebral lesions by monitoring the temperature in swine vertebral models with and without a cortical bone defect...
  6. Banczerowski P, Vajda J, Veres R. Exploration and decompression of the spinal canal using split laminotomy and its modification, the "archbone" technique. Neurosurgery. 2008;62:ONS432-40; discussion ONS440-1 pubmed publisher
    To develop a novel minimally invasive approach suitable for exploring different pathologies located in the spinal canal, allowing moderate enlargement of the canal with preservation of the majority of posterior structures so muscle ..
  7. Nakatsuka A, Yamakado K, Takaki H, Uraki J, Makita M, Oshima F, et al. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of painful spinal tumors adjacent to the spinal cord with real-time monitoring of spinal canal temperature: a prospective study. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2009;32:70-5 pubmed publisher
    To prospectively evaluate the feasibility, safety, and clinical utility of bone radiofrequency (RF) ablation with real-time monitoring of the spinal canal temperature for the treatment of spinal tumors adjacent to the spinal cord.
  8. Morita M, Miyauchi A, Okuda S, Oda T, Iwasaki M. Comparison between MRI and myelography in lumbar spinal canal stenosis for the decision of levels of decompression surgery. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2011;24:31-6 pubmed publisher
    ..A retrospective case-control study...
  9. Kanno H, Ozawa H, Koizumi Y, Morozumi N, Aizawa T, Kusakabe T, et al. Dynamic change of dural sac cross-sectional area in axial loaded magnetic resonance imaging correlates with the severity of clinical symptoms in patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012;37:207-13 pubmed publisher
    ..OBJECTIVE.: To examine whether the dural sac cross-sectional area (DCSA) in axial loaded magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) correlates with the severity of clinical symptoms in patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS).
  10. Matsumoto M, Watanabe K, Tsuji T, Ishii K, Takaishi H, Nakamura M, et al. Nocturnal leg cramps: a common complaint in patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009;34:E189-94 pubmed publisher
    Questionnaire survey on leg cramps for patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LCS).
  11. Pekmezci M, Yilmaz G, Daglioglu K, Gulsen M, Alanay A, Acaroglu E, et al. The effect of anterior spinal fusion on spinal canal development in an immature porcine model. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009;34:E501-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Experimental study...
  12. Delank K, Gercek E, Kuhn S, Hartmann F, Hely H, Rollinghoff M, et al. How does spinal canal decompression and dorsal stabilization affect segmental mobility? A biomechanical study. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2010;130:285-92 pubmed publisher
    When decompression of the lumbar spinal canal is performed, segmental stability might be affected...
  13. Hamasaki T, Tanaka N, Kim J, Okada M, Ochi M, Hutton W. Biomechanical assessment of minimally invasive decompression for lumbar spinal canal stenosis: a cadaver study. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2009;22:486-91 pubmed publisher
    ..A biomechanical study on the cadaveric human lumbar spine...
  14. Hentschel S, Mardal K, Løvgren A, Linge S, Haughton V. Characterization of cyclic CSF flow in the foramen magnum and upper cervical spinal canal with MR flow imaging and computational fluid dynamics. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010;31:997-1002 pubmed publisher
    ..CFD shows that the pressure and flow patterns vary from level to level in the upper spinal canal and differ between patients with Chiari and healthy volunteers...
  15. Yokoyama T, Ushida T, Yamasaki F, Inoue S, Sluka K. Epidural puncture can be confirmed by the Queckenstedt-test procedure in patients with cervical spinal canal stenosis. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2008;52:256-61 pubmed
    ..Thus, in this study, we examined the effect of spinal stenosis on the Queckenstedt-test procedure...
  16. Ulbrich E, Schraner C, Boesch C, Hodler J, Busato A, Anderson S, et al. Normative MR cervical spinal canal dimensions. Radiology. 2014;271:172-82 pubmed publisher
    To provide normal values of the cervical spinal canal and spinal cord dimensions in several planes with respect to spinal level, age, sex, and body height.
  17. Song K, Choi B, Kim S, Kim G, Kim Y, Song J. The relationship between spinal stenosis and neurological outcome in traumatic cervical spine injury: an analysis using Pavlov's ratio, spinal cord area, and spinal canal area. Clin Orthop Surg. 2009;1:11-8 pubmed publisher
    ..the relationship between four radiological parameters (Pavlov's ratio, sagittal diameter, spinal cord area, and spinal canal area) in patients with a traumatic cervical spine injury, as well as the correlation between these parameters ..
  18. Morishita Y, Naito M, Hymanson H, Miyazaki M, Wu G, Wang J. The relationship between the cervical spinal canal diameter and the pathological changes in the cervical spine. Eur Spine J. 2009;18:877-83 pubmed publisher
    A congenitally narrow cervical spinal canal has been established as an important risk factor for the development of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. However, few reports have described the mechanism underlying this risk...
  19. Alperin N, Lam B, Tain R, Ranganathan S, Letzing M, Bloom M, et al. Evidence for altered spinal canal compliance and cerebral venous drainage in untreated idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2012;114:201-5 pubmed publisher
    ..A novel analysis of MRI measurements of blood and CSF flow to and from the cranial and spinal canal compartments employing lumped parameters modeling of the cranio-spinal biomechanics provided, for the first ..
  20. Imbelloni L, Quirici M, Ferraz Filho J, Cordeiro J, Ganem E. The anatomy of the thoracic spinal canal investigated with magnetic resonance imaging. Anesth Analg. 2010;110:1494-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated, with magnetic resonance imaging, the distance of the dura mater to the spinal cord in patients without spinal or medullar disease at the 2nd, 5th, and 10th thoracic segments...
  21. Tokuhashi Y, Ajiro Y, Umezawa N. Outcomes of posterior fusion using pedicle screw fixation in patients >or=70 years with lumbar spinal canal stenosis. Orthopedics. 2008;31:1096 pubmed
    ..of spinal fusion using pedicle screw fixation were evaluated in patients older than 70 years with lumbar spinal canal stenosis...
  22. Song K, Yang J. Acutely progressing paraplegia caused by traumatic disc herniation through posterior Schmorl's node opening into the spinal canal in lumbar Scheuermann's disease. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011;36:E1588-91 pubmed publisher
    ..A case report...
  23. Sebastian A, Matsushita T, Kawanami A, Mackem S, Landreth G, Murakami S. Genetic inactivation of ERK1 and ERK2 in chondrocytes promotes bone growth and enlarges the spinal canal. J Orthop Res. 2011;29:375-9 pubmed publisher
    ..in the cranial base and vertebrae, accounting for the sometimes fatal stenosis of the foramen magnum and spinal canal in achondroplasia...
  24. Duczkowska A, Bekiesinska Figatowska M, Herman Sucharska I, Duczkowski M, Romaniuk Doroszewska A, Jurkiewicz E, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of the fetal spinal canal contents. Brain Dev. 2011;33:10-20 pubmed publisher
    ..the first method in the evaluation of fetal central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities but in case of the spinal canal and cord it is often insufficient since the bony structures may obscure these structures...
  25. Morishita Y, Hida S, Naito M, Arimizu J, Takamori Y. Neurogenic intermittent claudication in lumbar spinal canal stenosis: the clinical relationship between the local pressure of the intervertebral foramen and the clinical findings in lumbar spinal canal stenosis. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2009;22:130-4 pubmed publisher
    The clinical relationship between the local pressure of the intervertebral foramen and the clinical findings in lumbar spinal canal stenosis were evaluated.
  26. Kanno H, Endo T, Ozawa H, Koizumi Y, Morozumi N, Itoi E, et al. Axial loading during magnetic resonance imaging in patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis: does it reproduce the positional change of the dural sac detected by upright myelography?. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012;37:E985-92 pubmed publisher
    We compared the sizes of the dural sac among conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), axial loaded MRI, and upright myelography in patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS).
  27. Yang Z, Xu Y, Yang D, Sun H, Zhao R, Zhang J, et al. Pathological impairments induced by interstitial implantation of 125I seeds in spinal canal of banna mini-pigs. World J Surg Oncol. 2012;10:48 pubmed publisher
    ..Use a banna mini-pig to set up 125I implantation model, and investigate the consequence of radiation-related impairments...
  28. Madsen R, Jensen T, Pope M, Sørensen J, Bendix T. The effect of body position and axial load on spinal canal morphology: an MRI study of central spinal stenosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2008;33:61-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A method comparison study...
  29. Chazono M, Tanaka T, Kumagae Y, Sai T, Marumo K. Ethnic differences in pedicle and bony spinal canal dimensions calculated from computed tomography of the cervical spine: a review of the English-language literature. Eur Spine J. 2012;21:1451-8 pubmed publisher
    The aims of this study were to review published data on pedicle dimensions and bony spinal canal diameters calculated from CT examinations of the cervical spine through the English-language literature and analyze these data for ethnic ..
  30. Okada Y, Ikata T, Katoh S, Yamada H. Morphologic analysis of the cervical spinal cord, dural tube, and spinal canal by magnetic resonance imaging in normal adults and patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1994;19:2331-5 pubmed
    Transverse areas of the spinal canal, the dural tube and the spinal cord of the cervical spine of normal adults and patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) were analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  31. Patronas N, Courcoutsakis N, Bromley C, Katzman G, MacCollin M, Parry D. Intramedullary and spinal canal tumors in patients with neurofibromatosis 2: MR imaging findings and correlation with genotype. Radiology. 2001;218:434-42 pubmed
  32. Loth F, Yardimci M, Alperin N. Hydrodynamic modeling of cerebrospinal fluid motion within the spinal cavity. J Biomech Eng. 2001;123:71-9 pubmed
    ..In the present work, a geometric and hydrodynamic characterization of an anatomically relevant spinal canal model is presented...
  33. Debois V, Herz R, Berghmans D, Hermans B, Herregodts P. Soft cervical disc herniation. Influence of cervical spinal canal measurements on development of neurologic symptoms. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1999;24:1996-2002 pubmed
    ..because of soft cervical disc herniation, the sagittal and transverse diameters, the area of the bony cervical spinal canal, the sagittal diameter of the hernia, and the minimal bony intervertebral foramen diameter were measured by ..
  34. O Brien M, Lenke L, Bridwell K, Blanke K, Baldus C. Preoperative spinal canal investigation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis curves > or = 70 degrees. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1994;19:1606-10 pubmed
    ..This is a prospective evaluation of a consecutive series of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) with curves > or = 70 degrees...
  35. Mirzai H. Tuberculoma of the cervical spinal canal mimicking en plaque meningioma. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2005;18:197-9 pubmed
    ..Intradural extramedullary tuberculomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of en plaque meningioma as a rare entity...
  36. Aribas O, Gormus N, Aydogdu Kiresi D. Epidural emphysema associated with primary spontaneous pneumothorax. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2001;20:645-6 pubmed
    ..tomography demonstrated pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema with multiple air bubbles within the spinal canal between the levels Th3 and Th11. Resection of bullae on the upper lobe and partial pleurectomy were performed...
  37. Yue W, Tan S, Tan M, Koh D, Tan C. The Torg--Pavlov ratio in cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a comparative study between patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy and a nonspondylotic, nonmyelopathic population. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2001;26:1760-4 pubmed
    ..A radiologic study to compare the Torg--Pavlov ratios between patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy and a nonspondylotic, nonmyelopathic population...
  38. Friese S, Hamhaber U, Erb M, Kueker W, Klose U. The influence of pulse and respiration on spinal cerebrospinal fluid pulsation. Invest Radiol. 2004;39:120-30 pubmed
    ..The aim of the study is to elucidate the location and amount of spinal cerebrospinal fluid pulsations and to differentiate and quantify the cardiac and the respiratory influence...
  39. Lee J, Hida K, Seki T, Iwasaki Y, Minoru A. An interspinous process distractor (X STOP) for lumbar spinal stenosis in elderly patients: preliminary experiences in 10 consecutive cases. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2004;17:72-7; discussion 78 pubmed
    ..Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is often a position-dependent condition that is aggravated in extension and relieved in flexion...
  40. Verbiest H. [Primary stenosis of the lumbar spinal canal in adults, a new syndrome]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 1950;94:2415-33 pubmed
  41. Wiltse L. Anatomy of the extradural compartments of the lumbar spinal canal. Peridural membrane and circumneural sheath. Radiol Clin North Am. 2000;38:1177-206 pubmed
    The development of newer and more accurate methods of identifying the structures within the spinal canal has given a much better understanding of the soft tissue structures that lie between the dura and the surrounding bone of the ..
  42. Burnett S, Starkschalla G, Stevens C, Liao Z. A deformable-model approach to semi-automatic segmentation of CT images demonstrated by application to the spinal canal. Med Phys. 2004;31:251-63 pubmed
    ..We illustrate the method by applying it to the spinal canal. Segmentation is performed in three steps: (a) partial delineation of the anatomic structure is obtained by ..
  43. Chibbaro S, Selem M, Tacconi L. Cervicothoracolumbar pneumorachis. Case report and review of the literature. Surg Neurol. 2005;64:80-2 pubmed
    ..It is even rarer when its occurrence is not associated with injuries in the skull base, chest, abdomen, pelvis, or spine. Pneumorachis extending through the entire spinal canal has never been reported.
  44. Siddiqui M, Karadimas E, Nicol M, Smith F, Wardlaw D. Influence of X Stop on neural foramina and spinal canal area in spinal stenosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006;31:2958-62 pubmed
    Measurements of cross sections of exit foramen and spinal canal were performed before and after placement of X Stop in physiologic postures using positional MR scanner at the stenosed level in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis.
  45. Prasad S, O Malley M, Caplan M, Shackleford I, Pydisetty R. MRI measurements of the cervical spine and their correlation to Pavlov's ratio. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2003;28:1263-8 pubmed
    ..Pavlov's ratio from plain radiographs in patients with neck pain but no radicular symptoms was compared with the areas of the cervical spinal cord and cerebrospinal fluid column on magnetic resonance scans...
  46. Sardesai A, Patel R, Denny N, Menon D, Dixon A, Herrick M, et al. Interscalene brachial plexus block: can the risk of entering the spinal canal be reduced? A study of needle angles in volunteers undergoing magnetic resonance imaging. Anesthesiology. 2006;105:9-13 pubmed
    Spinal cord damage during interscalene brachial plexus block has been attributed to needle entry into the spinal canal. The purpose of this study was to identify the angles and depths of needle insertion that increase the likelihood of ..
  47. Opel D, Lundin D, Stevenson K, Klein E. Glass foreign body in the spinal canal of a child: case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2004;20:468-72 pubmed
    ..Physicians should have a low threshold for obtaining plain radiographs in patients with glass foreign bodies and consider that projectiles may rest some distance from the laceration site...
  48. Inufusa A, An H, Lim T, Hasegawa T, Haughton V, Nowicki B. Anatomic changes of the spinal canal and intervertebral foramen associated with flexion-extension movement. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1996;21:2412-20 pubmed
    A cadaveric study was done to analyze the dimensional changes in the spinal canal and intervertebral foramen of the lumber spine with flexion and extension movements.
  49. Sucato D, Kassab F, Dempsey M. Analysis of screw placement relative to the aorta and spinal canal following anterior instrumentation for thoracic idiopathic scoliosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2004;29:554-9; discussion 559 pubmed
    ..Axial computed tomographic (CT) evaluation of the position of anterior vertebral body screws placed thoracoscopically in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS)...
  50. Valero R, Serrano S, Adalia R, Tercero J, Blasi A, Sanchez Etayo G, et al. Anesthetic management of a patient in prone position with a drill bit penetrating the spinal canal at C1-C2, using a laryngeal mask. Anesth Analg. 2004;98:1447-50, table of contents pubmed
    ..The bit had entered the spinal canal below the first cervical vertebra, and placed near the odontoid peg...
  51. Evans J. NEUROGENIC INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION. Br Med J. 1964;2:985-7 pubmed
  52. Hukuda S, Kojima Y. Sex discrepancy in the canal/body ratio of the cervical spine implicating the prevalence of cervical myelopathy in men. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2002;27:250-3 pubmed
    ..A radiographic analysis of the cervical spine in healthy young adults...
  53. Oyama H, Ikeda A, Inoue S, Nakamura S, Nishimura Y, Shibuya M. Multiple neurenteric cysts in the posterior fossa and cervical spinal canal--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2004;44:146-9 pubmed
    A 46-year-old woman presented with multiple neurenteric cysts in the posterior fossa and spinal canal. Neuroimaging demonstrated neurenteric cysts in the interspace between the left cerebellar hemisphere and vermis, the lateral side of ..