odontoid process

Summary

Summary: The toothlike process on the upper surface of the axis, which articulates with the CERVICAL ATLAS above.

Top Publications

  1. Fujii E, Kobayashi K, Hirabayashi K. Treatment in fractures of the odontoid process. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1988;13:604-9 pubmed
    ..Surgery should be performed in acute cases of Type II, Type III with significant displacement, and nonunion cases in Type II and Type III...
  2. Messina A, Bruno M, Decq P, Coste A, Cavallo L, de Divittis E, et al. Pure endoscopic endonasal odontoidectomy: anatomical study. Neurosurg Rev. 2007;30:189-94; discussion 194 pubmed
    ..Among the surgical approaches available for a such condition, the transoral resection of the odontoid process is the most often used...
  3. Chaudhary A, Drew B, Orr R, Farrokhyar F. Management of type II odontoid fractures in the geriatric population: outcome of treatment in a rigid cervical orthosis. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2010;23:317-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Retrospective study...
  4. Butler J, Dolan R, Burbridge M, Hurson C, O Byrne J, McCormack D, et al. The long-term functional outcome of type II odontoid fractures managed non-operatively. Eur Spine J. 2010;19:1635-42 pubmed publisher
    ..However, patients of advancing age have been demonstrated to have significantly poorer functional outcomes in the long term. This may be linked to higher rates of non-union...
  5. Collins I, Min W. Anterior screw fixation of type II odontoid fractures in the elderly. J Trauma. 2008;65:1083-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study is to investigate the surgical outcomes of anterior screw fixation of type II B odontoid fractures in the elderly...
  6. Platzer P, Thalhammer G, Sarahrudi K, Kovar F, Vekszler G, Vecsei V, et al. Nonoperative management of odontoid fractures using a halothoracic vest. Neurosurgery. 2007;61:522-9; discussion 529-30 pubmed
    ..The second aim was to present a case-control series of patients with nonunion of Type II odontoid fractures compared with patients with successful fracture healing to determine specific risk factors for failure of halo immobilization...
  7. Frangen T, Zilkens C, Muhr G, Schinkel C. Odontoid fractures in the elderly: dorsal C1/C2 fusion is superior to halo-vest immobilization. J Trauma. 2007;63:83-9 pubmed
    ..An operation has a high perioperative risk because of comorbidities, but previous data suggest improved outcome in this group...
  8. Al Kaissi A, Ben Chehida F, Gharbi H, Ben Ghachem M, Grill F, Varga F, et al. Persistent torticollis, facial asymmetry, grooved tongue, and dolicho-odontoid process in connection with atlas malformation complex in three family subjects. Eur Spine J. 2007;16 Suppl 3:265-70 pubmed
    ..persistent torticollis, plagiocephaly, facial asymmetry, grooved tongues, and asymptomatic "dolicho-odontoid process". All are of normal intelligence...
  9. Denaro V, Papalia R, Di Martino A, Denaro L, Maffulli N. The best surgical treatment for type II fractures of the dens is still controversial. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2011;469:742-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Reports on postoperative status of patients who underwent surgery for such injuries are limited to small case series, and it is unclear whether any one technique produces better outcomes than another...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Daher M, Daher S, Nogueira Barbosa M, Defino H. Computed tomographic evaluation of odontoid process: implications for anterior screw fixation of odontoid fractures in an adult population. Eur Spine J. 2011;20:1908-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The study was performed to evaluate, in a Brazilian population, the diameter of the odontoid process and the feasibility of using two 3.5-mm cortical screws for anterior odontoid fracture fixation.
  2. Tran A, Prentice D, Chan M. Tophaceous gout of the odontoid process causing glossopharyngeal, vagus, and hypoglossal nerve palsies. Int J Rheum Dis. 2011;14:105-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Specific involvement of the odontoid process is even rarer...
  3. Molinari R, Khera O, Gruhn W, McAssey R. Rigid cervical collar treatment for geriatric type II odontoid fractures. Eur Spine J. 2012;21:855-62 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate fracture healing, functional outcomes, complications, and mortality associated with rigid cervical collars...
  4. Patel A, Lindsey R, Bessey J, Chapman J, Rampersaud R. Surgical treatment of unstable type II odontoid fractures in skeletally mature individuals. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010;35:S209-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Systematic review of literature...
  5. Fraser J, Anand V, Schwartz T. Endoscopic biopsy sampling of tophaceous gout of the odontoid process. Case report and review of the literature. J Neurosurg Spine. 2007;7:61-4 pubmed
    ..With the aid of transoral or transnasal endoscopic biopsy sampling, the diagnosis can be reached in a minimally invasive manner...
  6. Nayak J, Gardner P, Vescan A, Carrau R, Kassam A, Snyderman C. Experience with the expanded endonasal approach for resection of the odontoid process in rheumatoid disease. Am J Rhinol. 2007;21:601-6 pubmed
    One of the common indications for removal of the odontoid process includes decompression of the cervicomedullary junction in patients with arthritic degeneration...
  7. Al Kaissi A, Chehida F, Ghachem M, Klaushofer K, Grill F. A hypoplastic atlas and long odontoid process in a girl manifesting phenotypic features resembling spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia joint laxity syndrome. Skeletal Radiol. 2008;37:469-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional tomographic features of a hypoplastic atlas (assimilation of the posterior arch of the atlas) and unduly long odontoid process were seen. We report what might be a novel type of SEMDJL.
  8. Schoenfeld A, Bono C, Reichmann W, Warholic N, Wood K, Losina E, et al. Type II odontoid fractures of the cervical spine: do treatment type and medical comorbidities affect mortality in elderly patients?. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011;36:879-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Retrospective cohort study...
  9. Smith H, Vaccaro A, Maltenfort M, Albert T, Hilibrand A, Anderson D, et al. Trends in surgical management for type II odontoid fracture: 20 years of experience at a regional spinal cord injury center. Orthopedics. 2008;31:650 pubmed
    ..The C1 lateral mass and C2 pedicle/isthmus screw technique has increased significantly since its description. Pneumonia, vocal cord, and swallowing problems occurred more often with anterior approaches...
  10. Elgafy H, Dvorak M, Vaccaro A, Ebraheim N. Treatment of displaced type II odontoid fractures in elderly patients. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2009;38:410-6 pubmed
    ..Surgical management includes either anterior odontoid screw fixation or posterior C1-C2 instrumentation with fusion...
  11. Smith H, Kerr S, Fehlings M, Chapman J, Maltenfort M, Zavlasky J, et al. Trends in epidemiology and management of type II odontoid fractures: 20-year experience at a model system spine injury tertiary referral center. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2010;23:501-5 pubmed publisher
    ..A retrospective cohort study of consecutive type II Odontoid fractures presenting to a Level 1 Regional Model Systems Spinal Cord Injury Center between June 1985 and July 2006...
  12. Koech F, Ackland H, Varma D, Williamson O, Malham G. Nonoperative management of type II odontoid fractures in the elderly. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2008;33:2881-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Retrospective case series of elderly patients with Type II odontoid fractures, with prospective functional follow-up...
  13. Nourbakhsh A, Shi R, Vannemreddy P, Nanda A. Operative versus nonoperative management of acute odontoid Type II fractures: a meta-analysis. J Neurosurg Spine. 2009;11:651-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of the criteria described in the literature as the indications for surgery for acute Type II odontoid fractures...
  14. Harrop J, Przybylski G, Vaccaro A, Yalamanchili K. Efficacy of anterior odontoid screw fixation in elderly patients with Type II odontoid fractures. Neurosurg Focus. 2000;8:e6 pubmed
    ..In this study the authors examine the efficacy of anterior odontoid screw fixation in a high-risk group of 10 elderly patients (> 65 years of age) treated for Type II odontoid fractures...
  15. Pal D, Sell P, Grevitt M. Type II odontoid fractures in the elderly: an evidence-based narrative review of management. Eur Spine J. 2011;20:195-204 pubmed publisher
    ..A prospective randomised controlled trial is recommended...
  16. Smith H, Kerr S, Maltenfort M, Chaudhry S, Norton R, Albert T, et al. Early complications of surgical versus conservative treatment of isolated type II odontoid fractures in octogenarians: a retrospective cohort study. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2008;21:535-9 pubmed publisher
  17. White A, Hashimoto R, Norvell D, Vaccaro A. Morbidity and mortality related to odontoid fracture surgery in the elderly population. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010;35:S146-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Systematic analysis...
  18. Ben Aïcha K, Laporte C, Akrout W, Atallah A, Kassab G, Jegou D. Surgical management of a combined fracture of the odontoid process with an atlas posterior arch disruption: a review of four cases. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2009;95:224-8 pubmed publisher
    Four cases of operated odontoid process fractures associated with a fracture of the posterior arch of the atlas are presented...
  19. Hankinson T, Grunstein E, Gardner P, Spinks T, Anderson R. Transnasal odontoid resection followed by posterior decompression and occipitocervical fusion in children with Chiari malformation Type I and ventral brainstem compression. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2010;5:549-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, the authors present the first experience with using an endoscopic transnasal corridor to accomplish ventral decompression in children with CM-I that is complicated by ventral brainstem compression...
  20. Leng L, Anand V, Hartl R, Schwartz T. Endonasal endoscopic resection of an os odontoideum to decompress the cervicomedullary junction: a minimal access surgical technique. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009;34:E139-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We report the case of a 50 year-old woman with os odontoideum and posterior atlantoaxial subluxation, who underwent an occipitocervical fusion followed by endonasal endoscopic anterior decompression of the cervicomedullary junction (CMJ)...
  21. Tarantino R, Piccirilli M, Anichini G, Delfini R. Benign osteoblastoma of the odontoid process of the axis with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst component: a case report. Neurosurg Rev. 2008;31:111-5 pubmed
    The authors report their experience on one patient with osteoblatoma of the odontoid process of the axis with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst...
  22. Platzer P, Thalhammer G, Ostermann R, Wieland T, Vecsei V, Gaebler C. Anterior screw fixation of odontoid fractures comparing younger and elderly patients. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007;32:1714-20 pubmed
    ..A retrospective, comparative study...
  23. Fagin A, Cipolle M, Barraco R, Eid S, Reed J, Li P, et al. Odontoid fractures in the elderly: should we operate?. J Trauma. 2010;68:583-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was undertaken in an attempt to develop management consensus by examining outcomes in elderly patients with odontoid fractures and comparing OP to a nonoperative (non-OP) approach...
  24. Al Balas H, Omari H, Mustafa Z, Matalka I. Osteoid osteoma of the odontoid process of the axis associated with atlanto-axial fusion. Br J Radiol. 2009;82:e126-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a pathologically proven case of osteoid osteoma of the odontoid process of the second cervical vertebra associated with atlanto-axial fusion...
  25. Tashjian R, Majercik S, Biffl W, Palumbo M, Cioffi W. Halo-vest immobilization increases early morbidity and mortality in elderly odontoid fractures. J Trauma. 2006;60:199-203 pubmed
    ..We review a series of odontoid fractures in elderly patients and evaluate for predictors for in-hospital morbidity and mortality...
  26. Patton K, Almes K, de Lahunta A. Absence of the dens in a 9.5-year-old rottweiler with non-progressive clinical signs. Can Vet J. 2010;51:1007-10 pubmed
    ..In this rottweiler, mild neurological deficits seen at 6 mo of age did not progress for the 9.5 y of the dog's life despite lack of surgical intervention. This finding underscores the marked differences between small and large breeds...
  27. Hsu W, Anderson P. Odontoid fractures: update on management. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2010;18:383-94 pubmed
    ..The treatment algorithm for odontoid fractures continues to evolve based on the improved understanding of, and evidence-based literature on, anterior screw fixation, posterior spinal fusion, and halo-vest immobilization...
  28. Chapman J, Bransford R. Geriatric spine fractures: an emerging healthcare crisis. J Trauma. 2007;62:S61-2 pubmed
  29. Hou Y, Yuan W, Wang X. Clinical evaluation of anterior screw fixation for elderly patients with type II odontoid fractures. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2011;24:E75-81 pubmed publisher
    ..A retrospective study of elderly patients who underwent anterior screw fixation for type II odontoid fractures between 2000 and 2009 was conducted...
  30. Yusof M, Yusof A, Abdullah M, Hussin T. Computed tomographic evaluation of the odontoid process for two-screw fixation in type-II fracture: a Malaysian perspective. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong). 2007;15:67-72 pubmed
    To measure the diameter of the odontoid process in a Malaysian population using computed tomographic (CT) scan and determine the feasibility of treating type-II odontoid fractures using 2 cortical screws.
  31. Harrop J, Hart R, Anderson P. Optimal treatment for odontoid fractures in the elderly. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010;35:S219-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinically based systematic review...
  32. Aebi M, Etter C, Coscia M. Fractures of the odontoid process. Treatment with anterior screw fixation. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1989;14:1065-70 pubmed
    ..Because of the difficulty involved in mastering anterior screw fixation of the dens, its use should be limited to experienced spine surgeons with the appropriate surgical facilities...
  33. Atasoy C, Fitoz S, Karan B, Erden I, Akyar S. A rare cause of cervical spinal stenosis: posterior arch hypoplasia in a bipartite atlas. Neuroradiology. 2002;44:253-5 pubmed
    ..Flexion and extension radiographs demonstrated atlantoaxial instability...
  34. Kirankumar M, Behari S, Salunke P, Banerji D, Chhabra D, Jain V. Surgical management of remote, isolated type II odontoid fractures with atlantoaxial dislocation causing cervical compressive myelopathy. Neurosurgery. 2005;56:1004-12; discussion 1004-12 pubmed
    ..The present study discusses their surgical management...
  35. Currarino G. Segmentation defect in the midodontoid process and its possible relationship to the congenital type of os odontoideum. Pediatr Radiol. 2002;32:34-40 pubmed
    This paper describes ten children with a developmental defect in the midportion of the odontoid process that may be related to congenital os odontoideum...
  36. Börm W, Kast E, Richter H, Mohr K. Anterior screw fixation in type II odontoid fractures: is there a difference in outcome between age groups?. Neurosurgery. 2003;52:1089-92; discussion 1092-4 pubmed
    ..Suggestions vary between conservative management and different types of early surgery. Recent data confirm that early surgery may be warranted because conservative treatment has a high rate of failure in the elderly...
  37. Kubo S, Takimoto H, Hosoi K, Toyota S, Karasawa J, Yoshimine T. Osteomyelitis of the odontoid process associated with meningitis and retropharyngeal abscess--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2002;42:447-51 pubmed
    ..complicated by a ruptured retropharyngeal abscess, which led to the correct diagnosis of osteomyelitis of the odontoid process of the axis...
  38. Alfieri A, Jho H, Tschabitscher M. Endoscopic endonasal approach to the ventral cranio-cervical junction: anatomical study. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2002;144:219-25; discussion 225 pubmed
    In order to develop an endoscopic endonasal approach to the ventral cranio-cervical junction and odontoid process under the concept of a minimally invasive surgical strategy, a cadaver study was performed.
  39. Ochoa G. Surgical management of odontoid fractures. Injury. 2005;36 Suppl 2:B54-64 pubmed
    ..This article reviews the various alternatives for treating odontoid fractures, attempting to give to the reader a broad perspective on the current techniques, including information taken from evidence-based medicine...
  40. Garg A, Gaikwad S, Gupta V, Mishra N, Kale S, Singh J. Bipartite atlas with os odontoideum: case report. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2004;29:E35-8 pubmed
    ..A case report of bipartite atlas associated with os odontoideum and review of the pertinent literature are presented...
  41. ElSaghir H, Bohm H. Anderson type II fracture of the odontoid process: results of anterior screw fixation. J Spinal Disord. 2000;13:527-30; discussion 531 pubmed
    Controversy exists in the literature regarding the adequacy of one or two screws for direct fixation of the odontoid process. Proponents of the two-screw technique believe that a single screw is not adequate to stabilize the fracture...
  42. Hart R, Saterbak A, Rapp T, Clark C. Nonoperative management of dens fracture nonunion in elderly patients without myelopathy. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2000;25:1339-43 pubmed
    A retrospective review of elderly patients treated without surgery for chronic mobile nonunions of the odontoid process. Patients were observed on an annual basis with clinical examinations and flexion/extensions plain film radiographs.
  43. Lennarson P, Mostafavi H, Traynelis V, Walters B. Management of type II dens fractures: a case-control study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2000;25:1234-7 pubmed
    ..A case-control study of patients with isolated type II dens fractures treated with halo vest immobilization...
  44. Heggeness M, Doherty B. The trabecular anatomy of the axis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1993;18:1945-9 pubmed
    ..The hypodense area observed in the upper portion of C2 would suggest that fixation devices inserted through this area may obtain relatively poor purchase and may be prone to cut-through failure...
  45. Kassam A, Snyderman C, Gardner P, Carrau R, Spiro R. The expanded endonasal approach: a fully endoscopic transnasal approach and resection of the odontoid process: technical case report. Neurosurgery. 2005;57:E213; discussion E213 pubmed
    The transoral approach to the odontoid process is considered the "gold standard" for resection of extradural lesions at this location...
  46. Koivikko M, Kiuru M, Koskinen S, Myllynen P, Santavirta S, Kivisaari L. Factors associated with nonunion in conservatively-treated type-II fractures of the odontoid process. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2004;86:1146-51 pubmed
    In type-II fractures of the odontoid process, the treatment is either conservative in a halo vest or primary surgical stabilisation...
  47. Sasso R, Doherty B, Crawford M, Heggeness M. Biomechanics of odontoid fracture fixation. Comparison of the one- and two-screw technique. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1993;18:1950-3 pubmed
    ..This study measured the stability of the odontoid process after fracture and internal fixation with one or two screws...
  48. Li F, Chen Q, Liu Y, Xu K, Chen W, Wu Q. [Diagnosis and treatment of odontoid fracture combined with lower cervical spinal injury]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2006;44:1395-8 pubmed
    ..To investigate the mechanism, clinical features and treatment of odontoid fracture combined with lower cervical spinal injury...
  49. Harrop J, Sharan A, Przybylski G. Epidemiology of spinal cord injury after acute odontoid fractures. Neurosurg Focus. 2000;8:e4 pubmed
    ..Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) after odontoid fracture is unusual. To identify predisposing factors, the authors evaluated a consecutive series of patients who sustained SCI from odontoid fractures...
  50. France J, Powell E, Emery S, Jones D. Early morbidity and mortality associated with elderly odontoid fractures. Orthopedics. 2012;35:e889-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Management strategies should be individualized to the patients; operative and nonoperative treatments remain viable options...
  51. McHugh B, Grant R, Zupon A, DiLuna M. Congenital os odontoideum arising from the secondary ossification center without prior fracture. J Neurosurg Spine. 2012;17:594-7 pubmed publisher
    ..earlier demonstrated an incompletely ossified, cartilaginous, orthotopic os separated from the body of the odontoid process at the level of the secondary ossification center with a short odontoid process...
  52. Puchwein P, Jester B, Freytag B, Tanzer K, Maizen C, Gumpert R, et al. The three-dimensional morphometry of the odontoid peg and its impact on ventral screw osteosynthesis. Bone Joint J. 2013;95-B:536-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In the majority of cases (70.5%) the odontoid peg offers enough room for two 3.5 mm cannulated cortical screws...
  53. Villalón P, Arzola J, Valdivia J, Fresno M, Santander H, Gutiérrez M, et al. The occlusal appliance effect on myofascial pain. Cranio. 2013;31:84-91 pubmed
    ..The results observed in the present study are relevant to clinicians because they imply that the therapeutic effect of OA does not significantly affect the homeostasis of the craniocervical system...