Summary: The posterior part of the temporal bone. It is a projection of the petrous bone.

Top Publications

  1. Deveze A, Rameh C, Sanjuan M, Lavieille J, Magnan J. A middle ear implant with a titanium canal wall prosthesis for a case of an open mastoid cavity. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2010;37:631-5 pubmed publisher
    Open mastoid cavity rehabilitation should focus on both anatomical and functional aspects...
  2. Gaihede M, Dirckx J, Jacobsen H, Aernouts J, Søvsø M, Tveterås K. Middle ear pressure regulation--complementary active actions of the mastoid and the Eustachian tube. Otol Neurotol. 2010;31:603-11 pubmed publisher
    Middle ear pressure (MEP) is actively regulated by both the Eustachian tube and the mastoid air cell system.
  3. Zhang G, Zhang J, Liang W, Chen Y, Ji C. Implant double tissue expanders superposingly in mastoid region for total ear reconstruction without skin grafts. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2012;76:1515-9 pubmed publisher
    To present our clinical experience in using two skin soft-tissue expanders implanted superposingly in the mastoid region and Medpor ear framework for congenital microtia reconstruction.
  4. Shojaku H, Takakura H, Okabe M, Fujisaka M, Watanabe Y, Nikaido T. Effect of hyperdry amniotic membrane patches attached over the bony surface of mastoid cavities in canal wall down tympanoplasty. Laryngoscope. 2011;121:1953-7 pubmed publisher
  5. Swarts J, Doyle B, Doyle W. Relationship between surface area and volume of the mastoid air cell system in adult humans. J Laryngol Otol. 2011;125:580-4 pubmed publisher
    The geometry of the adult human mastoid air cell system has not previously been described over a large range of mastoid air cell volumes.
  6. Sanna M, Fois P, Paolo F, Russo A, Falcioni M. Management of meningoencephalic herniation of the temporal bone: Personal experience and literature review. Laryngoscope. 2009;119:1579-85 pubmed publisher
    ..A review of the literature is also presented...
  7. Park J, Chen Y, Westhofen M. Impact of endolymphatic mastoid shunt surgery on saccule and lateral semicircular canal function. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;267:21-6 pubmed publisher
    Endolymphatic mastoid shunt surgery (EMSS) is widely performed in patients with medically intractable Meniere's disease...
  8. Sanna M, Fois P, Pasanisi E, Russo A, Bacciu A. Middle ear and mastoid glomus tumors (glomus tympanicum): an algorithm for the surgical management. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2010;37:661-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Glomus tumors are slow-growing benign lesions and represent the most common primary neoplasms of the middle ear. The objective of the present study is to report our surgical strategy in the management of glomus tympanicum tumors...
  9. Swarts J, Cullen Doyle B, Alper C, Doyle W. Surface area-volume relationships for the mastoid air cell system and tympanum in adult humans: Implications for mastoid function. Acta Otolaryngol. 2010;130:1230-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The rate of ME pressure decrease is proportional to the ME SA/V. The mastoid air-cell system (MACS) will not function as an ME gas reserve unless the blood perfusion/surface area is much ..

More Information


  1. Zhang X, Luo J, Gao L, Xu G. Mastoid recurrence after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: two case studies. Head Neck. 2011;33:1535-8 pubmed publisher
    The mastoid is a rare site of nasopharyngeal carcinoma recurrence after radiotherapy, and no relevant reports are currently in the literature.
  2. Mian O, Dakin C, Blouin J, Fitzpatrick R, Day B. Lack of otolith involvement in balance responses evoked by mastoid electrical stimulation. J Physiol. 2010;588:4441-51 pubmed publisher
    Passing current through mastoid electrodes (conventionally termed galvanic vestibular stimulation; GVS) evokes a balance response containing a short- and a medium-latency response. The origins of these two responses are debated...
  3. Giannuzzi A, Merkus P, Taibah A, Falcioni M. Congenital mastoid cholesteatoma: case series, definition, surgical key points, and literature review. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2011;120:700-6 pubmed
    We evaluate 3 new cases of congenital cholesteatoma confined to the mastoid process, and compare them with cases presented in the literature in order to better define this rare lesion.
  4. Sarin J, Grenman R, Aitasalo K, Pulkkinen J. Bioactive glass S53P4 in mastoid obliteration surgery for chronic otitis media and cerebrospinal fluid leakage. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2012;121:563-9 pubmed
    We evaluated the results of cases of chronic otitis media treated with mastoid obliteration surgery using bioactive glass S53P4.
  5. Chew Y, Cheong J, Khir A, Brito Mutunayagam S, Prepageran N. Complications of chronic suppurative otitis media: a left otogenic brain abscess and a right mastoid fistula. Ear Nose Throat J. 2012;91:428, 430 pubmed
    ..We describe a rare case of bilateral chronic suppurative otitis media that caused a left temporal lobe abscess and a right mastoid fistula.
  6. Chauhan N, Sharma Y, Bhagra T, Sud B. Persistence of multiple emissary veins of posterior fossa with unusual origin of left petrosquamosal sinus from mastoid emissary. Surg Radiol Anat. 2011;33:827-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Some emissary veins like the petrosquamosal sinus and mastoid emissary vein may cause significant bleeding during middle ear and skull base surgeries...
  7. Alper C, Kitsko D, Swarts J, Martin B, Yuksel S, Cullen Doyle B, et al. Role of the mastoid in middle ear pressure regulation. Laryngoscope. 2011;121:404-8 pubmed publisher
    Determine the role of mastoid volume in middle ear pressure (MEP) regulation. The hypothesis was that inert gas exchange between blood and middle ear (ME) is slower for larger mastoid volumes.
  8. Tseng C, Wang S, Young Y. Comparison of bone-conducted vibration for eliciting ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials: forehead versus mastoid tapping. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2012;146:289-94 pubmed publisher
    This study compared bone-conducted vibration (BCV) stimuli at forehead (Fz) and mastoid sites for eliciting ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMPs).
  9. Kiverniti E, Watters G. Taste disturbance after mastoid surgery: immediate and long-term effects of chorda tympani nerve sacrifice. J Laryngol Otol. 2012;126:34-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the immediate and long-term taste effects of chorda tympani nerve sacrifice in patients undergoing open cavity mastoidectomy...
  10. Stoor P, Pulkkinen J, Grenman R. Bioactive glass S53P4 in the filling of cavities in the mastoid cell area in surgery for chronic otitis media. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2010;119:377-82 pubmed
    Chronic infection of the middle ear and cholesteatoma can be treated surgically by exenteration of the mastoid air cells behind the ear...
  11. Tolsdorff B, Petersik A, Pflesser B, Pommert A, Tiede U, Leuwer R, et al. Individual models for virtual bone drilling in mastoid surgery. Comput Aided Surg. 2009;14:21-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The anatomy of the mastoid shows a high degree of variability, however, and the aim of this study was to evaluate whether individual virtual ..
  12. Xue J, Li T, Sun X, Liu Y. Focal defect of mastoid bone shell in the region of the transverse-sigmoid junction: a new cause of pulsatile tinnitus. J Laryngol Otol. 2012;126:409-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a new cause of pulsatile tinnitus: a focal defect of the mastoid bone shell in the region of the transverse-sigmoid junction, with a normal transverse-sigmoid sinus.
  13. Lampikoski H, Aarnisalo A, Jero J, Kinnari T. Mastoid biofilm in chronic otitis media. Otol Neurotol. 2012;33:785-8 pubmed publisher
    We designed a study to determine the role of mastoid mucosal biofilm in chronic otitis media (COM).
  14. Kim J, Song S, Cho J, Chang K, Jun B. Comparative study of the pneumatization of the mastoid air cells and paranasal sinuses using three-dimensional reconstruction of computed tomography scans. Surg Radiol Anat. 2010;32:593-9 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the pneumatization of mastoid air cells and PNS using three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of computed tomography (CT) scans of the PNS.
  15. Hidaka H, Ishida E, Kaku K, Nishikawa H, Kobayashi T. Congenital cholesteatoma of mastoid region manifesting as acute mastoiditis: case report and literature review. J Laryngol Otol. 2010;124:810-5 pubmed publisher
    We report an extremely rare case of congenital cholesteatoma of the mastoid region, presenting as acute mastoiditis. We also review the 16 previously reported cases of congenital cholesteatoma of the mastoid region.
  16. Sun J, Sun J, Hu Y, Lv Q, Wang Y, Li X, et al. Canal wall-down mastoidectomy with mastoid obliteration for pediatric cholesteatoma. Acta Otolaryngol. 2010;130:259-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Canal wall-down mastoidectomy with mastoid and epitympanum obliteration is a good choice for treatment of cholesteatoma in children.
  17. Kanchan T, Gupta A, Krishan K. Estimation of sex from mastoid triangle - a craniometric analysis. J Forensic Leg Med. 2013;20:855-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Human skulls are shown to exhibit sexual dimorphism. The objective of the present study was to assess the mastoid region in sexing of unknown skulls...
  18. Ikarashi F, Takahashi S, Yamamoto Y. Carbon dioxide exchange via the mucosa in healthy middle ear. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1999;125:975-8 pubmed
    ..We speculated that gas exchange via the mucosa is induced by the gas diffusion caused by the partial pressure gradient of gas between the middle ear cleft and submucosal capillaries...
  19. Albert R, Job A, Kuruvilla G, Joseph R, Brahmadathan K, John A. Outcome of bacterial culture from mastoid granulations: is it relevant in chronic ear disease?. J Laryngol Otol. 2005;119:774-8 pubmed
    To detect the presence of bacteria in mastoid granulations and compare its prevalence in both types of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM)...
  20. Fink J, McAuley D. Mastoid air sinus abnormalities associated with lateral venous sinus thrombosis: cause or consequence?. Stroke. 2002;33:290-2 pubmed
    ..We have encountered patients with LST associated with mastoid abnormality on MRI without any clinical signs of infection; the significance of these abnormalities is uncertain...
  21. Leatherman B, Dornhoffer J. The use of demineralized bone matrix for mastoid cavity obliteration. Otol Neurotol. 2004;25:22-5; discussion 25-6 pubmed
    To evaluate the use of demineralized bone matrix as a graft material for mastoid cavity obliteration in the treatment and prevention of problematic mastoid cavities.
  22. Choung Y, Park K, Cho M, Choung P, Shin Y, Kahng H. Systematic facial nerve monitoring in middle ear and mastoid surgeries: "surgical dehiscence" and "electrical dehiscence". Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;135:872-6 pubmed
    To evaluate and systemize intraoperative facial nerve monitoring (IOFNM) in middle ear and mastoid surgeries.
  23. Engelsma R, de Bree R, Janssen J, Scheeren R. Plasmacytoma of the mastoid bone: solitary and systemic. J Laryngol Otol. 2000;114:378-80 pubmed
    Plasma cell tumours of the mastoid are rare malignancies of haematological origin. Two patients are described with a plasma cell tumour in the mastoid bone...
  24. Witt R, Weinstein G, Rejto L. Tympanomastoid suture and digastric muscle in cadaver and live parotidectomy. Laryngoscope. 2005;115:574-7 pubmed
    ..To prove that the tympanomastoid suture (TMS) is a significantly closer and less variable anatomic landmark to the facial nerve than the posterior-superior margin of the posterior belly of the digastric muscle (PBD) in parotid surgery...
  25. Pensak M, Friedman R. The role of endolymphatic mastoid shunt surgery in the managed care era. Am J Otol. 1998;19:337-40 pubmed
    ..the surgical management of Meniere's disease has prompted us to review the effectiveness of the endolymphatic mastoid shunt procedure in the control of vertigo...
  26. Tsai C, Guo Y, Tsai T, Shiao A. Zygomatic abscess complicating a huge mastoid cholesteatoma with intact eardrum. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003;128:436-8 pubmed
  27. Pata Y, Akbas Y, Unal M, Duce M, Akbaş T, Micozkadioglu D. The relationship between presbycusis and mastoid pneumatization. Yonsei Med J. 2004;45:68-72 pubmed
    ..However, it would appear that a complex genetic cause is most likely. The determinants of mastoid size continue to be controversial. One of the pneumatization theories is the hereditary theory...
  28. Brown N, Grundfast K, Jabre A, Megerian C, O Malley B, Rosenberg S. Diagnosis and management of spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid-middle ear effusion and otorrhea. Laryngoscope. 2004;114:800-5 pubmed
    ..Data on nine cases of spontaneous CSF leak to the ear in adult patients from four medical centers are presented and analyzed to provide collective information about a disorder that can be difficult to diagnose and manage...
  29. Richards S, Saeed S, Laitt R, Ramsden R. Hypercellularity of the mastoid as a cause of spontaneous pneumocephalus. J Laryngol Otol. 2004;118:474-6 pubmed
    ..are reported in which spontaneous entry of air into the head appears to have occurred through a hypercellular mastoid air cell system. In both these cases forceful sneezing and nose blowing were considered contributory factors...
  30. Sargent E, Bankaitis A, Hollenbeak C, Currens J. Mastoid oscillation in canalith repositioning for paroxysmal positional vertigo. Otol Neurotol. 2001;22:205-9 pubmed
    ..Successful CRP results in cessation of PPV and positional nystagmus. Mastoid oscillation (MO) has been advocated to enhance the efficacy of CRP...
  31. Jang C, Park H, Cho Y, Song C. Mastoid obliteration using a hyaluronic acid gel to deliver a mesenchymal stem cells-loaded demineralized bone matrix: an experimental study. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2008;72:1627-32 pubmed publisher
    ..a combination of expanded human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with hyaluronic acid gel in human demineralized bone matrix (hDBM) can promote osteogenesis in a mastoid obliteration procedure, with using the guinea pig as an animal model.
  32. Balci A, Sangun O, Okuyucu S, Karazincir S, Akoglu E, Altintas Y, et al. The prevalence and significance of incidental middle ear and mastoid cavity abnormalities on MRI in a pediatric population. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2008;72:1849-54 pubmed publisher
    The purposes of this study were to determine the prevalence of abnormalities in the middle ear and mastoid cavity on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children and correlate the results with clinical data, tympanometric findings ..
  33. D Arpa S, Cordova A, Moschella F. Further application of the bilobed flap: the split bilobed flap for reconstruction of composite posterior auricular and mastoid defects. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2006;59:1330-5 pubmed
    In this article a modified bilobed flap from mastoid and lateral neck skin for reconstruction of complex defects of the posteromedial surface of the auricle and mastoid skin, with the preservation of the retroauricular sulcus, is ..
  34. Gantz B, Wilkinson E, Hansen M. Canal wall reconstruction tympanomastoidectomy with mastoid obliteration. Laryngoscope. 2005;115:1734-40 pubmed
    This study was designed to evaluate the authors' experience with canal wall reconstruction (CWR) tympanomastoidectomy with mastoid obliteration in the treatment of chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma.
  35. Dutt S, Mirza S, Irving R. Middle cranial fossa approach for the repair of spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid otorrhoea using autologous bone pate. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci. 2001;26:117-23 pubmed
    ..We also recommend the use of bone pate along with soft tissue for the repair in order to achieve a secure seal. Bone pate can effectively seal multiple defects in the tegmen plate without any risk of migration...
  36. Ringe J, Leinhase I, Stich S, Loch A, Neumann K, Haisch A, et al. Human mastoid periosteum-derived stem cells: promising candidates for skeletal tissue engineering. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2008;2:136-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Our aim was to investigate the MSC-like character of PCs derived from the periosteum of mastoid bone...
  37. Ramalingam K, Ramalingam R, SreenivasaMurthy T, Chandrakala G. Management of temporal bone meningo-encephalocoele. J Laryngol Otol. 2008;122:1168-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a series of 13 patients with chronic otitis media who suffered brain herniation into the mastoid cavity...
  38. Ohki M, Ito K, Ishimoto S. Fungal mastoiditis in an immunocompetent adult. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2001;258:106-8 pubmed
    ..following the surgery, which revealed massive granulations and proliferation of fungi but no cholesteatoma in the mastoid cavity. Fungal infection of the middle ear is rare, but can cause serious complications...
  39. Deriu F, Tolu E, Rothwell J. A short latency vestibulomasseteric reflex evoked by electrical stimulation over the mastoid in healthy humans. J Physiol. 2003;553:267-79 pubmed
    ..We conclude that transmastoid electrical stimulation evokes vestibulomasseteric reflexes in healthy humans at latencies consistent with a di-trisynaptic pathway...
  40. Ridenour J, Poe D, Roberson D. Complications with hydroxyapatite cement in mastoid cavity obliteration. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008;139:641-5 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether hydroxyapatite (HA) bone cement is a suitable material for mastoid cavity obliteration.
  41. Lee D, Jun B, Kim D, Jung M, Yeo S. Volume variation of mastoid pneumatization in different age groups: a study by three-dimensional reconstruction based on computed tomography images. Surg Radiol Anat. 2005;27:37-42 pubmed
    Although there have been some reports that measured the size of mastoid pneumatization, only a few studies have reported the age-related variations in the mastoid air cell system using three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction techniques of ..
  42. Welling D, Nagaraja H. Endolymphatic mastoid shunt: a reevaluation of efficacy. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2000;122:340-5 pubmed
    ..The main goal of this paper was to statistically reevaluate the efficacy of the endolymphatic shunt procedure for Meniere's disease...
  43. Stenfelt S, Håkansson B. Sensitivity to bone-conducted sound: excitation of the mastoid vs the teeth. Scand Audiol. 1999;28:190-8 pubmed three positions: osseointegrated percutaneous titanium implants in the temporal bone, the skin-covered mastoid and the teeth...
  44. Gyure K, Thompson L, Morrison A. A clinicopathological study of 15 patients with neuroglial heterotopias and encephaloceles of the middle ear and mastoid region. Laryngoscope. 2000;110:1731-5 pubmed
    ..Heterotopic masses of neuroglial tissue involving non-midline structures, specifically, the middle ear region, are exceptional. The pathogenesis of these lesions and, in particular, their relation to encephaloceles, is uncertain...
  45. Jang C. Changes in external ear resonance after mastoidectomy: open cavity mastoid versus obliterated mastoid cavity. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci. 2002;27:509-11 pubmed
    The creation of an open mastoid cavity changes the acoustic characteristics of the external ear...
  46. Sirikci A, Bayazit Y, Kervancioglu S, Ozer E, Kanlikama M, Bayram M. Assessment of mastoid air cell size versus sigmoid sinus variables with a tomography-assisted digital image processing program and morphometry. Surg Radiol Anat. 2004;26:145-8 pubmed
    We assessed the mastoid air cell size and variables of the sigmoid sinus in healthy ears and ears with chronic otitis media (COM)...
  47. Kanemaru S, Nakamura T, Omori K, Magrufov A, Yamashita M, Ito J. Regeneration of mastoid air cells in clinical applications by in situ tissue engineering. Laryngoscope. 2005;115:253-8 pubmed
    To regenerate of the mastoid air cells and their functions for the treatment of incurable otitis media.
  48. Lee D, Jun B, Park J, Yeo S. Magnetic resonance imaging of the mastoid cavity and middle ear: prevalence and clinical significance of incidental abnormal findings in a nonotolaryngologic adult and pediatric population. J Otolaryngol. 2006;35:13-8 pubmed
    The purposes of this study were to determine the prevalence of abnormalities in the mastoid cavity and middle ear in a nonotolaryngologic population and to correlate the results with clinical data.
  49. Manzari L, Modugno G. Nystagmus induced by bone (mastoid) vibration in otosclerosis: a new perspective in the study of vestibular function in otosclerosis. Med Sci Monit. 2008;14:CR505-10 pubmed
    ..It is assumed that vibration of the mastoid (at 100 Hz) stimulates all vestibular end organs (semicircular canals and otolith structures)...
  50. Martins R, Socolovsky M, Siqueira M, Campero A. Hemihypoglossal-facial neurorrhaphy after mastoid dissection of the facial nerve: results in 24 patients and comparison with the classic technique. Neurosurgery. 2008;63:310-6; discussion 317 pubmed publisher
    ..To reduce this morbidity, a modified technique with partial section of the hypoglossal nerve after mastoid dissection of the facial nerve (HFM) has been used...
  51. Vercruysse J, De Foer B, Somers T, Casselman J, Offeciers E. Mastoid and epitympanic bony obliteration in pediatric cholesteatoma. Otol Neurotol. 2008;29:953-60 pubmed publisher avoid the disadvantages of canal wall down techniques, the bony obliteration technique with epitympanic and mastoid obliteration has been developed...
  52. Louis R, Loukas M, Wartmann C, Tubbs R, Apaydin N, Gupta A, et al. Clinical anatomy of the mastoid and occipital emissary veins in a large series. Surg Radiol Anat. 2009;31:139-44 pubmed publisher
    Detailed descriptions of the mastoid emissary veins (MEVs) and the foramina through which they travel are lacking in the literature...
  53. Kazama K, Takahashi H, Kaieda S, Iwanaga T, Yamamoto Fukuda T, Yoshida H, et al. Effect of a large-sized silicone sheet upon recovery of mastoid aeration after mastoidectomy. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008;138:738-42 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the effect of our large-sized silicone sheet upon postoperative recovery of mastoid aeration in ears after surgery including mastoidectomy and soft-wall reconstruction (SWR).