foramen magnum

Summary

Summary: The large hole at the base of the skull through which the SPINAL CORD passes.

Top Publications

  1. Sindou M, Chávez Machuca J, Hashish H. Cranio-cervical decompression for Chiari type I-malformation, adding extreme lateral foramen magnum opening and expansile duroplasty with arachnoid preservation. Technique and long-term functional results in 44 consecutive adult cases -- comparison w. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2002;144:1005-19 pubmed
    Posterior cranio-cervical decompression by opening at least foramen magnum and C1-lamina usually with corresponding dural and arachnoid opening, is the procedure most currently used for treating Chiari I malformation (alone or in ..
  2. Haughton V, Korosec F, Medow J, Dolar M, Iskandar B. Peak systolic and diastolic CSF velocity in the foramen magnum in adult patients with Chiari I malformations and in normal control participants. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2003;24:169-76 pubmed
    Abnormal flow of CSF through the foramen magnum has been implicated in the pathogenesis of clinical deficits in association with Chiari I malformation...
  3. Iskandar B, Quigley M, Haughton V. Foramen magnum cerebrospinal fluid flow characteristics in children with Chiari I malformation before and after craniocervical decompression. J Neurosurg. 2004;101:169-78 pubmed
    ..attempted to correlate the clinical severity of these lesions with general flow velocity or bulk flow at the foramen magnum; however, these techniques have not allowed consistent prediction of symptomatology, explanation of the ..
  4. Goel A, Desai K, Muzumdar D. Surgery on anterior foramen magnum meningiomas using a conventional posterior suboccipital approach: a report on an experience with 17 cases. Neurosurgery. 2001;49:102-6; discussion 106-7 pubmed
    The advantages of a posterior "conventional" suboccipital approach with a midline incision over lateral, anterolateral, and anterior approaches to anteriorly placed foramen magnum meningiomas are discussed.
  5. Wanebo J, Chicoine M. Quantitative analysis of the transcondylar approach to the foramen magnum. Neurosurgery. 2001;49:934-41; discussion 941-3 pubmed
    Condylar resection with suboccipital craniotomy increases foramen magnum exposure, but guidelines for when this is necessary are not defined...
  6. Kassam A, Snyderman C, Mintz A, Gardner P, Carrau R. Expanded endonasal approach: the rostrocaudal axis. Part II. Posterior clinoids to the foramen magnum. Neurosurg Focus. 2005;19:E4 pubmed
    ..Recently, however, the standard endonasal approach has been expanded to provide access to other parasellar lesions. With the addition of the endoscope, this expansion has significant potential for the resection of skull base lesions...
  7. Rhoton A. The foramen magnum. Neurosurgery. 2000;47:S155-93 pubmed
  8. Tubbs R, Griessenauer C, Loukas M, Shoja M, Cohen Gadol A. Morphometric analysis of the foramen magnum: an anatomic study. Neurosurgery. 2010;66:385-8; discussion 388 pubmed publisher
    To further elucidate the importance of anatomic variations in morphology of the foramen magnum and associated clinical implications, we conducted a morphometric study.
  9. Quigley M, Iskandar B, Quigley M, Nicosia M, Haughton V. Cerebrospinal fluid flow in foramen magnum: temporal and spatial patterns at MR imaging in volunteers and in patients with Chiari I malformation. Radiology. 2004;232:229-36 pubmed

More Information

Publications62

  1. de Tella O, de Paiva Neto M, Aguiar P, Herculano M. [Anterior and lateral foramen magnum meningiomas]. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2006;64:437-40 pubmed
    We report our experience with 11 cases of foramen magnum meningiomas, eight originating inside the posterior fossa and three in the caudal region. The mean age of the patients was 50...
  2. Heiss J, Suffredini G, Smith R, DeVroom H, Patronas N, Butman J, et al. Pathophysiology of persistent syringomyelia after decompressive craniocervical surgery. Clinical article. J Neurosurg Spine. 2010;13:729-42 pubmed publisher
    ..persists after surgery, craniocervical decompression relieves neither the physiological block at the foramen magnum nor the mechanism of syringomyelia progression...
  3. Marhx Bracho A, Rueda Franco F, Ibarra de la Torre A, García González O, Bornstein Quevedo L, de León Bogorge B. Chordoid meningioma of the foramen magnum in a child: a case report and review of the literature. Childs Nerv Syst. 2008;24:623-7 pubmed publisher
    We report a 3-year-6-month-old boy with chordoid meningioma in the foramen magnum. Chordoid meningioma represents between 0.5 and 1.0% of all meningiomas, and it is frequently located in the supratentorial region...
  4. Bassiouni H, Ntoukas V, Asgari S, Sandalcioglu E, Stolke D, Seifert V. Foramen magnum meningiomas: clinical outcome after microsurgical resection via a posterolateral suboccipital retrocondylar approach. Neurosurgery. 2006;59:1177-85; discussion 1185-7 pubmed
    We analyzed a consecutive series of patients operated for a foramen magnum (FM) meningioma located on the ventral aspect of the medulla oblongata via a posterolateral suboccipital retrocondylar approach with regard to long-term surgical ..
  5. Goel A, Shah A. Trigeminal neuralgia in the presence of ectatic basilar artery and basilar invagination: treatment by foramen magnum decompression. J Neurosurg. 2009;111:1220-2 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Foramen magnum decompression resulted in lasting relief from the pain...
  6. Kandenwein J, Richter H, Antoniadis G. Foramen magnum meningiomas--experience with the posterior suboccipital approach. Br J Neurosurg. 2009;23:33-9 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study is to analyse short- and long-term results after surgical treatment of foramen magnum meningiomas and to identify the possible advantages of the posterior suboccipital approach over lateral and anterior approaches...
  7. Nanda A, Vincent D, Vannemreddy P, Baskaya M, Chanda A. Far-lateral approach to intradural lesions of the foramen magnum without resection of the occipital condyle. J Neurosurg. 2002;96:302-9 pubmed
    ..The goal of this study was to determine whether drilling out the occipital condyle facilitates surgery via the far-lateral approach by comparing data from 10 clinical cases with that from studies of eight cadaver heads...
  8. Boulton M, Cusimano M. Foramen magnum meningiomas: concepts, classifications, and nuances. Neurosurg Focus. 2003;14:e10 pubmed
    b>Foramen magnum meningiomas represent a common histological tumor in a rare and eloquent location...
  9. Furtado S, Thakre D, Venkatesh P, Reddy K, Hegde A. Morphometric analysis of foramen magnum dimensions and intracranial volume in pediatric Chiari I malformation. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2010;152:221-7; discussion 227 pubmed publisher
    b>Foramen magnum dimensions and intracranial volume in Chiari I malformations in children were studied, and the statistical relationship between patient demographics, radiological features and foramen magnum morphometry was investigated.
  10. Bruneau M, George B. Foramen magnum meningiomas: detailed surgical approaches and technical aspects at Lariboisière Hospital and review of the literature. Neurosurg Rev. 2008;31:19-32; discussion 32-3 pubmed
    b>Foramen magnum meningiomas are challenging tumors, requiring special considerations because of the vicinity of the medulla oblongata, the lower cranial nerves, and the vertebral artery...
  11. Bagley C, Pindrik J, Bookland M, Camara Quintana J, Carson B. Cervicomedullary decompression for foramen magnum stenosis in achondroplasia. J Neurosurg. 2006;104:166-72 pubmed
    ..The goal in this study was to assess the outcomes in children with achondroplasia who underwent cervicomedullary decompression...
  12. Muthukumar N, Swaminathan R, Venkatesh G, Bhanumathy S. A morphometric analysis of the foramen magnum region as it relates to the transcondylar approach. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2005;147:889-95 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to conduct a morphometric analysis of the hypoglossal canal (HC), occipital condyle (OC) and the foramen magnum (FM) as it pertains to the transcondylar approach.
  13. Borba L, de Oliveira J, Giudicissi Filho M, Colli B. Surgical management of foramen magnum meningiomas. Neurosurg Rev. 2009;32:49-58; discussion 59-60 pubmed publisher
    The objective of the study is to describe our experience in the surgical management of foramen magnum meningiomas with regard to the clinical-radiological findings, the surgical approach and the outcomes after mid-term follow up...
  14. Hentschel S, Mardal K, Løvgren A, Linge S, Haughton V. Characterization of cyclic CSF flow in the foramen magnum and upper cervical spinal canal with MR flow imaging and computational fluid dynamics. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010;31:997-1002 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional simulations of CSF flow supplemented by PC MR will lead to better measures for distinguishing pathologic flow abnormalities that cause syringomyelia, headaches, and other clinical manifestations in Chiari I malformations...
  15. Levine D. The pathogenesis of syringomyelia associated with lesions at the foramen magnum: a critical review of existing theories and proposal of a new hypothesis. J Neurol Sci. 2004;220:3-21 pubmed
    Syringomyelia is frequently accompanied by an extramedullary lesion at the foramen magnum, particularly a Chiari I malformation...
  16. Takayasu M, Takagi T, Hara M, Anzai M. A simple technique for expansive suboccipital cranioplasty following foramen magnum decompression for the treatment of syringomyelia associated with Chiari I malformation. Neurosurg Rev. 2004;27:173-7 pubmed
    ..The posterior bony margin of the foramen magnum and the posterior arch of C1 are removed thereafter...
  17. Uthman A, Al Rawi N, Al Timimi J. Evaluation of foramen magnum in gender determination using helical CT scanning. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2012;41:197-202 pubmed publisher
    The present research was undertaken to study the accuracy and reliability of the foramen magnum (FM) and some cranial measurements in gender classification through the use of reconstructed helical CT images.
  18. Sindou M, Gimbert E. Decompression for Chiari type I-malformation (with or without syringomyelia) by extreme lateral foramen magnum opening and expansile duraplasty with arachnoid preservation: comparison with other technical modalities (Literature review). Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg. 2009;34:85-110 pubmed
    ..CM-I) operated with a suboccipital craniectomy and a C1 (or C1/C2) laminectomy, plus an extreme lateral Foramen Magnum opening, a "Y" shaped dural incision with preservation of the arachnoid membrane, and an expansile ..
  19. Menezes A. Surgical approaches: postoperative care and complications "posterolateral-far lateral transcondylar approach to the ventral foramen magnum and upper cervical spinal canal". Childs Nerv Syst. 2008;24:1203-7 pubmed publisher
    Lesions that affect the lower clivus, foramen magnum, the craniocervical junction, and the upper cervical spinal canal that are anterolateral and at times intradural require access ventral to the cerebellum and spinal cord...
  20. Sewell M, Akram H, Wadley J. Foramen magnum decompression and expansile duroplasty for acquired Chiari type I malformation in craniometaphyseal dysplasia. Br J Neurosurg. 2008;22:83-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We outline the clinical and radiological features of this condition and describe the surgical management...
  21. Govsa F, Ozer M, Celik S, Ozmutaf N. Three-dimensional anatomic landmarks of the foramen magnum for the craniovertebral junction. J Craniofac Surg. 2011;22:1073-6 pubmed publisher
    The foramen magnum (FM) has a vital importance to have a direct view of the vertebral artery, lower cranial nerves, and the brainstem...
  22. Cousins J, Haughton V. Motion of the cerebellar tonsils in the foramen magnum during the cardiac cycle. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2009;30:1587-8 pubmed publisher
    ..57 mm in patients with Chiari malformations, 33% greater than that in controls. Tonsil motion was 0.61 mm in the patients with syringomyelia and 0.50 mm in those without it (22% difference)...
  23. Muzumdar D, Balasubramaniam S, Jhawar S, Goel A. Massive benign osteoblastoma of the suboccipital bone and foramen magnum region. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2010;46:232-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A case of a massive benign osteoblastoma of the suboccipital bone and foramen magnum region in a 9-year-old boy is reported...
  24. Suhardja A, Agur A, Cusimano M. Anatomical basis of approaches to foramen magnum and lower clival meningiomas: comparison of retrosigmoid and transcondylar approaches. Neurosurg Focus. 2003;14:e9 pubmed
    Meningiomas of the lower clivus and foramen magnum are among the most challenging of all neurosurgical lesions. Debate continues regarding the most appropriate approach to this eloquent anatomical region...
  25. Pirotte B, Brotchi J, Dewitte O. Management of anterolateral foramen magnum meningiomas: surgical vs conservative decision making. Neurosurgery. 2010;67:ons58-70; discussion ons70 pubmed publisher
    Anterolateral meningiomas of the foramen magnum (FMMs) represent a neurosurgical challenge because they grow in close contact with osteoarticular, nervous, and vascular structures that cannot be sacrificed or retracted.
  26. Dewey C, Berg J, Barone G, Marino D, Stefanacci J. Foramen magnum decompression for treatment of caudal occipital malformation syndrome in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2005;227:1270-5, 1250-1 pubmed
    A method for foramen magnum decompression (FMD) in dogs with caudal occipital malformation syndrome (COMS) and results for 16 dogs are described...
  27. Struck A, Haughton V. Idiopathic syringomyelia: phase-contrast MR of cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics at level of foramen magnum. Radiology. 2009;253:184-90 pubmed publisher
    To measure cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow velocities in the foramen magnum in patients with idiopathic syringomyelia (IS).
  28. Geetha L, Radhakrishnan M, Raghavendra B, Rao G, Indira Devi B. Anesthetic management for foramen magnum decompression in a patient with Morquio syndrome: a case report. J Anesth. 2010;24:594-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The anesthetic management of this patient for atlantoaxial stabilization is presented...
  29. Leikola J, Haapamaki V, Karppinen A, Koljonen V, Hukki J, Valanne L, et al. Morphometric comparison of foramen magnum in non-syndromic craniosynostosis patients with or without Chiari I malformation. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2012;154:1809-13 pubmed publisher
    In order to compare the morphometry of foramen magnum (FM) in a matched-pair study, in children with non-syndromic craniosynostosis with and without Chiari I malformation (CMI), both brain magnetic resonance (MRI) and multidetector ..
  30. Cheshier S, Hanft S, Adler J, Chang S. CyberKnife radiosurgery for lesions of the foramen magnum. Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2007;6:329-36 pubmed
    The region of the foramen magnum (FM) presents an especially difficult area for therapeutic intervention. Indeed, this location is challenging to access surgically, particularly in the case of intramedullary and anterior lesions...
  31. Sherer D, Sokolovski M, Dalloul M, Onesti S, Pezzullo J, Abulafia O. Nomograms of the axial transverse diameter of the fetal foramen magnum between 14 and 40 weeks' gestation. J Ultrasound Med. 2008;27:1297-303 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to create reference range nomograms of the axial transverse diameter of the fetal foramen magnum (TDFM) between 14 and 40 weeks' gestation.
  32. Martellacci S, Ben Salem D, Mejean N, Sautreaux J, Krause D. A case of foramen magnum syndrome caused by atlanto-occipital assimilation with intracanal fibrosis. Surg Radiol Anat. 2008;30:149-52 pubmed publisher
    We describe a case of foramen magnum syndrome secondary to atlanto-occipital assimilation with spinal-cord compression caused by retro-odontoid fibrous pannus...
  33. Maughan P, Horn E, Theodore N, Feiz Erfan I, Sonntag V. Avulsion fracture of the foramen magnum treated with occiput-to-c1 fusion: technical case report. Neurosurgery. 2005;57:E600; discussion E600 pubmed
    A 31-year-old woman presented with an avulsion fracture of the foramen magnum via bilateral occipital condyles with extension through the inferior aspect of the clivus.
  34. Margalit N, Lesser J, Singer M, Sen C. Lateral approach to anterolateral tumors at the foramen magnum: factors determining surgical procedure. Neurosurgery. 2005;56:324-36; discussion 324-36 pubmed
    ..strategies and results in 42 patients with a variety of tumors involving the anterior and anterolateral foramen magnum and present factors affecting the degree of resection and patient outcomes...
  35. Pamir M, Kilic T, Ozduman K, Ture U. Experience of a single institution treating foramen magnum meningiomas. J Clin Neurosci. 2004;11:863-7 pubmed
    ..the introduction of skull base approaches, there is still controversy in the optimum surgical management of foramen magnum meningiomas...
  36. Sarat Chandra P, Jaiswal A, Mehta V. Foramen magnum tumors: a series of 30 cases. Neurol India. 2003;51:193-6 pubmed
    b>Foramen magnum tumors, especially those located ventrally, are surgically challenging. We studied clinical and surgical details of extramedullary tumors located in the region of the foramen magnum.
  37. Gapert R, Black S, Last J. Sex determination from the foramen magnum: discriminant function analysis in an eighteenth and nineteenth century British sample. Int J Legal Med. 2009;123:25-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this paper is to evaluate manually recorded morphometric variables of the region of the foramen magnum using both discriminant function analysis and linear regression...
  38. Wu Z, Hao S, Zhang J, Zhang L, Jia G, Tang J, et al. Foramen magnum meningiomas: experiences in 114 patients at a single institute over 15 years. Surg Neurol. 2009;72:376-82; discussion 382 pubmed publisher
    ..We report clinical and radiologic features as well as the surgical findings and outcome for patients with FMM treated at our institution over the last 15 years...
  39. Marin Sanabria E, Ehara K, Tamaki N. Surgical experience with skull base approaches for foramen magnum meningioma. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2002;42:472-8; discussion 479-80 pubmed
    The surgical treatment of patients with foramen magnum meningioma remains challenging. This study evaluated the outcome of this tumor according to the evolution of surgical approaches during the last 29 years...
  40. Matsumoto H, Hanajima R, Terao Y, Ugawa Y. Magnetic-motor-root stimulation: review. Clin Neurophysiol. 2013;124:1055-67 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review article, we summarise the basic mechanisms, recent topics, clinical applications, comparison to electrical stimulation, pitfalls, safety and additional issues in magnetic-motor-root stimulation...
  41. Heiss J, Suffredini G, Bakhtian K, Sarntinoranont M, Oldfield E. Normalization of hindbrain morphology after decompression of Chiari malformation Type I. J Neurosurg. 2012;117:942-6 pubmed publisher
    ..internal occipital protuberance to opisthion), and anteroposterior (AP) width of CSF pathways at the foramen magnum were measured and compared with those from 18 healthy volunteers (control group)...
  42. Bosma J, Kumaran N, May P. Cerebral oedema following EVD insertion for delayed hydrocephalus after foramen magnum decompression in Chiari I malformation. Childs Nerv Syst. 2002;18:474-7 pubmed
    A case of Chiari I malformation is reported, in which foramen magnum decompression was followed by delayed onset of acute hydrocephalus after a week. Initial treatment of the hydrocephalus was further complicated by severe cerebral oedema.
  43. Boop F. Cerebral oedema following EVD insertion for delayed hydrocephalus after foramen magnum decompression in Chiari I malformation. Childs Nerv Syst. 2002;18:478-9 pubmed
  44. Graupman P, Pan D, Konair B, Hartung S, McIvor S, Whitley C, et al. Craniofacial abnormalities in a murine knock-out model of mucopolysaccharidosis I H: a computed tomography and anatomic study. J Craniofac Surg. 2004;15:392-8 pubmed
    ..The seven statistically significant measurements are width of the cervical canal, height of the foramen magnum, width between the external auditory canals, width of the skull base at the mandibular condyles, midocular ..
  45. Webb K, Kaptain G, Sheehan J, Jane J. Pediculotomy as an adjunct to posterior cervical hemilaminectomy, foraminotomy, and discectomy. Neurosurg Focus. 2002;12:E10 pubmed
    ..In addition, the resulting foraminal enlargement enhances the decompression provided by traditional foraminotomy, even if discectomy is not performed...
  46. Brusatte S, Benson R, Chure D, Xu X, Sullivan C, Hone D. The first definitive carcharodontosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from Asia and the delayed ascent of tyrannosaurids. Naturwissenschaften. 2009;96:1051-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It may also suggest that the ascent of tyrannosaurids into the large-bodied dinosaurian predator niche was a late event that occurred towards the end of the Cretaceous, between the Turonian and the Campanian...
  47. Smith M, Hodge C. Response properties of upper cervical spinothalamic neurons in cats. A possible explanation for the unusual sensory symptoms associated with upper cervical lesions in humans. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1992;17:S375-82 pubmed
    Lesions in the foramen magnum and upper cervical spinal cord often cause an unusual array of sensory changes and atrophic weakness, primarily involving the ipsilateral forelimb...
  48. Gupta S, Khosla V, Chhabra R, Mukherjee K. Posterior midline approach for large anterior/anterolateral foramen magnum tumours. Br J Neurosurg. 2004;18:164-7 pubmed
    The standard surgical approaches described for excision of anterior or anterolaterally placed foramen magnum (FM) tumours are the far lateral approach, the extreme lateral approach and the transoral approach...
  49. Russo V, Graziano F, Russo A, Albanese E, Ulm A. High anterior cervical approach to the clivus and foramen magnum: a microsurgical anatomy study. Neurosurgery. 2011;69:ons103-14; discussion ons115-6 pubmed publisher
    Surgical exposure of lesions located along the ventral foramen magnum (FM) and clivus poses a unique set of challenges to neurosurgeons...
  50. Simsek S, Yigitkanli K, Belen D, Bavbek M. Halo traction in basilar invagination: technical case report. Surg Neurol. 2006;66:311-4; discussion 314 pubmed
    ..We aimed to discuss the role of the halo vest apparatus traction on the reduction of severe anterior compression pathologies in basilar invagination...
  51. Graham K, Black A, Brain P. Resolution of life-threatening dysphagia caused by caudal occipital malformation syndrome following foramen magnum decompressive surgery. Aust Vet J. 2012;90:297-300 pubmed publisher
    ..tube placement to remain stable and was subsequently cured of the presenting neurological deficits by foramen magnum decompressive surgery...
  52. Zuketto C, van Gijn J. [Severe reversible dysphagia caused by herniation of the cerebellar ectopia]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2002;146:771-3 pubmed
    ..MR scanning of the craniospinal junction showed cerebellar ectopia with protrusion into the foramen magnum (Chiari I malformation). The patient recovered completely following surgical decompression...
  53. Oetgen M, Lawrence B, Yue J. Does the morphology of foramen transversarium fractures predict vertebral artery injuries?. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2008;33:E957-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Retrospective review of foramen transversarium fracture morphology variables and their relationship to vertebral artery injury...