occipital bone

Summary

Summary: Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.

Top Publications

  1. Baer Henney S, Tatagiba M, Samii M. Osteochondroma of the cervical spine causing occipital nerve neuralgia. Case report. Neurol Res. 2001;23:777-9 pubmed
    ..Complete removal of the tumor was performed with release of the pain. The literature is reviewed and etiology, diagnosis, treatment and differential diagnosis are discussed...
  2. Rao P. Median (third) occipital condyle. Clin Anat. 2002;15:148-51 pubmed
    Abnormalities of the craniovertebral junction, most of which are associated with the occipital bone, are of interest not only to anatomists but also to clinicians because many of these deformities produce clinical symptoms...
  3. Patibandla M, Uppin S, Thotakura A, Panigrahi M, Challa S. Primary telangiectatic osteosarcoma of occipital bone: a case report and review of literature. Neurol India. 2011;59:117-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We present clinico-pathological, imageological and treatment outcome of a primary TOS of occipital bone in a 30-year-old woman and review the previously reported skull bone TOS...
  4. Menezes A, Fenoy K. Remnants of occipital vertebrae: proatlas segmentation abnormalities. Neurosurgery. 2009;64:945-53; discussion 954 pubmed publisher
    ..The objectives of this prospective study were to understand the correlative anatomy, pathology, and embryology and to recognize the clinical presentation and gain insights on the treatment and management...
  5. Shamir M, Shilo Y, Fridman A, Chai O, Reifen R, Miara L. Sub-occipital craniectomy in a lion (Panthera leo) with occipital bone malformation and hypovitaminosis A. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2008;39:455-9 pubmed
    ..While conservative treatment failed, suboccipital craniectomy removed the thickened occipital bone and was demonstrated to be a successful surgical intervention that can be used to treat more severely affected ..
  6. Zenke K, Hatakeyama T, Hashimoto H, Sakaki S, Manabe K. Primary Ewing's sarcoma of the occipital bone--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 1994;34:246-50 pubmed
    A 12-year-old boy presented with primary Ewing's sarcoma of the occipital bone manifesting as intermittent high fever and local pain in the occipital region. Plain skull x-ray films disclosed an unclear lytic lesion in the occipital bone...
  7. Anderson P, Montesano P. Morphology and treatment of occipital condyle fractures. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1988;13:731-6 pubmed
    ..Type I and II are stable, and the authors recommend treatment with a semiconstrained cervical orthosis. Type III injuries, which are potentially unstable, require rigid immobilization...
  8. Busch V, Jakob W, Juergens T, Schulte Mattler W, Kaube H, May A. Occipital nerve blockade in chronic cluster headache patients and functional connectivity between trigeminal and occipital nerves. Cephalalgia. 2007;27:1206-14 pubmed
  9. Kotil K, Kalayci M. Ventral cervicomedullary junction compression secondary to condylus occipitalis (median occipital condyle), a rare entity. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2005;18:382-4 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, myelopathy due to condylus occipitalis has not been reported before. Deaths of two cases were previously reported, but these were not live cases...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Rusbridge C, Knowler S. Inheritance of occipital bone hypoplasia (Chiari type I malformation) in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels. J Vet Intern Med. 2004;18:673-8 pubmed
    b>Occipital bone hypoplasia with foramen magnum obstruction and secondary syringomyelia (SM) is a common condition in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS) that is similar to human Chiari type I malformation...
  2. Singh M, Nagashima M, Inoue Y. Anatomical variations of occipital bone impressions for dural venous sinuses around the torcular Herophili, with special reference to the consideration of clinical significance. Surg Radiol Anat. 2004;26:480-7 pubmed
    ..A total of 160 dried skulls were macroscopically examined for impressions on the inner surface of the occipital bone in order to interpret the sinus flow around the torcular Herophili...
  3. Santos Briz A, Lobato R, Ramos A, Millan J, Ricoy J, Martinez Tello F. Giant cell reparative granuloma of the occipital bone. Skeletal Radiol. 2003;32:151-5 pubmed
    ..However, to the best of our knowledge no case has been reported in the occipital bone. We report on the imaging findings and pathological features of a GCRG of the occipital bone and discuss the ..
  4. Wescott D, Moore Jansen P. Metric variation in the human occipital bone: forensic anthropological applications. J Forensic Sci. 2001;46:1159-63 pubmed
    Sex and race variation of the occipital bone have been previously investigated, but particular examination of the effect of age and ancestry on sexual dimorphism has not been addressed...
  5. Renshaw A, Borsetti M, Nelson R, Orlando A. Massive plexiform neurofibroma with associated meningo-encephalocoele and occipital bone defect presenting as a cervical mass. Br J Plast Surg. 2003;56:514-7 pubmed
  6. Itshayek E, Spector S, Gomori M, Segal R. Fibrous dysplasia in combination with aneurysmal bone cyst of the occipital bone and the clivus: case report and review of the literature. Neurosurgery. 2002;51:815-7; discussion 817-8 pubmed
    ..It is important to recognize and treat these cases properly because of the special location in the cranial base and the possibility of neural structure impingement...
  7. Okuda Y, Matsumoto T, Shinohara M, Kitajima T, Kim P. Sudden unconsciousness during a lesser occipital nerve block in a patient with the occipital bone defect. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2001;18:829-32 pubmed
    ..We describe a case of sudden unconsciousness during a lesser occipital nerve block in a patient with an occipital bone defect. A 63-year-old man complained of headache, which was localized to the right occipital region...
  8. Ebraheim N, Lu J, Biyani A, Brown J, Yeasting R. An anatomic study of the thickness of the occipital bone. Implications for occipitocervical instrumentation. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1996;21:1725-9; discussion 1729-30 pubmed
    The authors measured the thickness and quality of occipital bone regions to determine screw placement during occipitocervical fusion and described the projection of the posterior dural venous sinuses.
  9. Rusbridge C, Knowler S. Hereditary aspects of occipital bone hypoplasia and syringomyelia (Chiari type I malformation) in cavalier King Charles spaniels. Vet Rec. 2003;153:107-12 pubmed
    ..20 generations was established by obtaining pedigree information from 45 dogs with syringomyelia secondary to occipital bone hypoplasia. These data were supplemented with published information from the breed club...
  10. Zhang X, Jing M, Liang H, Meng X, Liu E, Zhao S. Traumatic subperiostial emphysema caused by hyperpneumatization of the temporal and occipital bone. J Neuroimaging. 2013;23:259-61 pubmed publisher
    Hyperpneumatization of the temporal bone with extension into the occipital bone and even the parietal bones is a rare condition...
  11. Hankinson T, Grunstein E, Gardner P, Spinks T, Anderson R. Transnasal odontoid resection followed by posterior decompression and occipitocervical fusion in children with Chiari malformation Type I and ventral brainstem compression. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2010;5:549-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, the authors present the first experience with using an endoscopic transnasal corridor to accomplish ventral decompression in children with CM-I that is complicated by ventral brainstem compression...
  12. Komuro Y, Shimizu A, Ueda A, Miyajima M, Nakanishi H, Arai H. Whole cranial vault expansion by continual occipital and fronto-orbital distraction in syndromic craniosynostosis. J Craniofac Surg. 2011;22:269-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We applied the distraction osteogenesis technique for skull expansion and performed occipital expansion and fronto-orbital advancement in succession...
  13. Bagley C, Witham T, Pindrik J, Davis R, Bydon A, Gokaslan Z, et al. Assuring optimal physiologic craniocervical alignment and avoidance of swallowing-related complications after occipitocervical fusion by preoperative halo vest placement. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2009;22:170-6 pubmed publisher
    ..A retrospective review...
  14. Pillai P, Baig M, Karas C, Ammirati M. Endoscopic image-guided transoral approach to the craniovertebral junction: an anatomic study comparing surgical exposure and surgical freedom obtained with the endoscope and the operating microscope. Neurosurgery. 2009;64:437-42; discussion 442-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the potential usefulness of such an approach in a cadaver model...
  15. Ciappetta P, Occhiogrosso G, Luzzi S, D Urso P, Garribba A. Jugular tubercle and vertebral artery/posterior inferior cerebellar artery anatomic relationship: a 3-dimensional angiography computed tomography anthropometric study. Neurosurgery. 2009;64:429-36; discussion 436 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate structural variations of the jugular tubercles (JTs) and their relationships with the vertebral artery, the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA), and the vertebrobasilar junction (VBJ)...
  16. La Marca F, Zubay G, Morrison T, Karahalios D. Cadaveric study for placement of occipital condyle screws: technique and effects on surrounding anatomic structures. J Neurosurg Spine. 2008;9:347-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors propose occipital condyle screw placement as a possible alternative to conventional occipitocervical fixation techniques...
  17. Hong J, Takigawa T, Sugisaki K, Espinoza Orías A, Inoue N, An H. Biomechanical and morphometric evaluation of occipital condyle for occipitocervical segmental fixation. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2011;51:701-6 pubmed
    ..The condylar anatomy allows direct insertion of the occipital condyle screw and C0-C1 transarticular screw. These techniques are suitable options for the treatment of craniovertebral junction instabilities in selected patients...
  18. Silvestrini Biavati A, Angiero F, Gambino A, Ugolini A. Do changes in spheno-occipital synchondrosis after rapid maxillary expansion affect the maxillomandibular complex?. Eur J Paediatr Dent. 2013;14:63-7 pubmed
    ..This was to evaluate changes in spheno-occipital synchondrosis one year after rapid maxillary expansion (RME), in order to assess the influence that any change might have on sagittal and vertical skeletal cephalometric variables...
  19. Khamanarong K, Woraputtaporn W, Ratanasuwan S, Namking M, Chaijaroonkhanarak W, Sae Jung S. Occipitalization of the atlas: its incidence and clinical implications. Acta Med Acad. 2013;42:41-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to investigate the incidence of occipitalization of the atlas among Thai dried skulls, in order to contribute to baseline awareness of this condition...
  20. Hatipoglu N, Turel O, Hatipoğlu H, Engerek N, Siraneci R. Tiny hair tuft: a clue for occipital cephalocele. J Trop Pediatr. 2014;60:87-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we present the case of a child with recurrent bacterial meningitis who had an unnoticed hair tuft on the occipital region. The final diagnosis was occipital cephalocele with a rare presentation of a tiny tuft of hair. ..
  21. Demirturk Kocasarac H, Sinanoglu A, Noujeim M, Helvacioglu Yigit D, Baydemir C. Radiologic assessment of third molar tooth and spheno-occipital synchondrosis for age estimation: a multiple regression analysis study. Int J Legal Med. 2016;130:799-808 pubmed publisher
    ..001) and also between age and SOS fusion for females (r = 0.814), but a moderate relationship was found for males (r = 0.599), P < 0.001). Based on the results obtained, an age determination formula using these scores was established. ..
  22. Sakamoto Y, Nakajima H, Kishi K, Shimizu R, Nakajima T. Management of craniofacial hyperostosis in Proteus syndrome. J Craniofac Surg. 2010;21:414-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The management of the craniofacial involvement is described, and a literature overview is presented...
  23. Youssef A, Sloan A. Extended transoral approaches: surgical technique and analysis. Neurosurgery. 2010;66:126-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Until recently, selection of an extended approach has been arbitrary and dependent on the surgeon's familiarity with the surgical approach...
  24. Goelzer J, Avelar R, de Oliveira R, Hubler R, Silveira R, Machado R. Self-drilling and self-tapping screws: an ultrastructural study. J Craniofac Surg. 2010;21:513-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the current study was to compare self-drilling and self-tapping screws with regard to bone contact and the production of bone debris using scanning electron microscopy...
  25. Moskowitz S, Liu J, Krishnaney A. Postoperative complications associated with dural substitutes in suboccipital craniotomies. Neurosurgery. 2009;64:ons28-33; discussion ons33-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We reviewed a single-institution experience with a variety of dural substitutes in posterior fossa neurosurgery, for which higher complication rates are well described...
  26. Garg K, Tandon V, Mahapatra A. Chiari III malformation with proatlas abnormality. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2011;47:295-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Chiari III in association with proatlas abnormality is very rare. Here we describe a patient with Chiari III malformation associated with occipital condyle hypoplasia...
  27. Tsumanuma I, Tanaka R, Fujii Y. Occipital transtentorial approach and combined treatments for pineal parenchymal tumors. Prog Neurol Surg. 2009;23:26-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the proliferative potentials of pineocytomas and PPTIMD were significantly lower than those of pineoblastomas, there was no such difference between pineocytomas and PPTIMD...
  28. Standerwick R, Roberts E, Hartsfield J, Babler W, Katona T. Comparison of the Bolton Standards to longitudinal cephalograms superimposed on the occipital condyle (I-point). J Orthod. 2009;36:23-35; discussion 13-4 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare traditional superimposition on sella turcica and the anterior cranial base (SACB) to superimposition referenced at the occipital condyle (I-point) for demonstrating craniofacial growth and development...
  29. Zhang H, Lan Q, Wang X. Neuronavigation-based quantitative study of the far-lateral keyhole approach following partial removal of the occipital condyle and jugular tubercle. J Clin Neurosci. 2011;18:678-82 pubmed publisher
  30. Parker S, Godil S, Zuckerman S, Mendenhall S, Tulipan N, McGirt M. Effect of symptomatic pseudomeningocele on improvement in pain, disability, and quality of life following suboccipital decompression for adult Chiari malformation type I. J Neurosurg. 2013;119:1159-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the authors set out to assess the effect of symptomatic pseudomeningocele on patient outcomes following suboccipital decompression for CM-I...
  31. Oishi H, Yamada M, Oishi M, Shakunaga K, Hirota K, Yamazaki M. [A case of upper airway obstruction associated with flexed cervical position after posterior occipito-cervical fusion--a retrospective radiographic analysis by the O-C2 angle]. Masui. 2013;62:1120-3 pubmed
    ..On the extubation after occipito-cervical fusion, we should take care of the possibility of re-intubation and its difficulty based on the O-C2 angle...
  32. Schaaf H, Malik C, Streckbein P, Pons Kuehnemann J, Howaldt H, Wilbrand J. Three-dimensional photographic analysis of outcome after helmet treatment of a nonsynostotic cranial deformity. J Craniofac Surg. 2010;21:1677-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This new technology offers several advantages such as easy acquisition of images, detection of landmarks without patient movement, repeatable measurements without patient discomfort, and the opportunity for unbiased evaluation...
  33. Saito F, Kajii T, Sugawara Kato Y, Tsukamoto Y, Arai Y, Hirabayashi Y, et al. Three-dimensional craniomaxillary characteristics of the mouse with spontaneous malocclusion using micro-computed tomography. Eur J Orthod. 2011;33:43-9 pubmed publisher
  34. Akhlaghi M, Taghaddosinejad F, Sheikhazadi A, Valizadeh B, Shojaei S. Age-at-death estimation based on the macroscopic examination of spheno-occipital sutures. J Forensic Leg Med. 2010;17:304-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the closure degree of spheno-occipital synchondrosis and its relationship with chronological age...
  35. Martin M, Bruner H, Wolfla C, Yoganandan N. Biomechanical implications of extending occipitocervical instrumentation to include the subaxial spine. Neurosurgery. 2010;66:1148-52; discussion 1152 pubmed publisher
    ..No clear biomechanical data exist regarding where to place the caudal end of a screw-rod occipitocervical instrumentation construct...
  36. Rue M, Jecko V, Dautheribes M, Vignes J. Delayed hypoglossal nerve palsy following unnoticed occipital condyle fracture. Neurochirurgie. 2013;59:221-3 pubmed
    ..Also, careful attention must be paid to X-Rays, CT scans and magnetic resonance imaging of the craniocervical junction...
  37. Miyaoka Y, Takeuchi M, Wakao N, Aoyama M, Hongo K, Takayasu M. Contusional Cerebellar Hemorrhage Related to Placement in the Protrusion Position After Atlantoaxial Fusion. World Neurosurg. 2017;101:818.e7-818.e11 pubmed publisher
    ..Head computerized tomography scan showed left cerebellar hemorrhage, and titanium rods penetrated the occipital bone on both sides. Flexion/extension radiography showed no loosening of any screws or rods...
  38. Abat F, Soria L, García Casas O, Carrera I, Gelber P. [Occipital condyle fracture: clinical case and a review of the literature]. Rev Esp Cir Ortop Traumatol. 2012;56:67-71 pubmed publisher
    ..An X-ray may be normal and diagnosis is best made by using computed tomography imaging. Treatment should depend on whether the fracture is stable or not...
  39. Bollo R, Riva Cambrin J, Brockmeyer M, Brockmeyer D. Complex Chiari malformations in children: an analysis of preoperative risk factors for occipitocervical fusion. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2012;10:134-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors hypothesized that a subgroup of "complex" patients defined by specific radiographic risk factors may have a higher rate of requiring occipitocervical fusion...
  40. Neo M, Asato R, Fujibayashi S, Ito H, Takemoto M, Nakamura T. Navigated anterior approach to the upper cervical spine after occipitocervical fusion. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009;34:E800-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Technical note...
  41. Richtsmeier J, DeLeon V. Morphological integration of the skull in craniofacial anomalies. Orthod Craniofac Res. 2009;12:149-58 pubmed publisher
    ..CONCLUSION - Our results show how the cranial base adjusts to its broader structural context, and provides added support for the developmental and structural integration of cranial base with both cranial vault and face...
  42. Talamonti G, Picano M, Debernardi A, Bolzon M, Teruzzi M, D Aliberti G. Giant occipital meningocele in an 8-year-old child with Dandy-Walker malformation. Childs Nerv Syst. 2011;27:167-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Giant occipital meningocele has been described only in three newborns. Incidence, pathology, clinical presentation, and proper management of this association are still poorly defined...
  43. Hwang S, Gressot L, Chern J, Relyea K, Jea A. Complications of occipital screw placement for occipitocervical fusion in children. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2012;9:586-93 pubmed publisher
    ..stabilization in the pediatric age group remains a challenge because of the regional anatomy, poor occipital bone purchase, and, in some instances, significant thinning of the occipital bone...
  44. Derderian C, Bartlett S. Open cranial vault remodeling: the evolving role of distraction osteogenesis. J Craniofac Surg. 2012;23:229-34 pubmed publisher
  45. Proctor M. Endoscopic cranial suture release for the treatment of craniosynostosis--is it the future?. J Craniofac Surg. 2012;23:225-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, the author discusses why this is not simply a return to failed techniques of the past and reviews the status of endoscopic surgery at Children's Hospital Boston...
  46. Peña Melián A, Rosas A, Garcia Tabernero A, Bastir M, de la Rasilla M. Paleoneurology of two new neandertal occipitals from El Sidrón (asturias, Spain) in the context of homo endocranial evolution. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2011;294:1370-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the relief and position of the the cerebral sulci and gyri impressions observed in the El Sidrón occipital specimens look similar to those observed in modern H. sapiens...
  47. Smejkal K, Lochman P, Holecek T. [Post-traumatic hypoglossal nerve paresis due to occipital condyle fracture]. Acta Chir Orthop Traumatol Cech. 2009;76:335-7 pubmed
    ..A conservative treatment was used - application of a rigid cervical collar for 3 months, which resulted in gradual neurological improvement...
  48. Browd S, McIntyre J, Brockmeyer D. Failed age-dependent maturation of the occipital condyle in patients with congenital occipitoatlantal instability and Down syndrome: a preliminary analysis. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2008;2:359-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The effectiveness of CT and plain radiography data was also compared...
  49. Schnake K, Pingel A, Scholz M, Kandziora F. Temporary occipito-cervical stabilization of a unilateral occipital condyle fracture. Eur Spine J. 2012;21:2198-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Open reduction and temporary occipito-cervical stabilization might be an alternative to fusion or halo treatment...
  50. Lehn A, Lettieri J, Grimley R. A case of bilateral lower cranial nerve palsies after base of skull trauma with complex management issues: case report and review of the literature. Neurologist. 2012;18:152-4 pubmed publisher
    ..A variety of syndromes have been described, often involving multiple nerves. These are most commonly unilateral, and only a handful of cases of bilateral cranial nerve involvement have been reported...
  51. David L, Glazier S, Pyle J, Thompson J, Argenta L. Classification system for sagittal craniosynostosis. J Craniofac Surg. 2009;20:279-82 pubmed
    ..Clinical applications using this classification system are ongoing and may allow us to individualize surgical intervention to optimize clinical outcome...
  52. Shoda N, Seichi A, Takeshita K, Chikuda H, Ono T, Oka H, et al. Sleep apnea in rheumatoid arthritis patients with occipitocervical lesions: the prevalence and associated radiographic features. Eur Spine J. 2009;18:905-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Small ADI and short neck, secondary to the vertical translocation by RA, may cause obstructive sleep apnea, probably through mechanical or neurological collapse of the upper airway...
  53. Lu D, Gupta N, Mummaneni P. Minimally invasive decompression of a suboccipital osseous prominence causing rotational vertebral artery occlusion. Case report. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2009;4:191-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Successful decompression of the VA was performed via a minimally invasive 22-mm tubular retractor. This is the first reported case report of a minimally invasive decompression of the VA between the skull base and C-1...