hard palate


Summary: The anteriorly located rigid section of the PALATE.

Top Publications

  1. Nigam S, Dhingra K, Gulati A. Ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumor of the hard palate--a case report. J Oral Pathol Med. 2006;35:126-8 pubmed
    ..We present a case of a 30-year-old male with a nodule in the hard palate, which was reported as ECMT on histopathology...
  2. Liao Y, Mars M. Hard palate repair timing and facial morphology in unilateral cleft lip and palate: Before versus after pubertal peak velocity age. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2006;43:259-65 pubmed
    To investigate whether timing of hard palate repair, before versus after pubertal peak velocity age, had a significant effect on facial growth in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate.
  3. Sakai T, Iida S, Kishino M, Okura M, Kogo M. Sialolipoma of the hard palate. J Oral Pathol Med. 2006;35:376-8 pubmed
    ..Histopathology 2001; 38: 30) in 2001. We report this rare case of sialolipoma in the hard palate. A 60-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our department complaining of a painless swelling on the right ..
  4. Mourouzis C, Pratt C, Brennan P. Squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary gingiva, alveolus, and hard palate: is there a need for elective neck dissection?. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010;48:345-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We retrospectively studied 17 patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the maxillary gingiva, alveolus, and hard palate who were treated over a 7-year period (2000-2007) to investigate whether selective neck dissection is justified ..
  5. Aono J, Yamagata K, Yoshida H. Local amyloidosis in the hard palate: a case report. Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;13:119-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We present the fifth case in which amyloidosis occurred as a nodule in the hard palate of a 74-year-old woman. The nodule was diagnosed as amyloid light-chain amyloidosis...
  6. Ben Simon G, Lee S, Schwarcz R, McCann J, Goldberg R. Subperiosteal midface lift with or without a hard palate mucosal graft for correction of lower eyelid retraction. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:1869-73 pubmed
    To compare functional and surgical outcomes of a subperiosteal midface lift with and without the placement of a hard palate mucosal graft (HPMG) in patients with lower eyelid retraction.
  7. Shanti R, Torres Cabala C, Jaffe E, Wilson W, Brahim J. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis with involvement of the hard palate: a case report. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;66:2161-3 pubmed publisher
  8. Nollet P, Katsaros C, Huyskens R, Borstlap W, Bronkhorst E, Kuijpers Jagtman A. Cephalometric evaluation of long-term craniofacial development in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients treated with delayed hard palate closure. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;37:123-30 pubmed
    ..unilateral cleft lip and palate treated with a two-stage palatal closure, including delayed closure of the hard palate. Prediction models for cephalometric outcome at age 18 years were developed with the help of cephalometric ..
  9. Simental A, Johnson J, Myers E. Cervical metastasis from squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary alveolus and hard palate. Laryngoscope. 2006;116:1682-4 pubmed
    ..The occurrence of occult cervical metastases from squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate and maxillary alveolar ridge has not been studied systematically...

More Information


  1. Guss J, Cohen M, Mirza N. Hard palate necrosis after bilateral internal maxillary artery embolization for epistaxis. Laryngoscope. 2007;117:1683-4 pubmed
    ..We describe the case of a patient who developed unilateral necrosis of the mucosa overlying the hard palate after undergoing bilateral internal maxillary artery embolization...
  2. Lilja J, Mars M, Elander A, Enocson L, Hagberg C, Worrell E, et al. Analysis of dental arch relationships in Swedish unilateral cleft lip and palate subjects: 20-year longitudinal consecutive series treated with delayed hard palate closure. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2006;43:606-11 pubmed
    To evaluate the dental arch relationships for a consecutive series from Goteborg, Sweden, who had delayed hard palate closure.
  3. Barrak H. Hard palate perforation due to mucormycosis: report of four cases. J Laryngol Otol. 2007;121:1099-102 pubmed
    ..It tends to affect people with immune suppression. The hard palate is a rare site of the disease and few cases have been reported in the literature...
  4. Friede H. Maxillary growth controversies after two-stage palatal repair with delayed hard palate closure in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients: perspectives from literature and personal experience. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2007;44:129-36 pubmed
    To analyze published papers dealing with delayed hard palate repair within a two-stage palatal surgery protocol in treatment of cleft lip and palate. Timing of the procedures, methods used, as well as growth results were considered.
  5. Zaitoun H, Triantfyllou A. Smooth muscle hamartoma of the hard palate. J Oral Pathol Med. 2007;36:245-9 pubmed
    ..The lesion could be attributed to dysgenesis affecting media of vessels emerging from the incisive foramen. Intra-oral smooth muscle hamartomas tend to favour regions featuring complex developmental events...
  6. Liao Y, Mars M. Hard palate repair timing and facial growth in cleft lip and palate: a systematic review. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2006;43:563-70 pubmed
    To evaluate the effect of timing of hard palate repair on facial growth in patients with cleft lip and palate, with special reference to cranial base, maxilla, mandible, jaw relation, and incisor relation.
  7. Petricevic N, Stipetić J, Antonic R, Borcic J, Strujic M, Kovacić I, et al. Relations between anterior permanent teeth, dental arches and hard palate. Coll Antropol. 2008;32:1099-104 pubmed
    ..The width and length of the anterior teeth, the dimensions of the frontal dental arches and the dimensions of the hard palate were measured (24 men and 56 women, age range of 18-30 years)...
  8. Ward B, Seethala R, Barnes E, Lai S. Basal cell adenocarcinoma of a hard palate minor salivary gland: case report and review of the literature. Head Neck Oncol. 2009;1:41 pubmed publisher
    ..Basal cell adenocarcinoma of a minor salivary gland is extremely rare. The goal of this report is to increase awareness of this rare disease and to review and discuss the differential diagnosis and important considerations in treatment...
  9. Schacher B, Bürklin T, Horodko M, Raetzke P, Ratka Krüger P, Eickholz P. Direct thickness measurements of the hard palate mucosa. Quintessence Int. 2010;41:e149-56 pubmed
    ..To measure directly the thickness of the palatal mucosa using sharp cannulas and to evaluate potential correlations with gender and body mass index (BMI)...
  10. Psychogios G, Alexiou C, Schick B, Papadopoulos T, Iro H. [Salivary gland tumor of the hard palate]. Laryngorhinootologie. 2008;87:579-82 pubmed publisher
    Pleomorphic adenomas of the small salivary glands are very rare and usually arise from the hard palate.
  11. Swamy B, Benger R, Taylor S. Cicatricial entropion repair with hard palate mucous membrane graft: surgical technique and outcomes. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2008;36:348-52 pubmed publisher
    The use of a hard palate mucous membrane graft (HPMMG) has been previously described for upper and lower eyelid cicatricial entropion repair...
  12. González Sánchez M, Colorado Bonnin M, Berini Aytés L, Gay Escoda C. Leiomyoma of the hard palate: a case report. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2007;12:E221-4 pubmed
    ..present the case of a 57-year-old male with a tumor located for the previous four months in the region of the hard palate, adjacent to the left upper premolars...
  13. Brooks J, Sindler A, Papadimitriou J, Francis L, Scheper M. Multifocal melanoacanthoma of the gingiva and hard palate. J Periodontol. 2009;80:527-32 pubmed
    ..This article reports a previously undescribed case of multifocal melanoacanthoma affecting the maxillary and mandibular gingiva and the hard palate. A literature review of melanoacanthoma of the gingiva is also provided.
  14. Duflo S, Lief F, Paris J, Giovanni A, Thibeault S, Zanaret M. Microvascular radial forearm fasciocutaneous free flap in hard palate reconstruction. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2005;31:784-91 pubmed
    ..To report the reconstruction of palatal defects by microvascular radial forearm fasciocutaneous free flap (RFFF) and to report patient's quality of life outcomes after this procedure...
  15. Stipetić J, Hrala Z, Celebic A. Thickness of masticatory mucosa in the human hard palate and tuberosity dependent on gender and body mass index. Coll Antropol. 2005;29:243-7 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to clinically determine the thickness of masticatory mucosa in the hard palate and tuberosity as potential donor sites for subepitelial grafts for ridge augmentation procedures of small and moderate alveolar ..
  16. Terakado N, Sasaki A, Takebayashi T, Matsumura T, Kojou T. A case of Kimura's disease of the hard palate. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002;31:222-4 pubmed
    A 33-year-old man presented with Kimura's disease of the hard palate. Serological examination showed no elevation in the number of eosinophils or in IgE level, but histological examination revealed well-developed lymph follicles with ..
  17. Gedrange T, Kobel C, Harzer W. Hard palate deformation in an animal model following quasi-static loading to stimulate that of orthodontic anchorage implants. Eur J Orthod. 2001;23:349-54 pubmed
    ..The advantage of the two-point load is the generation of a higher stress and therefore improved control of dental fixation. However, further tests are necessary to investigate the long-term effects...
  18. Ozdemir R, Kayiran O, Oruc M, Karaaslan O, Kocer U, Ogun D. Plasmacytoma of the hard palate. J Craniofac Surg. 2005;16:164-9 pubmed
    ..It usually occurs in the upper respiratory tract, such as the nasal cavity or posterior oropharynx. The authors present a rare plasmacytoma case with maxilla involvement...
  19. Ameerally P, Sira S, Barrett A, Hollows P. Synovial sarcoma of the hard palate. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2004;42:261-3 pubmed
    ..We present a case of synovial sarcoma of the hard palate in a 68-year-old woman. To our knowledge, there is no previously reported instance of this tumour at this site.
  20. Chao T, Tsai C, Yeh S, Teh J. Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of the hard palate. J Laryngol Otol. 2004;118:382-4 pubmed
    ..Immunohistochemically, these neoplastic cells were positive for cytokeratin, but negative for actin. No recurrence nor distant metastasis was found during the eight-month follow-up period...
  21. Ono T, Hori K, Nokubi T. Pattern of tongue pressure on hard palate during swallowing. Dysphagia. 2004;19:259-64 pubmed
    Contact of the tongue against the hard palate plays an important role in swallowing...
  22. Anderson K, Allen C, Nuovo G. Human papillomavirus, type 40-associated papilloma, and concurrent Kaposi's sarcoma involving the anterior hard palate of an HIV-positive man. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2003;95:80-4 pubmed
    ..Recent evidence suggests a sexual mode of transmission for this virus. We report an HIV-positive man with a large, HPV type 40-associated papilloma of the anterior palate and a previously undiagnosed focus of Kaposi's sarcoma...
  23. Sullivan S, Dailey R. Graft contraction: a comparison of acellular dermis versus hard palate mucosa in lower eyelid surgery. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003;19:14-24 pubmed
    To compare graft contraction rates of acellular dermis versus hard palate mucosa when used as free spacer grafts in lower eyelid surgery and to provide clinical outcome data.
  24. Lehner B, Wiltfang J, Strobel Schwarthoff K, Benz M, Hirschfelder U, Neukam F. Influence of early hard palate closure in unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate on maxillary transverse growth during the first four years of age. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2003;40:126-30 pubmed
    To evaluate and compare the effects of early primary closure of the hard palate on the anterior and posterior width of the maxillary arch in children with bilateral (BCLP) and unilateral (UCLP) cleft lip and palate during the first 4 ..
  25. Banks T, Straw R. Multilobular osteochondrosarcoma of the hard palate in a dog. Aust Vet J. 2004;82:409-12 pubmed
    ..A multilobular osteochondrosarcoma of the hard palate with pulmonary metastases was diagnosed...
  26. Wearne M, Sandy C, Rose G, Pitts J, Collin J. Autogenous hard palate mucosa: the ideal lower eyelid spacer?. Br J Ophthalmol. 2001;85:1183-7 pubmed
    ..This study reviewed the results of autogenous palatal mucosa in the treatment of lower eyelid displacement, including assessment of any donor site morbidity...
  27. Gasparini G, Longobardi G, Boniello R, Di Petrillo A, Pelo S. Fanconi anemia manifesting as a squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate: a case report. Head Face Med. 2006;2:1 pubmed
    ..The authors present a rare case of a squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate in a Fanconi Anaemia patient. The atypical clinical manifestation rendered the diagnosis more difficult...
  28. Kang M, Yoon H, Choi J, Eum J. Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma of the hard palate. J Korean Med Sci. 2005;20:687-90 pubmed
    ..We report a case of EES arising in the hard palate of 34-yr-old male patient...
  29. Yoon J, Ahn S, Kim S, Kim J. Calcifications in a clear cell mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the hard palate. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2005;34:927-9 pubmed
    ..A case of clear cell mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the hard palate with extensive intratumoural calcifications visible on computed tomography (CT) scans and histologic sections ..
  30. Yin N, Ma L, Zhang Z. Bone regeneration in the hard palate after cleft palate surgery. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005;115:1239-44 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to observe bony healing in the hard palate after cleft palate repair and to discuss the factors affecting it.
  31. De Biase A, Cicconetti A, Agrillo A, Matteini C, Della Rocca C. Unusual vascular hamartoma of the hard palate. A case report. Minerva Stomatol. 2002;51:157-9 pubmed
    ..The case of an unusual vascular hamartoma localised in the hard palate of a 50-year-old female with no significant medical or family history is reported...
  32. Patel M, Shapiro M, Spinelli H. Combined hard palate spacer graft, midface suspension, and lateral canthoplasty for lower eyelid retraction: a tripartite approach. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005;115:2105-14; discussion 2115-7 pubmed
  33. Yorozu A, Sykes A, Slevin N. Carcinoma of the hard palate treated with radiotherapy: a retrospective review of 31 cases. Oral Oncol. 2001;37:493-7 pubmed
    There are few studies reporting the results of radical radiotherapy for carcinoma of the hard palate. We have examined our results of patients treated within a single institution, and assessed survival, local control and morbidity...
  34. Tauber S, Nerlich A, Lang S. MALT lymphoma of the paranasal sinuses and the hard palate: report of two cases and review of the literature. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2006;263:19-22 pubmed
    ..The authors report on two such cases of MALT lymphoma, one of the hard palate in a 71-year-old woman and the other of the paranasal sinuses in a 69-year-old woman with the history of ..
  35. Ito O, Suzuki S, Park S, Kawazoe T, Sato M, Saso Y, et al. Eyelid reconstruction using a hard palate mucoperiosteal graft combined with a V-Y subcutaneously pedicled flap. Br J Plast Surg. 2001;54:106-11 pubmed
    ..Eyelids were successfully reconstructed after removal of malignant tumours in four patients using a hard palate mucoperiosteal graft combined with a curved V-Y subcutaneously pedicled flap...
  36. Friede H, Enemark H. Long-term evidence for favorable midfacial growth after delayed hard palate repair in UCLP patients. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2001;38:323-9 pubmed
    To investigate whether delayed hard palate repair resulted in better midfacial growth in the long term than previously achieved with "conventional" surgical methods of palatal closure.
  37. Li T, Shorr N, Goldberg R. Comparison of the efficacy of hard palate grafts with acellular human dermis grafts in lower eyelid surgery. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005;116:873-8; discussion 879-80 pubmed
    ..Different graft materials have been used, including autogenous hard palate and AlloDerm.
  38. Lee A, Fedorovich I, Heinz G, Kikkawa D. Socket reconstruction with combined mucous membrane and hard palate mucosal grafts. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers. 2002;33:463-8 pubmed
    To evaluate the use of combined mucous membrane and hard palate mucosal grafts in the reconstruction of contracted eye socket.
  39. Denny A, Amm C. Surgical technique for the correction of postpalatoplasty fistulae of the hard palate. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005;115:383-7 pubmed
    Postpalatoplasty fistulas of the hard palate remain challenging. The reported recurrence rate after surgical correction ranges between 33 and 37 percent...
  40. Johann A, Caldeira P, Souto G, Freitas J, Mesquita R. Extra-osseous solitary hard palate neurofibroma. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2008;74:317 pubmed
  41. Dardick I, Daley T, McComb R. Sialoblastoma in adults: distinction from adenoid cystic carcinoma. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010;109:109-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Aspects of the histological differential diagnosis of these 2 tumors are discussed...
  42. Al Ouf K, Krenkel C, Hajeer M, Sakka S. Osteogenic uni- or bilateral form of the guided rapid maxillary expansion. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2010;38:160-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The surgical approach described in the current study enabled rapid maxillary expansion of unilateral and bilateral skeletal constriction cases effectively and with good stability...
  43. Eroglu S, Erdal Y. Why did the frequency of palatine torus increase in the ancient Anatolian populations?. Homo. 2008;59:365-82 pubmed publisher
    ..D. Therefore, it is possible to say that, with the introduction of the Mongoloid influence in Anatolia, genetic flow has had a significant role in the observed increase in the frequency of this trait...
  44. Kusafuka K, Ueno T, Kurihara K, Murata T, Yurikusa T, Henmi H, et al. Cystadenoma of the palate: immunohistochemistry of mucins. Pathol Int. 2008;58:524-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A 51-year-old Japanese man had noticed a mass of the left hard palate 25 years previously. Macroscopically, the resected specimen was a multicystic lesion...
  45. Jung B, Yildizhan F, Wehrbein H. Bone-to-implant contact of orthodontic implants in humans--a histomorphometric investigation. Eur J Orthod. 2008;30:552-7 pubmed publisher
    ..49) for the zygomatic implants (n = 2). A relatively high BIC was registered at the surfaces of the loaded implants. This finding might favour the maintenance of osseointegration during orthodontic loading of length-reduced implants...
  46. Ogata H, Nakajima T, Onishi F, Tamada I, Hikosaka M. Cleft palate repair using a marginal musculo-mucosal flap. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2006;43:651-5 pubmed
    ..We describe the lengthening effect of the nasal mucous layer of the soft palate and evaluate the fistula formation rate associated with this method...
  47. Fan S, Chen W, Yang Z, Huang Z. Comparison of the efficiencies of permanent maxillary tooth removal performed with single buccal infiltration versus routine buccal and palatal injection. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2009;107:359-63 pubmed publisher
  48. Wilson B. Palatally impacted maxillary canines. Int J Orthod Milwaukee. 2008;19:9-16 pubmed
    ..A technique will be outlined that allows a competent orthodontic clinician to singly, efficiently and reliably treat this common problem without reference to a myriad of specialists...
  49. Ito R, Fujiwara M, Nagasako R. Hard palate mucoperiosteal graft for posterior lamellar reconstruction of the upper eyelid: histologic rationale. J Craniofac Surg. 2007;18:684-90 pubmed
    ..in whom a subtotal defect of upper eyelid was reconstructed with a bipedicled myocutaneous flap lined by hard palate mucoperiosteum...
  50. Elsherbiny M, Mebed A, Mebed H. Microvascular radial forearm fasciocutaneous free flap for palatomaxillary reconstruction following malignant tumor resection. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst. 2008;20:90-7 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study is to report on the patient's quality of life and outcomes after reconstruction of palatomaxillary defects by microvascular radial forearm fasciocutaneous free flap (RFFF) and dental obturator...
  51. Vacher C, Onolfo J, Barbet J. Is the pterygopalatomaxillary suture (sutura sphenomaxillaris) a growing suture in the fetus?. Surg Radiol Anat. 2010;32:689-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The pterygoid process (via its lateral plate) makes the junction between the maxilla and both the cranial base and the condylar mandibular site of growth...
  52. Song J, Um Y, Kim C, Choi S, Cho K, Kim C, et al. Thickness of posterior palatal masticatory mucosa: the use of computerized tomography. J Periodontol. 2008;79:406-12 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to measure the thickness of masticatory mucosa in the posterior palatal area using computerized tomography (CT)...
  53. Kim C, Shu D. Kaposi sarcoma of the lung. CMAJ. 2008;179:107 pubmed publisher