facial bones

Summary

Summary: The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)

Top Publications

  1. Powys R, Robinson J, Kench P, Ryan J, Brennan P. Strict X-ray beam collimation for facial bones examination can increase lens exposure. Br J Radiol. 2012;85:e497-505 pubmed publisher
    ..This phantom-based study investigated the impact of X-ray beam collimation on radiation dose to the lenses of the eyes and thyroid along with the effect on image quality in facial bone radiography...
  2. Kwon T, Park H, Ryoo H, Lee S. A comparison of craniofacial morphology in patients with and without facial asymmetry--a three-dimensional analysis with computed tomography. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;35:43-8 pubmed
    ..It seems that the mandibular skeletal factors itself, functional or intrinsic asymmetric growth potential, compensate or aggravate the influence of cranial asymmetry during the growth period...
  3. De Momi E, Chapuis J, Pappas I, Ferrigno G, Hallermann W, Schramm A, et al. Automatic extraction of the mid-facial plane for cranio-maxillofacial surgery planning. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;35:636-42 pubmed
    ..In addition, the method performs equally well in difficult trauma situations, where key landmarks are unreliable or absent...
  4. Schaefer K, Mitteroecker P, Gunz P, Bernhard M, Bookstein F. Craniofacial sexual dimorphism patterns and allometry among extant hominids. Ann Anat. 2004;186:471-8 pubmed
    ..We discuss these patterns and speculate on their use as characters for taxonomic analysis in the fossil record...
  5. Periago D, Scarfe W, Moshiri M, Scheetz J, Silveira A, Farman A. Linear accuracy and reliability of cone beam CT derived 3-dimensional images constructed using an orthodontic volumetric rendering program. Angle Orthod. 2008;78:387-95 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare accuracy of linear measurements made on cone beam computed tomographic (CBCT) derived 3-dimensional (3D) surface rendered volumetric images to direct measurements made on human skulls...
  6. Bongaarts C, van t Hof M, Prahl Andersen B, Kuijpers Jagtman A. Identification of cephalometric landmarks in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients: are there alternatives for point A, ANS, and PNS?. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2008;45:81-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Measurements with A, ANS, and PNS, were compared to measurements performed with alternatives for point A, ANS, and PNS: A1, A2, ANS1, ANS2, and PNS1...
  7. Bastir M, Sobral P, Kuroe K, Rosas A. Human craniofacial sphericity: a simultaneous analysis of frontal and lateral cephalograms of a Japanese population using geometric morphometrics and partial least squares analysis. Arch Oral Biol. 2008;53:295-303 pubmed
    ..This model predicts specific suites of morphological features in relation to basicranial flexure and skull globularity...
  8. Al Khateeb T, Abdullah F. Craniomaxillofacial injuries in the United Arab Emirates: a retrospective study. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;65:1094-101 pubmed
    ..To analyze craniomaxillofacial injuries in selected hospitals in the United Arab Emirates (UAE)...
  9. Shaw R, Kahn D. Aging of the midface bony elements: a three-dimensional computed tomographic study. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;119:675-81; discussion 682-3 pubmed
    ..In this study, the authors demonstrate how specific bony aspects of the face change with age in both men and women and what impact this may have on the techniques used in facial cosmetic surgery...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Bastir M, Rosas A. Correlated variation between the lateral basicranium and the face: a geometric morphometric study in different human groups. Arch Oral Biol. 2006;51:814-24 pubmed
  2. Lippold C, Danesh G, Hoppe G, Drerup B, Hackenberg L. Sagittal spinal posture in relation to craniofacial morphology. Angle Orthod. 2006;76:625-31 pubmed
  3. Chai Y, Maxson R. Recent advances in craniofacial morphogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:2353-75 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings will be beneficial for the understanding, treatment, and prevention of human congenital malformations and establish the foundation for craniofacial tissue regeneration...
  4. Thoren H, Snäll J, Salo J, Suominen Taipale L, Kormi E, Lindqvist C, et al. Occurrence and types of associated injuries in patients with fractures of the facial bones. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010;68:805-10 pubmed publisher
    ..To identify the occurrence, types, and severity of associated injuries outside the facial region among patients diagnosed with facial fractures, and to analyze whether there are any factors related to associated injuries...
  5. Lieberman D, Hallgrimsson B, Liu W, Parsons T, Jamniczky H. Spatial packing, cranial base angulation, and craniofacial shape variation in the mammalian skull: testing a new model using mice. J Anat. 2008;212:720-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The results illustrate the degree to which the cranial base is centrally embedded within the covariation structure of the craniofacial complex as a whole...
  6. Marcucio R, Cordero D, Hu D, Helms J. Molecular interactions coordinating the development of the forebrain and face. Dev Biol. 2005;284:48-61 pubmed
  7. Rosas A, Bastir M, Alarcon J, Kuroe K. Thin-plate spline analysis of the cranial base in African, Asian and European populations and its relationship with different malocclusions. Arch Oral Biol. 2008;53:826-34 pubmed publisher
    ..To test the hypothesis that midline basicranial orientation and posterior cranial base length are discriminating factors between adults of different populations and its potential maxillo/mandibular disharmonies...
  8. Crump J, Swartz M, Eberhart J, Kimmel C. Moz-dependent Hox expression controls segment-specific fate maps of skeletal precursors in the face. Development. 2006;133:2661-9 pubmed
    ..We present a model in which Moz-dependent Hox expression in CNC shapes the normal support skeleton by instructing second-segment CNC to undergo skeletogenesis in response to local extrinsic signals...
  9. Lascala C, Panella J, Marques M. Analysis of the accuracy of linear measurements obtained by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT-NewTom). Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2004;33:291-4 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the linear measurements obtained in CBCT images using a NewTom...
  10. de Freitas L, de Freitas K, Pinzan A, Janson G, de Freitas M. A comparison of skeletal, dentoalveolar and soft tissue characteristics in white and black Brazilian subjects. J Appl Oral Sci. 2010;18:135-42 pubmed
    ..This study aimed to compare skeletal, dentoalveolar and soft tissue characteristics in white and black Brazilian subjects presenting normal occlusions...
  11. Kupczik K, Dobson C, Crompton R, Phillips R, Oxnard C, Fagan M, et al. Masticatory loading and bone adaptation in the supraorbital torus of developing macaques. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2009;139:193-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, if the supraorbital torus arises to resist masticatory loads, it is either already adapted in each of our subadult models so that we do not observe high SED or a lower site-specific bone deposition threshold must apply...
  12. Moreno K, Wroe S, Clausen P, McHenry C, D Amore D, Rayfield E, et al. Cranial performance in the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) as revealed by high-resolution 3-D finite element analysis. J Anat. 2008;212:736-46 pubmed publisher
    ..komodoensis shares various cranial and dental characteristics...
  13. Terino E, Edwards M. Alloplastic contouring for suborbital, maxillary, zygomatic deficiencies. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2008;16:33-67, v pubmed
    ..This technique does not require any removal of fat from the orbit nor does it require extensive dissection of fat. This operation successfully and satisfactorily creates an optimum blending of the lid-cheek junction...
  14. Bulygina E, Mitteroecker P, Aiello L. Ontogeny of facial dimorphism and patterns of individual development within one human population. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2006;131:432-43 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the adult pattern of interindividual difference in facial form in a single human population is established within the first few years of life...
  15. Lippold C, Danesh G, Schilgen M, Drerup B, Hackenberg L. Relationship between thoracic, lordotic, and pelvic inclination and craniofacial morphology in adults. Angle Orthod. 2006;76:779-85 pubmed
    ..To analyze the correlation ratios between the spinal posture (thoracic, lordotic, and pelvic inclination) and the craniofacial morphology...
  16. Perez S, Bernal V, Gonzalez P. Differences between sliding semi-landmark methods in geometric morphometrics, with an application to human craniofacial and dental variation. J Anat. 2006;208:769-84 pubmed
    ..The differences between criteria can alter the results when morphological variation in the sample is small, as in the analysis of modern human populations...
  17. Levine R. Aging of the midface bony elements. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;121:698-9; author reply 699-700 pubmed publisher
  18. Kadkhodaie M. Three-year review of facial fractures at a teaching hospital in northern Iran. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;44:229-31 pubmed
    ..7200 patients with maxillofacial trauma were seen at Poorsina Hospital, of whom 2160 had 4752 fractures of facial bones, 3089 (65%) mainly mandibular and 1663 (35%) mainly midfacial...
  19. de Freitas L, Pinzan A, Janson G, Freitas K, de Freitas M, Henriques J. Facial height comparison in young white and black Brazilian subjects with normal occlusion. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2007;131:706.e1-6 pubmed
    ..In this study, we aimed to cephalometrically compare anterior and posterior facial heights in young white and black Brazilian subjects with normal occlusion and to verify sexual dimorphism...
  20. Hurst C. Morphoscopic trait expressions used to identify Southwest Hispanics. J Forensic Sci. 2012;57:859-65 pubmed publisher
    ..This research demonstrates the efficacy of morphoscopic traits in ancestry determinations and the utility of the aforementioned traits in discriminating Southwest Hispanics, African Americans, and European Americans...
  21. Brandt M, Hassa A, Roth K, Wehrli B, Moore C. Biomechanical properties of the facial retaining ligaments. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2012;14:289-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to better characterize the biophysical properties of these ligaments and, in doing so, provide an empirical basis for the natural descent seen in facial aging...
  22. Stuck B, Hulse R, Barth T. Intraoperative cone beam computed tomography in the management of facial fractures. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012;41:1171-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Bony fragments were detected and removed in 2 cases. Intraoperative imaging provides a number of advantages over post-therapeutic imaging in the management of facial fractures...
  23. Bohnsack B, Kasprick D, Kish P, Goldman D, Kahana A. A zebrafish model of axenfeld-rieger syndrome reveals that pitx2 regulation by retinoic acid is essential for ocular and craniofacial development. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:7-22 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the treatment of patients with ARS remains mostly supportive and palliative...
  24. Kamoi H. A case of recovery of oral function with dental implants following facial bone trauma. J Nippon Med Sch. 2012;79:484-8 pubmed
    ..The patient is extremely satisfied with the results. A means of maintaining oral health over the long term, and of motivating the patient to maintain oral health, should be established...
  25. Cardoso M, Castro R, Li An T, Normando D, Garib D, Capelozza Filho L. Prevalence of long face pattern in Brazilian individuals of different ethnic backgrounds. J Appl Oral Sci. 2013;21:150-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This survey assessed the distribution of ethnically different individuals with vertical excess according to three levels of severity and determined the prevalence of long face pattern...
  26. Gharb B, Rampazzo A, Kutz J, Bright L, Doumit G, Harter T. Vascularization of the facial bones by the facial artery: implications for full face allotransplantation. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2014;133:1153-65 pubmed publisher
    The maxillary artery is recognized as the main vascular supply of the facial bones; nonetheless, clinical evidence supports a codominant role for the facial artery...
  27. Saltz A, Kandalam U. Mesenchymal stem cells and alginate microcarriers for craniofacial bone tissue engineering: A review. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2016;104:1276-84 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will explore the potential use of alginate microcarrier for stem cell systems and its application in craniofacial bone tissue engineering...
  28. Curtis N, Witzel U, Fitton L, O Higgins P, Fagan M. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2011;294:1178-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that it is possible to eliminate the high strain gradients in and around the zygomatic arch that are present in past computational studies, with strains being more uniform in magnitude than previously thought...
  29. Winegar B, Murillo H, Tantiwongkosi B. Spectrum of critical imaging findings in complex facial skeletal trauma. Radiographics. 2013;33:3-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly, extension of a frontal sinus fracture through the posterior sinus wall creates a portal to the anterior cranial fossa and may lead to cerebrospinal fluid leakage, intracranial hemorrhage, or intracranial infection...
  30. Nichols J, Pan L, Moens C, Kimmel C. barx1 represses joints and promotes cartilage in the craniofacial skeleton. Development. 2013;140:2765-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We further show that hand2 feeds back to negatively regulate barx1 expression. We consider the possibility that changes in barx1 function in early vertebrates were among the key innovations fostering the evolution of skeletal joints...
  31. Geraldo A, Mendes Dos Santos C, Tavares J, Fernandes Sousa R, Campos A, Farias J, et al. [Benign fibro-osseous lesions of the craniofacial complex with aneurysmal bone cyst formation]. Acta Med Port. 2012;25 Suppl 1:55-9 pubmed
  32. Lo Casto A, Priolo G, Garufi A, Purpura P, Salerno S, La Tona G, et al. Imaging evaluation of facial complex strut fractures. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 2012;33:396-409 pubmed publisher
    ..Radiologists should know how to diagnose and report the main types of facial fracture...
  33. Neskoromna Jędrzejczak A, Bogusiak K, Przygoński A, Antoszewski B. Penetrating trauma of the face and facial skeleton - a case series of six patients. Pol Przegl Chir. 2017;89:50-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The applied treatment methods depended mainly on the general condition of the patients. In all cases, we achieved acceptable functional and aesthetic outcomes...
  34. Abdelali H, Benyahia H, Abouqal R, Azaroual M, Zaoui F. Associations between alveolar heights and vertical skeletal pattern in Moroccan adults: a cephalometric study of 127 clinical cases. Int Orthod. 2012;10:43-53 pubmed publisher
  35. van den Bergh B, Goey Y, Forouzanfar T. Postoperative radiographs after maxillofacial trauma: Sense or nonsense?. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;40:1373-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Avoiding routine postoperative radiography will lead to a reduction in exposure of patients to ionizing radiation, a reduction of costs and probably a more efficient discharge...
  36. Zhang Y, Zhang B, Li D, Xu Z, Tang P. [Microvascular free flap reconstructive options in patients with different types of maxillectomy defects]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2011;46:368-72 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the efficacy of the distinct free flaps in reconstruction of different types of maxillectomy defects...
  37. Zhang Z. Bone regeneration by stem cell and tissue engineering in oral and maxillofacial region. Front Med. 2011;5:401-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose comprehensive strategies based on stem cell and tissue engineering researches, allowing for clinical application in oral and maxillofacial region...
  38. Noury M, Dunn R, Lalikos J, Fudem G, Rothkopf D. Frontal sinus repair through a frontalis rhytid approach. Ann Plast Surg. 2011;66:457-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We thus recommend this approach in the treatment of anterior table frontal sinus fractures, with special consideration for the patient with or at risk for anterior hairline recession...
  39. Ivanjac F, Konstantinović V, Lazić V, Dordević I, Ihde S. Assessment of Stability of Craniofacial Implants by Resonant Frequency Analysis. J Craniofac Surg. 2016;27:e185-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Although EO screw implants showed higher ISQ values than disk implants, disk-type implants can be safely loaded even if lower values of stability are measured. ..
  40. Mericli A, DeCesare G, Zuckerbraun N, Kurland K, Grunwaldt L, Vecchione L, et al. Pediatric craniofacial fractures due to violence: comparing violent and nonviolent mechanisms of injury. J Craniofac Surg. 2011;22:1342-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study examines the epidemiologic data of pediatric craniofacial fractures secondary to violence, comparing these data to craniofacial fractures sustained from all other causes...
  41. Schwabenlander M, Stepaniuk K, Carstensen M, Armien A. Brain, Craniofacial, and Dental Lesions of a Free-ranging Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) Implicated in a Human Attack in Minnesota, USA. J Wildl Dis. 2016;52:131-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We highlight the relevance of a thorough postmortem examination of wildlife to elucidate disease-based abnormal behavior as the reason for human-animal conflict. ..
  42. Rottgers S, DeCesare G, Chao M, Smith D, Cray J, Naran S, et al. Outcomes in pediatric facial fractures: early follow-up in 177 children and classification scheme. J Craniofac Surg. 2011;22:1260-5 pubmed publisher
    ..With longer follow-up and growth and development studies, we will likely see an increase in the incidence of type 3 adverse outcomes. We recommend, whenever possible, conservative treatment of pediatric facial fractures...
  43. van Bakelen N, Buijs G, Jansma J, de Visscher J, Hoppenreijs T, Bergsma J, et al. Comparison of biodegradable and titanium fixation systems in maxillofacial surgery: a two-year multi-center randomized controlled trial. J Dent Res. 2013;92:1100-5 pubmed publisher
    ..2 (1.1-4.2), HR titanium = 1]. Occlusion, VAS, and MFIQ scores showed that both groups had good mandibular function and were (almost) free of pain 1 and 2 years post-operatively (http://controlled-trials.com ISRCTN 44212338). ..
  44. Yu J, Dinsmore R, Mar P, Bhatt K. Pediatric maxillary fractures. J Craniofac Surg. 2011;22:1247-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Pediatric maxillary fractures are not common, require different treatments, and enjoy better long-term outcomes...
  45. Benazzi S, Kullmer O, Schulz D, Gruppioni G, Weber G. Individual tooth macrowear pattern guides the reconstruction of Sts 52 (Australopithecus africanus) dental arches. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2013;150:324-9 pubmed publisher
    ..africanus dental arches providing new morphometric data for specimen Sts 52. It is noteworthy that the method described in this case study might be applied to several other fossil specimens...
  46. Town L, McGlinn E, Davidson T, Browne C, Chawengsaksophak K, Koopman P, et al. Tmem26 is dynamically expressed during palate and limb development but is not required for embryonic survival. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25228 pubmed publisher
    ..However, ubiquitous inactivation of Tmem26 led to no overt phenotype in the resulting embryos or adult mice, suggesting that TMEM26 function is dispensable for embryonic survival...
  47. Petrovic V, Zivkovic P, Petrović D, Stefanovic V. Craniofacial bone tissue engineering. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2012;114:e1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes the current achievements in tissue engineering of craniofacial bone, temporomandibular joint, and periodontal ligament...
  48. Iso Kungas P, Tornwall J, Suominen A, Lindqvist C, Thoren H. Dental injuries in pediatric patients with facial fractures are frequent and severe. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012;70:396-400 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was carried out to identify the occurrence, type, location, and severity of dental injuries (DIs), as well as predictors for DIs, in pediatric patients with facial fractures...
  49. Diouf J, Badiane A, Ngom P, Crocquet M, Ousehal L, Diop Ba K, et al. Attempted validation of a method to locate entry and exit foramens of the branches of the trigeminal nerve; benefits for an original cephalometric analysis technique. Int Orthod. 2013;11:104-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to validate the techniques used to locate these landmarks as described by the creator of trigeminal analysis of the face...
  50. Boffano P, Roccia F, Campisi P, Gallesio C. Review of 43 osteomas of the craniomaxillofacial region. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012;70:1093-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To present and discuss the demographic and clinical aspects and the management of 44 cases of osteomas of the craniomaxillofacial region...
  51. Gungor A, Turkkahraman H. Effects of severity and location of nonsyndromic hypodontia on craniofacial morphology. Angle Orthod. 2013;83:584-90 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the effects of severity and location of nonsyndromic hypodontia on craniofacial morphology...
  52. Deshpande S, Gallagher K, Donneys A, Tchanque Fossuo C, Sarhaddi D, Sun H, et al. Stem cell therapy remediates reconstruction of the craniofacial skeleton after radiation therapy. Stem Cells Dev. 2013;22:1625-32 pubmed publisher
  53. Sosin M, Ceradini D, Hazen A, Levine J, Staffenberg D, Saadeh P, et al. Total Face, Eyelids, Ears, Scalp, and Skeletal Subunit Transplant Cadaver Simulation: The Culmination of Aesthetic, Craniofacial, and Microsurgery Principles. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2016;137:1569-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The implementation of aesthetic, craniofacial, and microsurgical principles and computer-assisted technology improves surgical precision, decreases operative time, and may optimize function. ..