cranial sutures

Summary

Summary: A type of fibrous joint between bones of the head.

Top Publications

  1. Nicolay C, Vaders M. Cranial suture complexity in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). J Morphol. 2006;267:841-9 pubmed
    ..The presence of antlers appears to have a minimal effect on suture complexity in white-tailed deer. Factors that may contribute to the lack of dimorphism in suture complexity are discussed...
  2. Davis C, Lauritzen C. The biomechanical characteristics of cranial sutures are altered by spring cranioplasty forces. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010;125:1111-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Springs do not fully expand in situ and continue to transmit a continuous force until removal. The authors wished to investigate whether ongoing forces altered the biomechanical characteristics of cranial sutures.
  3. Wilson L, SAnchez Villagra M. Heterochrony and patterns of cranial suture closure in hystricognath rodents. J Anat. 2009;214:339-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Level of suture closure is negatively correlated with cranial length (P < 0.05). Differing life history and locomotory strategies are coupled in part with differing suture closure patterns among several species...
  4. Bright J, Gröning F. Strain accommodation in the zygomatic arch of the pig: a validation study using digital speckle pattern interferometry and finite element analysis. J Morphol. 2011;272:1388-98 pubmed publisher
    It has been repeatedly suggested that mammalian cranial sutures act not only to allow growth but also to reduce the levels of strain experienced by the skull during feeding...
  5. Coussens A, Hughes I, Morris C, Powell B, Anderson P. In vitro differentiation of human calvarial suture derived cells with and without dexamethasone does not induce in vivo-like expression. J Cell Physiol. 2009;218:183-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, we suggest that neither cell culture medium recapitulates differentiation via activation of the same genetic cascades as occurs in vivo...
  6. James A, Xu Y, Lee J, Wang R, Longaker M. Differential effects of TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3 on chondrogenesis in posterofrontal cranial suture-derived mesenchymal cells in vitro. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;123:31-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The mouse posterofrontal suture, analogous to the human metopic suture, fuses through endochondral ossification...
  7. Byron C. Cranial suture morphology and its relationship to diet in Cebus. J Hum Evol. 2009;57:649-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Cranial sutures are complex morphological structures. Four Cebus species (C. albifrons, C. apella, C. capucinus, C...
  8. Cray J, Meindl R, Sherwood C, Lovejoy C. Ectocranial suture closure in Pan troglodytes and Gorilla gorilla: pattern and phylogeny. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2008;136:394-9 pubmed publisher
    ..gorilla exhibits a unique vault pattern, which, unlike humans and P. troglodytes, follows a strong posterior-to-anterior gradient. P. troglodytes is therefore more like Homo sapiens in suture synostosis...
  9. Galatius A, Berta A, Frandsen M, Goodall R. Interspecific variation of ontogeny and skull shape among porpoises (Phocoenidae). J Morphol. 2011;272:136-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Ph. dalli and P. dioptrica generally showed further development of cranial sutures than the other species...
  10. Jasinoski S, Reddy B, Louw K, Chinsamy A. Mechanics of cranial sutures using the finite element method. J Biomech. 2010;43:3104-11 pubmed publisher
    ..I. These combined findings highlight the importance of suture morphology and anisotropy as properties having a significant influence on sutural mechanics...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Nicolay C, Vaders M. Cranial suture complexity in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). J Morphol. 2006;267:841-9 pubmed
    ..The presence of antlers appears to have a minimal effect on suture complexity in white-tailed deer. Factors that may contribute to the lack of dimorphism in suture complexity are discussed...
  2. Davis C, Lauritzen C. The biomechanical characteristics of cranial sutures are altered by spring cranioplasty forces. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010;125:1111-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Springs do not fully expand in situ and continue to transmit a continuous force until removal. The authors wished to investigate whether ongoing forces altered the biomechanical characteristics of cranial sutures.
  3. Wilson L, SAnchez Villagra M. Heterochrony and patterns of cranial suture closure in hystricognath rodents. J Anat. 2009;214:339-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Level of suture closure is negatively correlated with cranial length (P < 0.05). Differing life history and locomotory strategies are coupled in part with differing suture closure patterns among several species...
  4. Bright J, Gröning F. Strain accommodation in the zygomatic arch of the pig: a validation study using digital speckle pattern interferometry and finite element analysis. J Morphol. 2011;272:1388-98 pubmed publisher
    It has been repeatedly suggested that mammalian cranial sutures act not only to allow growth but also to reduce the levels of strain experienced by the skull during feeding...
  5. Coussens A, Hughes I, Morris C, Powell B, Anderson P. In vitro differentiation of human calvarial suture derived cells with and without dexamethasone does not induce in vivo-like expression. J Cell Physiol. 2009;218:183-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, we suggest that neither cell culture medium recapitulates differentiation via activation of the same genetic cascades as occurs in vivo...
  6. James A, Xu Y, Lee J, Wang R, Longaker M. Differential effects of TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3 on chondrogenesis in posterofrontal cranial suture-derived mesenchymal cells in vitro. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;123:31-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The mouse posterofrontal suture, analogous to the human metopic suture, fuses through endochondral ossification...
  7. Byron C. Cranial suture morphology and its relationship to diet in Cebus. J Hum Evol. 2009;57:649-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Cranial sutures are complex morphological structures. Four Cebus species (C. albifrons, C. apella, C. capucinus, C...
  8. Cray J, Meindl R, Sherwood C, Lovejoy C. Ectocranial suture closure in Pan troglodytes and Gorilla gorilla: pattern and phylogeny. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2008;136:394-9 pubmed publisher
    ..gorilla exhibits a unique vault pattern, which, unlike humans and P. troglodytes, follows a strong posterior-to-anterior gradient. P. troglodytes is therefore more like Homo sapiens in suture synostosis...
  9. Galatius A, Berta A, Frandsen M, Goodall R. Interspecific variation of ontogeny and skull shape among porpoises (Phocoenidae). J Morphol. 2011;272:136-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Ph. dalli and P. dioptrica generally showed further development of cranial sutures than the other species...
  10. Jasinoski S, Reddy B, Louw K, Chinsamy A. Mechanics of cranial sutures using the finite element method. J Biomech. 2010;43:3104-11 pubmed publisher
    ..I. These combined findings highlight the importance of suture morphology and anisotropy as properties having a significant influence on sutural mechanics...
  11. Obert M, Schulte Geers C, Schilling R, Harth S, Kläver M, Traupe H, et al. High-resolution flat-panel volumetric CT images show no correlation between human age and sagittal suture obliteration--independent of sex. Forensic Sci Int. 2010;200:180.e1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we conclude that determination of aad based on the evaluation of sagittal suture obliteration is not possible. This agrees well - thus unsatisfactorily - with the recent literature...
  12. Harth S, Obert M, Ramsthaler F, Reuss C, Traupe H, Verhoff M. Estimating age by assessing the ossification degree of cranial sutures with the aid of Flat-Panel-CT. Leg Med (Tokyo). 2009;11 Suppl 1:S186-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This examination method is a suitable means for non-invasively evaluating the ossification degree of cranial sutures in the entire cross-section and for the entire calvarium...
  13. van der Meulen J, van Der Hulst R, van Adrichem L, Arnaud E, Chin Shong D, Duncan C, et al. The increase of metopic synostosis: a pan-European observation. J Craniofac Surg. 2009;20:283-6 pubmed
    ..05). The number of metopic synostosis has significantly increased over the reviewed period in all of our units, both in absolute numbers as in comparison to the total number of craniosynostosis...
  14. Jasinoski S, Reddy B. Mechanics of cranial sutures during simulated cyclic loading. J Biomech. 2012;45:2050-4 pubmed publisher
    Previous computational and experimental analyses revealed that cranial sutures, fibrous joints between the bones, can reduce the strain experienced by the surrounding skull bones during mastication...
  15. Shen K, Krakora S, Cunningham M, Singh M, Wang X, Hu F, et al. Medical treatment of craniosynostosis: recombinant Noggin inhibits coronal suture closure in the rat craniosynostosis model. Orthod Craniofac Res. 2009;12:254-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Topical application of rhNoggin protein prevents craniosynostosis in the weanling nude rat xenotransplantation model of syndromic craniosynostosis...
  16. Behr B, Longaker M, Quarto N. Differential activation of canonical Wnt signaling determines cranial sutures fate: a novel mechanism for sagittal suture craniosynostosis. Dev Biol. 2010;344:922-40 pubmed publisher
    Premature closure of cranial sutures, which serve as growth centers for the skull vault, result in craniosynostosis...
  17. Behr B, Longaker M, Quarto N. Absence of endochondral ossification and craniosynostosis in posterior frontal cranial sutures of Axin2(-/-) mice. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70240 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicated that Axin2(-/-) PF-sutures lack physiological endochondral ossification, contain ectopic cartilage and display delayed suture closure. ..
  18. Harth S, Obert M, Ramsthaler F, Reuss C, Traupe H, Verhoff M. Ossification degrees of cranial sutures determined with flat-panel computed tomography: narrowing the age estimate with extrema. J Forensic Sci. 2010;55:690-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of intra- and inter-observer tests showed good overall agreement between the findings of three observers. This method is suitable for a nondestructive age estimation and can be used for the entire calotte...
  19. Hukki J, Saarinen P, Kangasniemi M. Single suture craniosynostosis: diagnosis and imaging. Front Oral Biol. 2008;12:79-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review we describe the range of isolated synostoses and show how these can lead to a variety of different morphological and functional abnormalities...
  20. Connerney J, Andreeva V, Leshem Y, Mercado M, Dowell K, Yang X, et al. Twist1 homodimers enhance FGF responsiveness of the cranial sutures and promote suture closure. Dev Biol. 2008;318:323-34 pubmed publisher
  21. James A, Xu Y, Wang R, Longaker M. Proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, and fgf-2 modulation of posterofrontal/sagittal suture-derived mesenchymal cells in vitro. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;122:53-63 pubmed publisher
  22. Moazen M, Curtis N, O Higgins P, Jones M, Evans S, Fagan M. Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull: a computer modelling study. Proc Biol Sci. 2009;276:39-46 pubmed publisher
    ..finite element analysis (FEA) of a skull with no sutures revealed higher patterns of strain in regions where cranial sutures are located in the skull...
  23. Xu Y, James A, Longaker M. Transforming growth factor-beta1 stimulates chondrogenic differentiation of posterofrontal suture-derived mesenchymal cells in vitro. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;122:1649-59 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors established cultures of suture-derived mesenchymal cells from normally fusing (posterofrontal) and patent (sagittal) sutures and examined the in vitro effects of TGF-beta1 on these distinct cell populations...
  24. Slater B, Liu K, Kwan M, Quarto N, Longaker M. Cranial osteogenesis and suture morphology in Xenopus laevis: a unique model system for studying craniofacial development. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e3914 pubmed publisher
    ..Because of the extended larval period in Xenopus, the molecular basis of these alterations has not been well studied...
  25. Reed D, Porro L, Iriarte Diaz J, Lemberg J, Holliday C, Anapol F, et al. The impact of bone and suture material properties on mandibular function in Alligator mississippiensis: testing theoretical phenotypes with finite element analysis. J Anat. 2011;218:59-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The varied response of the mandibular bones to changes in suture stiffness highlights the importance of defining the appropriate functional unit when addressing relationships of performance and morphology...
  26. Alden T, Lin K, Jane J. Mechanisms of premature closure of cranial sutures. Childs Nerv Syst. 1999;15:670-5 pubmed
    ..In this paper we will describe the biology of suture closure, the rules governing the resulting phenotypes seen clinically, and a prospective study of skull growth during the 1st year of life...
  27. Anderson P, Netherway D, David D, Self P. Scanning electron microscope and micro-CT evaluation of cranial sutures in health and disease. J Craniofac Surg. 2006;17:909-19 pubmed
    Current knowledge of suture biology has been ascertained as a result of morphological studies of normal cranial sutures (and rarely those undergoing craniosynostosis)...
  28. Lin I, Slemp A, Hwang C, Sena Esteves M, Nah H, Kirschner R. Dihydrotestosterone stimulates proliferation and differentiation of fetal calvarial osteoblasts and dural cells and induces cranial suture fusion. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;120:1137-47 pubmed
    ..These experiments characterize the influence of androgen stimulation on growth and differentiation of fetal dural and calvarial bone cells and on cranial suture fusion...
  29. Nott R, Stelnicki E, Mack J, Ben Y, Mitchell R, Mooney M. Comparison of hedgehog and patched-1 protein expression in the cranial sutures of craniosynostotic and wild-type rabbits. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2002;110:515-22 pubmed
    Craniosynostosis is characterized by premature fusion of the cranial sutures. At the molecular level, mutations in homeobox genes, transcription factors, and growth factor receptors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of this ..
  30. Quarto N, Longaker M. The zebrafish (Danio rerio): a model system for cranial suture patterning. Cells Tissues Organs. 2005;181:109-18 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that the anatomy of the zebrafish cranial vault and cranial sutures is very similar to that of mammalian organisms...
  31. Wilkie A, Tang Z, Elanko N, Walsh S, Twigg S, Hurst J, et al. Functional haploinsufficiency of the human homeobox gene MSX2 causes defects in skull ossification. Nat Genet. 2000;24:387-90 pubmed
  32. Herring S, Teng S. Strain in the braincase and its sutures during function. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2000;112:575-93 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these results indicate that skulls with patent sutures should be analyzed as complexes of independent parts rather than solid structures...
  33. Guenou H, Kaabeche K, Dufour C, Miraoui H, Marie P. Down-regulation of ubiquitin ligase Cbl induced by twist haploinsufficiency in Saethre-Chotzen syndrome results in increased PI3K/Akt signaling and osteoblast proliferation. Am J Pathol. 2006;169:1303-11 pubmed
    Genetic mutations of Twist, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, induce premature fusion of cranial sutures in Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (SCS)...
  34. Jabs E, Muller U, Li X, Ma L, Luo W, Haworth I, et al. A mutation in the homeodomain of the human MSX2 gene in a family affected with autosomal dominant craniosynostosis. Cell. 1993;75:443-50 pubmed
    ..In the mouse, transcripts of the Msx2 gene are localized to calvarial sutures. These results provide compelling evidence that the mutation causes this craniosynostosis syndrome...
  35. Yu J, Lucas J, Fryberg K, Borke J. Extrinsic tension results in FGF-2 release, membrane permeability change, and intracellular Ca++ increase in immature cranial sutures. J Craniofac Surg. 2001;12:391-8 pubmed
    ..numerous studies cataloging the temporal profiles of the various growth factors during the morphogenesis of cranial sutures. There are also many clearly documented mutations of the receptors of some of these growth factors such as ..
  36. Sahni D, Jit I, Neelam -, Sanjeev -. Time of closure of cranial sutures in northwest Indian adults. Forensic Sci Int. 2005;148:199-205 pubmed
  37. Coussens A, Wilkinson C, Hughes I, Morris C, van Daal A, Anderson P, et al. Unravelling the molecular control of calvarial suture fusion in children with craniosynostosis. BMC Genomics. 2007;8:458 pubmed
    ..Expression differences were also analysed between each unfused suture type, between sutures from syndromic and non-syndromic craniosynostosis patients, and between unfused sutures from individuals with and without craniosynostosis...
  38. Morriss Kay G, Wilkie A. Growth of the normal skull vault and its alteration in craniosynostosis: insights from human genetics and experimental studies. J Anat. 2005;207:637-53 pubmed
    ..Craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of the cranial sutures, occurs in 1 in 2500 children and often presents challenging clinical problems...
  39. Opperman L. Cranial sutures as intramembranous bone growth sites. Dev Dyn. 2000;219:472-85 pubmed
    ..Much of the data concerning signaling within sutures has been garnered from research on cranial sutures; hence, only the cranial sutures will be discussed in detail in this review...
  40. Jiang X, Iseki S, Maxson R, Sucov H, Morriss Kay G. Tissue origins and interactions in the mammalian skull vault. Dev Biol. 2002;241:106-16 pubmed
    ..These observations provide new perspectives on skull evolution and on human genetic abnormalities of skull growth and ossification...
  41. Kabbani H, Raghuveer T. Craniosynostosis. Am Fam Physician. 2004;69:2863-70 pubmed
    ..Untreated progressive craniosynostosis leads to inhibition of brain growth, and an increase in intracranial and intraorbital pressure. Infants should be evaluated as soon as they are diagnosed...
  42. Markey M, Marshall C. Linking form and function of the fibrous joints in the skull: a new quantification scheme for cranial sutures using the extant fish Polypterus endlicherii. J Morphol. 2007;268:89-102 pubmed
    ..Finally, although the sutures of P. endlicherii appear to be significantly less complex than those of mammals, these fish sutures show a similar range of morphologies and perform similar functions as do mammalian sutures...
  43. Merrill A, Bochukova E, Brugger S, Ishii M, Pilz D, Wall S, et al. Cell mixing at a neural crest-mesoderm boundary and deficient ephrin-Eph signaling in the pathogenesis of craniosynostosis. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:1319-28 pubmed
    ..This provides genetic evidence that Twist1, Msx2 and Efna4 function together in boundary formation and the pathogenesis of coronal synostosis...
  44. Cohen M. Editorial: perspectives on craniosynostosis. Am J Med Genet A. 2005;136A:313-26 pubmed
  45. Sun Z, Lee E, Herring S. Cranial sutures and bones: growth and fusion in relation to masticatory strain. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2004;276:150-61 pubmed
    ..Fusion appeared to be associated with increased suture strain and enhanced bone growth on the ectocranial surface. Collectively, these results indicate that age is an important factor for strain and growth of the cranium. ...
  46. Borke J, Yu J, Isales C, Wagle N, Do N, Chen J, et al. Tension-induced reduction in connexin 43 expression in cranial sutures is linked to transcriptional regulation by TBX2. Ann Plast Surg. 2003;51:499-504 pubmed
    b>Cranial sutures produce bone at precisely the right rate and time to maintain homeostasis...
  47. Nacamuli R, Fong K, Warren S, Fang T, Song H, Helms J, et al. Markers of osteoblast differentiation in fusing and nonfusing cranial sutures. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003;112:1328-35 pubmed
  48. Song H, Sahar D, Fong K, Nacamuli R, Fang T, Mathy J, et al. In vitro murine posterior frontal suture fate is age-dependent: implications for cranial suture biology. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004;113:1192-204 pubmed
    In CD-1 mice, the posterior frontal suture (analogous to the human metopic suture) fuses while all other cranial sutures remain patent...
  49. Mehrara B, Spector J, Greenwald J, Ueno H, Longaker M. Adenovirus-mediated transmission of a dominant negative transforming growth factor-beta receptor inhibits in vitro mouse cranial suture fusion. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2002;110:506-14 pubmed
    ..these studies have shown that TGF-beta is highly expressed by the dura mater underlying fusing murine cranial sutures. The purpose of the present experiments was to analyze the effects of disrupting TGF-beta signaling during ..
  50. Lenton K, Nacamuli R, Wan D, Helms J, Longaker M. Cranial suture biology. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2005;66:287-328 pubmed
  51. Sabini R, Elkowitz D. Significance of differences in patency among cranial sutures. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2006;106:600-4 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the gross external characteristics of the coronal, lambdoid, and sagittal sutures in human cadaver skulls and determine if a difference exists in terms of patency, sex, and age...
  52. Nacamuli R, Fong K, Lenton K, Song H, Fang T, Salim A, et al. Expression and possible mechanisms of regulation of BMP3 in rat cranial sutures. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005;116:1353-62 pubmed
    ..The authors investigated the expression pattern of the bone morphogenetic protein antagonist BMP3 in rat cranial sutures and the factors regulating its expression in vitro.
  53. Lin I, Slemp A, Hwang C, Karmacharya J, Gordon A, Kirschner R. Immunolocalization of androgen receptor in the developing craniofacial skeleton. J Craniofac Surg. 2004;15:922-7; discussion 928-9 pubmed
    ..This study confirms the presence of androgen receptor in the murine fetal craniofacial skeleton, suggesting a potential role for the anabolic effects of androgens in the developing craniofacial skeleton...
  54. Gosain A, Recinos R, Agresti M, Khanna A. TGF-beta1, FGF-2, and receptor mRNA expression in suture mesenchyme and dura versus underlying brain in fusing and nonfusing mouse cranial sutures. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004;113:1675-84 pubmed
    ..Understanding these differences may eventually help to identify possible targets and time windows by which to most effectively modulate cranial suture fusion...
  55. Kim H, Rice D, Kettunen P, Thesleff I. FGF-, BMP- and Shh-mediated signalling pathways in the regulation of cranial suture morphogenesis and calvarial bone development. Development. 1998;125:1241-51 pubmed
    ..Premature fusion of cranial sutures, known as craniosynostosis, presumably involves disturbance of these interactions...
  56. Hershkovitz I, Latimer B, Dutour O, Jellema L, Wish Baratz S, Rothschild C, et al. Why do we fail in aging the skull from the sagittal suture?. Am J Phys Anthropol. 1997;103:393-9 pubmed
    ..The wide confidence intervals (for age) appear to preclude meaningful application of suture status for age determination. No correlation was found with the tested biological stressors...
  57. Coussens A, Hughes I, Wilkinson C, Morris C, Anderson P, Powell B, et al. Identification of genes differentially expressed by prematurely fused human sutures using a novel in vivo - in vitro approach. Differentiation. 2008;76:531-45 pubmed
    ..The same pattern of differential expression was observed in each case, further validating the ability of our in vivo-in vitro approach to identify genes involved in in vivo human calvarial tissue differentiation...
  58. Speltz M, Kapp Simon K, Collett B, Keich Y, Gaither R, Cradock M, et al. Neurodevelopment of infants with single-suture craniosynostosis: presurgery comparisons with case-matched controls. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;119:1874-81 pubmed
    ..The hypothesized association between single-suture craniosynostosis and neurodevelopment remains unclear, given the methodologic limitations of previous studies, most notably the absence of control groups...
  59. Xu Y, Malladi P, Chiou M, Longaker M. Isolation and characterization of posterofrontal/sagittal suture mesenchymal cells in vitro. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;119:819-29 pubmed
    Craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of cranial sutures, affects one in 2500 children. In the mouse, the posterofrontal suture is programed to fuse postnatally, but the adjacent sagittal suture remains patent throughout life...
  60. Opperman L, Rawlins J. The extracellular matrix environment in suture morphogenesis and growth. Cells Tissues Organs. 2005;181:127-35 pubmed
    ..This review elucidates the nature of the sutural extracellular matrix and its role in mediating suture maintenance and growth through the regulation of cellular and biomechanical signaling...
  61. Hirukawa K, Miyazawa K, Maeda H, Kameyama Y, Goto S, Togari A. Effect of tensile force on the expression of IGF-I and IGF-I receptor in the organ-cultured rat cranial suture. Arch Oral Biol. 2005;50:367-72 pubmed
  62. Greenwald J, Mehrara B, Spector J, Warren S, Fagenholz P, Smith L, et al. In vivo modulation of FGF biological activity alters cranial suture fate. Am J Pathol. 2001;158:441-52 pubmed
    ..Our data may facilitate the development of novel, less invasive treatment options for children with craniosynostosis...