skull

Summary

Summary: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.

Top Publications

  1. Young M, Bell M, Brusatte S. Craniofacial form and function in Metriorhynchidae (Crocodylomorpha: Thalattosuchia): modelling phenotypic evolution with maximum-likelihood methods. Biol Lett. 2011;7:913-6 pubmed publisher
    ..FEA stress values significantly correlate with morphometric values representing skull length and breadth, indicating that form and function are associated...
  2. Bennett C, Goswami A. Statistical support for the hypothesis of developmental constraint in marsupial skull evolution. BMC Biol. 2013;11:52 pubmed publisher
    ..morphology between different landmark sets (optimizing either number of landmarks or number of taxa) of the whole skull and of individual developmental or functional regions (neurocranium, viscerocranium, oral region) for extant ..
  3. Mallon J, Anderson J. Skull ecomorphology of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the dinosaur park formation (upper campanian) of Alberta, Canada. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67182 pubmed publisher
    ..Consubfamilial ceratopsids and hadrosaurids differ insignificantly in their inferred ecomorphologies, which may explain why they rarely overlap stratigraphically: interspecific competition prevented their coexistence. ..
  4. Curtis N, Jones M, Shi J, O Higgins P, Evans S, Fagan M. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in Sphenodon, and implications for diapsid skull development. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e29804 pubmed publisher
    The vertebrate skull evolved to protect the brain and sense organs, but with the appearance of jaws and associated forces there was a remarkable structural diversification...
  5. Glover L, Tajiri N, Lau T, Kaneko Y, Van Loveren H, Borlongan C. Immediate, but not delayed, microsurgical skull reconstruction exacerbates brain damage in experimental traumatic brain injury model. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33646 pubmed publisher
    Moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) often results in malformations to the skull. Aesthetic surgical maneuvers may offer normalized skull structure, but inconsistent surgical closure of the skull area accompanies TBI...
  6. Richtsmeier J, Flaherty K. Hand in glove: brain and skull in development and dysmorphogenesis. Acta Neuropathol. 2013;125:469-89 pubmed publisher
    ..The skull is made up of individual bony elements that form from neural crest- and mesoderm-derived mesenchyme that unite to ..
  7. Stenroos M, Hauk O. Minimum-norm cortical source estimation in layered head models is robust against skull conductivity error. Neuroimage. 2013;81:265-272 pubmed publisher
    ..the head has a major effect on EEG signals, but unfortunately the conductivity for the most important compartment, skull, is only poorly known...
  8. Porto A, Shirai L, de Oliveira F, Marroig G. Size variation, growth strategies, and the evolution of modularity in the mammalian skull. Evolution. 2013;67:3305-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we explore the interplay between allometric size variation, modularity, and life-history strategies in the skull from representatives of 35 mammalian families...
  9. Lordkipanidze D, Ponce De Leon M, Margvelashvili A, Rak Y, Rightmire G, Vekua A, et al. A complete skull from Dmanisi, Georgia, and the evolutionary biology of early Homo. Science. 2013;342:326-31 pubmed publisher
    ..D4500) that, together with its mandible (D2600), represents the world's first completely preserved adult hominid skull from the early Pleistocene...

More Information

Publications75

  1. Montes Restrepo V, van Mierlo P, Strobbe G, Staelens S, Vandenberghe S, Hallez H. Influence of skull modeling approaches on EEG source localization. Brain Topogr. 2014;27:95-111 pubmed publisher
    ..In this head model, the skull is of utmost importance due to its complex geometry and low conductivity compared to the other tissues inside the ..
  2. Zivadinov R, Chung C. Potential involvement of the extracranial venous system in central nervous system disorders and aging. BMC Med. 2013;11:260 pubmed publisher
    ..The idea has been changing with regards to the extracranial venous system...
  3. Foth C, Rauhut O. The good, the bad, and the ugly: the influence of skull reconstructions and intraspecific variability in studies of cranial morphometrics in theropods and Basal saurischians. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72007 pubmed publisher
    Several studies investigating macroevolutionary skull shape variation in fossil reptiles were published recently, often using skull reconstructions taken from the scientific literature...
  4. Santana S, Löfgren S. Does nasal echolocation influence the modularity of the mammal skull?. J Evol Biol. 2013;26:2520-6 pubmed publisher
    ..geometric morphometric and comparative analyses to test the hypothesis that the modularity of the mammalian skull has been remodelled in rhinolophid bats due to the novel and critical function of the nasal cavity in echolocation...
  5. Cooper W, Wirgau R, Sweet E, Albertson R. Deficiency of zebrafish fgf20a results in aberrant skull remodeling that mimics both human cranial disease and evolutionarily important fish skull morphologies. Evol Dev. 2013;15:426-41 pubmed publisher
    The processes that direct skull remodeling are of interest to both human-oriented studies of cranial dysplasia and evolutionary studies of skull divergence...
  6. Balczerski B, Zakaria S, Tucker A, Borycki A, Koyama E, Pacifici M, et al. Distinct spatiotemporal roles of hedgehog signalling during chick and mouse cranial base and axial skeleton development. Dev Biol. 2012;371:203-14 pubmed publisher
  7. Hautier L, Lebrun R, Cox P. Patterns of covariation in the masticatory apparatus of hystricognathous rodents: implications for evolution and diversification. J Morphol. 2012;273:1319-37 pubmed publisher
    The mammalian masticatory apparatus is a highly plastic region of the skull. In this study, a quantification of shape variation, the separation of phylogeny from ecology in the genesis of shape brings new insights on the relationships ..
  8. Yuan J, Cao Y, Liu W. Biomimetic scaffolds: implications for craniofacial regeneration. J Craniofac Surg. 2012;23:294-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This article summarizes new developments of biomimetic scaffolds including the biomimesis of extracellular matrix, cell-matrix interaction, and tissue-regenerative signaling. ..
  9. Marino D, Loughin C, Dewey C, Marino L, Sackman J, Lesser M, et al. Morphometric features of the craniocervical junction region in dogs with suspected Chiari-like malformation determined by combined use of magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. Am J Vet Res. 2012;73:105-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The anatomic abnormality responsible for CC was AOO in a substantial percentage of dogs suspected to have CLM. The CC index value may be used to help differentiate subtypes of craniocervical junction abnormalities in dogs. ..
  10. Dickerman B, White C, Chevalier C, Nalesso V, Charles C, Fouchécourt S, et al. Missense mutation in the second RNA binding domain reveals a role for Prkra (PACT/RAX) during skull development. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28537 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, rep mice displayed altered morphology of the skull that was consistent with a targeted deletion of Prkra showing a contribution of the gene to craniofacial ..
  11. Campione N, Evans D. Cranial growth and variation in edmontosaurs (Dinosauria: Hadrosauridae): implications for latest Cretaceous megaherbivore diversity in North America. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25186 pubmed publisher
    ..A decline in the disparity of dominant megaherbivores in the latest Maastrichtian interval supports the hypothesis that dinosaur diversity decreased immediately preceding the end Cretaceous extinction event. ..
  12. Chamoli U, Wroe S. Allometry in the distribution of material properties and geometry of the felid skull: why larger species may need to change and how they may achieve it. J Theor Biol. 2011;283:217-26 pubmed publisher
    ..e., despite great differences in size, there is relatively little variation in either the shape of the felid skull and dentition across species, or in the way in which these structures are used to kill and dismember prey...
  13. Singh N, Harvati K, Hublin J, Klingenberg C. Morphological evolution through integration: a quantitative study of cranial integration in Homo, Pan, Gorilla and Pongo. J Hum Evol. 2012;62:155-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, despite having very distinct morphologies the way in which the face, basicranium and cranial vault covary is shared among these taxa. These results imply that the pattern of cranial integration among hominoids is conserved...
  14. Bever G, Brusatte S, Balanoff A, Norell M. Variation, variability, and the origin of the avian endocranium: insights from the anatomy of Alioramus altai (Theropoda: Tyrannosauroidea). PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23393 pubmed publisher
  15. Bhullar B, Marugán Lobón J, Racimo F, Bever G, Rowe T, Norell M, et al. Birds have paedomorphic dinosaur skulls. Nature. 2012;487:223-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Their anatomy is radically different from that of other vertebrates. The unique bird skull houses two highly specialized systems: the sophisticated visual and neuromuscular coordination system allows ..
  16. Zhu M, Yu X, Lu J, Qiao T, Zhao W, Jia L. Earliest known coelacanth skull extends the range of anatomically modern coelacanths to the Early Devonian. Nat Commun. 2012;3:772 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report the earliest known coelacanth skull (Euporosteus yunnanensis sp. nov.) from the Early Devonian (late Pragian) of Yunnan, China...
  17. Erickson G, Gignac P, Steppan S, Lappin A, Vliet K, Brueggen J, et al. Insights into the ecology and evolutionary success of crocodilians revealed through bite-force and tooth-pressure experimentation. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31781 pubmed publisher
    ..How these factors relate to biomechanical performance during feeding and their relevance to crocodilian evolutionary success are not known...
  18. Moran M, Nummela S, Thewissen J. Development of the skull of the pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2011;294:1743-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Combining these data with fossil evidence, it is possible to overlie ontogenetic patterns and discern evolutionary patterns of the cetacean skull.
  19. Alvarez P, Hee C, Solchaga L, Snel L, Kestler H, Lynch S, et al. Growth factors and craniofacial surgery. J Craniofac Surg. 2012;23:20-9 pubmed publisher
    ..As the 21st-century matures, recombinant human biologicals will have an overwhelming impact on the practice of craniofacial surgery...
  20. Klijn R, van den Beucken J, Félix Lanao R, Veldhuis G, Leeuwenburgh S, Wolke J, et al. Three different strategies to obtain porous calcium phosphate cements: comparison of performance in a rat skull bone augmentation model. Tissue Eng Part A. 2012;18:1171-82 pubmed publisher
    ..CPCs, an augmentation model was used, allowing a CPC injection into a rigidly immobilized Teflon ring on the rat skull. Histological evaluation after 12 weeks of implantation showed bone formation using all three CPCs...
  21. Santana S, Grosse I, Dumont E. Dietary hardness, loading behavior, and the evolution of skull form in bats. Evolution. 2012;66:2587-98 pubmed publisher
    The morphology and biomechanics of the vertebrate skull reflect the physical properties of diet and behaviors used in food acquisition and processing...
  22. Suzuki T, Sakata H, Kato C, Connor J, Morita M. Astrocyte activation and wound healing in intact-skull mouse after focal brain injury. Eur J Neurosci. 2012;36:3653-64 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate perilesional astrocyte activation under conditions in which the skull is intact, we created focal brain injuries using light exposure through a cranial window made by thinning the ..
  23. Mounier A, Condemi S, Manzi G. The stem species of our species: a place for the archaic human cranium from Ceprano, Italy. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18821 pubmed publisher
  24. Kaifu Y, Baba H, Sutikna T, Morwood M, Kubo D, Saptomo E, et al. Craniofacial morphology of Homo floresiensis: description, taxonomic affinities, and evolutionary implication. J Hum Evol. 2011;61:644-82 pubmed publisher
    ..erectus with dramatic island dwarfism. However, further field discoveries of early hominin skeletal remains from Flores and detailed analyses of the finds are needed to understand the evolutionary history of this endemic hominin species...
  25. Hill C, Martinez Abadias N, Motch S, Austin J, Wang Y, Jabs E, et al. Postnatal brain and skull growth in an Apert syndrome mouse model. Am J Med Genet A. 2013;161A:745-57 pubmed publisher
    ..syndromes, such as Apert syndrome (AS), are associated with specific phenotypes involving both the skull and the brain...
  26. Shonka D, Potash A, Jameson M, Funk G. Successful reconstruction of scalp and skull defects: lessons learned from a large series. Laryngoscope. 2011;121:2305-12 pubmed publisher
    To provide a framework for the management of scalp and skull defects.
  27. Burton L, Paget D, Binder N, Bohnert K, Nestor B, Sculco T, et al. Orthopedic wear debris mediated inflammatory osteolysis is mediated in part by NALP3 inflammasome activation. J Orthop Res. 2013;31:73-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings identify the NALP3 inflammasome as a critical mediator of orthopedic wear-induced osteolysis and as a viable therapeutic target for the treatment of periprosthetic osteolysis...
  28. Davis S, Finarelli J, Coates M. Acanthodes and shark-like conditions in the last common ancestor of modern gnathostomes. Nature. 2012;486:247-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, this increasingly detailed picture of early gnathostome evolution highlights ongoing and profound anatomical reorganization of vertebrate crania after the origin of jaws but before the divergence of living clades...
  29. Das A, Crump J. Bmps and id2a act upstream of Twist1 to restrict ectomesenchyme potential of the cranial neural crest. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002710 pubmed publisher
    ..Together our model shows how the integration of Bmp inhibition at its origin and Fgf activation along its migratory route would confer temporal and spatial specificity to the generation of ectomesenchyme from the neural crest...
  30. Kobler J, Kotlarski J, Oltjen J, Baron S, Ortmaier T. Design and analysis of a head-mounted parallel kinematic device for skull surgery. Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg. 2012;7:137-49 pubmed publisher
    Precision skull surgery requires specialized instrumentation to satisfy demanding requirements in cochlear array implantation, deep brain stimulation electrode placement, and related applications...
  31. Ishii M, Yayama K, Motani H, Sakuma A, Yasjima D, Hayakawa M, et al. Application of superimposition-based personal identification using skull computed tomography images. J Forensic Sci. 2011;56:960-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The current method involves layering of a skull and a facial image of a suspected person and thus requires a real skeletonized skull...
  32. Zhu D, Mackenzie N, Millan J, Farquharson C, Macrae V. The appearance and modulation of osteocyte marker expression during calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19595 pubmed publisher
    ..Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), the predominant cell type involved in medial vascular calcification, can undergo phenotypic transition to both osteoblastic and chondrocytic cells within a calcifying environment...
  33. Kleinteich T, Maddin H, Herzen J, Beckmann F, Summers A. Is solid always best? Cranial performance in solid and fenestrated caecilian skulls. J Exp Biol. 2012;215:833-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The skull, in particular, has been the focus of previous studies because it is driven into the substrate for burrowing...
  34. Fraser D, Theodor J. Comparing ungulate dietary proxies using discriminant function analysis. J Morphol. 2011;272:1513-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are important for future paleoecological studies and should be used as a guide for determining which dietary proxies are appropriate to the research question...
  35. Pinto P, Poretti A, Meoded A, Tekes A, Huisman T. The unique features of traumatic brain injury in children. Review of the characteristics of the pediatric skull and brain, mechanisms of trauma, patterns of injury, complications and their imaging findings--part 1. J Neuroimaging. 2012;22:e1-e17 pubmed publisher
    ..The biomechanical properties of the child's brain and skull, the size of the child, the age-specific activity pattern, and higher degree of brain plasticity result in a ..
  36. Witton M. New insights into the skull of Istiodactylus latidens (Ornithocheiroidea, Pterodactyloidea). PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33170 pubmed publisher
    The skull of the Cretaceous pterosaur Istiodactylus latidens, a historically important species best known for its broad muzzle of interlocking, lancet-shaped teeth, is almost completely known from the broken remains of several ..
  37. Brusatte S, Sakamoto M, Montanari S, Harcourt Smith W. The evolution of cranial form and function in theropod dinosaurs: insights from geometric morphometrics. J Evol Biol. 2012;25:365-77 pubmed publisher
    ..iconic clade of fossil species including Tyrannosaurus and Velociraptor, developed a great diversity of body size, skull form and feeding habits over their 160+ million year evolutionary history...
  38. Suh H, Lee W, Kim T. Influence of anisotropic conductivity in the skull and white matter on transcranial direct current stimulation via an anatomically realistic finite element head model. Phys Med Biol. 2012;57:6961-80 pubmed publisher
    ..and electrical tissue properties, in this work, we investigated the influence of anisotropic conductivity in the skull and white matter (WM) on tDCS via a 3D anatomically realistic finite element head model...
  39. Lee Y, Lee J, Cho H, Kim H, Yoon T, Shin H. Electrospun fibers immobilized with bone forming peptide-1 derived from BMP7 for guided bone regeneration. Biomaterials. 2013;34:5059-69 pubmed publisher
    ..24% in the groups implanted with PD-coated PLGA and with BFP1-coated PLGA, respectively. Based on these results, our approach may be a promising tool to develop clinically-applicable bioactive membranes for guided bone regeneration."..
  40. Bakken T, Dale A, Schork N. A geographic cline of skull and brain morphology among individuals of European Ancestry. Hum Hered. 2011;72:35-44 pubmed publisher
    Human skull and brain morphology are strongly influenced by genetic factors, and skull size and shape vary worldwide. However, the relationship between specific brain morphology and genetically-determined ancestry is largely unknown.
  41. Kung W, Lin M. A simplified technique for polymethyl methacrylate cranioplasty: combined cotton stacking and finger fracture method. Brain Inj. 2012;26:1737-42 pubmed publisher
    ..However, limitations exist with PMMA cranioplasty including longer operative time, greater blood loss and a higher infection rate. To reduce these disadvantages, it is proposed to introduce a new surgical method for PMMA cranioplasty...
  42. Jones M, Werneburg I, Curtis N, Penrose R, O Higgins P, Fagan M, et al. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and skull shape in Testudines. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47852 pubmed publisher
    ..Sea turtles (Chelonoidea) are a charismatic group of marine reptiles that occupy a range of important ecological roles. However, the diversity and evolution of their feeding anatomy remain incompletely known...
  43. Foth C, Brusatte S, Butler R. Do different disparity proxies converge on a common signal? Insights from the cranial morphometrics and evolutionary history of Pterosauria (Diapsida: Archosauria). J Evol Biol. 2012;25:904-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, mapping phylogeny into cranial morphospace demonstrates that pterosaur cranial morphology is significantly correlated with, and potentially constrained by, phylogenetic relationships...
  44. Kinsella C, Cray J, Smith D, Rottgers S, Mooney M, Cooper G, et al. Novel model of calvarial defect in an infected unfavorable wound: reconstruction with rhBMP-2. Part II. J Craniofac Surg. 2012;23:410-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of rhBMP-2 in a rabbit model of an unfavorable scarred calvarial wound with the criterion standard of autograft...
  45. Kuratani S, Adachi N, Wada N, Oisi Y, Sugahara F. Developmental and evolutionary significance of the mandibular arch and prechordal/premandibular cranium in vertebrates: revising the heterotopy scenario of gnathostome jaw evolution. J Anat. 2013;222:41-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show, in the lamprey embryo, early migration of mandibular arch mesenchyme into the premandibular domain, and propose an updated version of the heterotopy theory on the origin of the jaw. ..
  46. Schoenebeck J, Ostrander E. The genetics of canine skull shape variation. Genetics. 2013;193:317-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In this Perspectives, we discuss the origins of dog skull shapes in terms of history and biology and highlight recent advances in understanding the genetics of canine skull ..
  47. Arbour V, Currie P. Analyzing taphonomic deformation of ankylosaur skulls using retrodeformation and finite element analysis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39323 pubmed publisher
    ..length to perpendicular height is used as a strain ellipse, which can be used to determine if ankylosaur skull fossils have been dorsoventrally compacted during fossilization and diagenesis...
  48. Johnston P. Cranial muscles of the anurans Leiopelma hochstetteri and Ascaphus truei and the homologies of the mandibular adductors in Lissamphibia and other gnathostomes. J Morphol. 2011;272:1492-512 pubmed publisher
    ..Terminology is discussed, and "adductor mandibulae" is preferred to "levator mandibulae" to align with usage in other gnathostomes...
  49. Roberts R, Hu Y, Albertson R, Kocher T. Craniofacial divergence and ongoing adaptation via the hedgehog pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:13194-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Variability of craniofacial morphology mediated by Ptch1 polymorphism has likely contributed to niche partitioning and ecological speciation of these fishes. ..
  50. Schott R, Evans D, Goodwin M, Horner J, Brown C, Longrich N. Cranial ontogeny in Stegoceras validum (Dinosauria: Pachycephalosauria): a quantitative model of pachycephalosaur dome growth and variation. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21092 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional lines of evidence will be needed to resolve the taxonomic validity of flat-headed pachycephalosaur taxa...
  51. Wada N, Nohno T, Kuratani S. Dual origins of the prechordal cranium in the chicken embryo. Dev Biol. 2011;356:529-40 pubmed publisher
  52. Li J, Hong J, Zheng Q, Guo X, Lan S, Cui F, et al. Repair of rat cranial bone defects with nHAC/PLLA and BMP-2-related peptide or rhBMP-2. J Orthop Res. 2011;29:1745-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The osteoinductive ability of 3?mg P24 was similar to that of 1?µg rhBMP-2. P24/nHAC/PLLA is a promising scaffold biomaterial for bone tissue regeneration...
  53. Kasper E, Ridgway E, Rabie A, Lee B, Chen C, Lin S. Staged scalp soft tissue expansion before delayed allograft cranioplasty: a technical report. Neurosurgery. 2012;71:15-20; discussion 21 pubmed publisher
    Hemicraniectomy is an established neurosurgical procedure. However, before cranial vault reconstruction, it is imperative that sufficient scalp soft tissue is available for coverage of the reconstructed skull.
  54. Lanfer B, Scherg M, Dannhauer M, Knösche T, Burger M, Wolters C. Influences of skull segmentation inaccuracies on EEG source analysis. Neuroimage. 2012;62:418-31 pubmed publisher
    The low-conducting human skull is known to have an especially large influence on electroencephalography (EEG) source analysis...
  55. Patten S, Jacobs McDaniels N, Zaouter C, Drapeau P, Albertson R, Moldovan F. Role of Chd7 in zebrafish: a model for CHARGE syndrome. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31650 pubmed publisher
    ..These critical roles for Chd7 in retinal and vertebral development were previously unrecognized and our results provide new insights into the role of Chd7 during development and in CHARGE syndrome pathogenesis...
  56. Harvati K, Stringer C, Grün R, Aubert M, Allsworth Jones P, Folorunso C. The Later Stone Age calvaria from Iwo Eleru, Nigeria: morphology and chronology. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24024 pubmed publisher
    ..We undertook a morphometric reanalysis of this cranium in order to better assess its affinities. We also conducted Uranium-series dating to re-evaluate its chronology...
  57. Hardy H, Tollard E, Derrey S, Delcampe P, Peron J, Freger P, et al. [Clinical and ossification outcome of custom-made hydroxyapatite prothese for large skull defect]. Neurochirurgie. 2012;58:25-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Cranioplasty is an everyday concern in neurosurgery, especially in decompressive craniectomy cases. Our surgical team uses custom-made hydroxyapatite implants for large and/or complex defects...
  58. Arends S, Coebergh J, Kerkhoffs J, van Gils A, Koppen H. Severe unilateral headache caused by skull bone infarction with epidural haematoma in a patient with sickle cell disease. Cephalalgia. 2011;31:1325-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a case of a man who presented with severe headache caused by an uncommon complication of SCD...
  59. Huang C, Nie L, Schoonover R, Wang L, Anastasio M. Photoacoustic computed tomography correcting for heterogeneity and attenuation. J Biomed Opt. 2012;17:061211 pubmed publisher
    ..Experiments with phantom objects are presented to validated our findings...
  60. Shi J, Curtis N, Fitton L, O Higgins P, Fagan M. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods. J Theor Biol. 2012;310:21-30 pubmed publisher
    An accurate, dynamic, functional model of the skull that can be used to predict muscle forces, bite forces, and joint reaction forces would have many uses across a broad range of disciplines...
  61. Yamauchi H, Goto M, Katayama M, Miyake A, Itoh N. Fgf20b is required for the ectomesenchymal fate establishment of cranial neural crest cells in zebrafish. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;409:705-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Fgfr1 knockdown embryos also showed dysplastic neurocranial and pharyngeal cartilages. The present findings indicate that Fgf20b is required for ectomesenchymal fate establishment via the activation of Fgfr1 in zebrafish...
  62. Martinez Abadias N, Heuzé Y, Wang Y, Jabs E, Aldridge K, Richtsmeier J. FGF/FGFR signaling coordinates skull development by modulating magnitude of morphological integration: evidence from Apert syndrome mouse models. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26425 pubmed publisher
    ..caused by FGFR1-3 mutations, alteration of signaling in the FGF/FGFR system leads to dysmorphology of the skull, brain and limbs, among other organs...
  63. Oxnard C, Obendorf P, Kefford B, Dennison J. More on the Liang Bua finds and modern human cretins. Homo. 2012;63:407-12 pubmed publisher
    ..and within limbs, (3) postcranial bone torsions and angles, (4) postcranial robusticity, real and apparent, (5) skull features, and (6) cretinism on Flores...
  64. Marbacher S, Milavec H, Neuschmelting V, Andereggen L, Erhardt S, Fandino J. Outer skull landmark-based coordinates for measurement of cerebral blood flow and intracranial pressure in rabbits. J Neurosci Methods. 2011;201:322-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study evaluates the safety and reliability of using outer skull landmarks to identify locations for placement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and intraparenchymal intracranial ..