leg bones

Summary

Summary: The bones of the free part of the lower extremity in humans and of any of the four extremities in animals. It includes the FEMUR; PATELLA; TIBIA; and FIBULA.

Top Publications

  1. Grimer R, Taminiau A, Cannon S. Surgical outcomes in osteosarcoma. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2002;84:395-400 pubmed
    ..Limb-salvage surgery with effective chemotherapy remains the optimum treatment for osteosarcoma...
  2. Takakura Y, Yajima H, Tanaka Y, Komeda T, Tamai S. Treatment of extrinsic flexion deformity of the toes associated with previous removal of a vascularized fibular graft. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2000;82:58-61 pubmed
    ..We saw six patients who had a painful flexion deformity of the great and lesser toes after a free vascularized fibular graft had been obtained from the ipsilateral leg. In this report, we discuss our management of these patients...
  3. Risselada M, Kramer M, Van Bree H. Approaches for ultrasonographic evaluation of long bones in the dog. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2003;44:214-20 pubmed
    ..For the radius and ulna, a craniolateral approach seemed to be the best. In the hindlimb, a medial approach for the femur and a craniolateral approach for the tibia were the most effective approaches...
  4. Völk M, Angele P, Hamer O, Feuerbach S, Strotzer M. Digital image composition in long-leg radiography with a flat-panel detector: first clinical experiences. Invest Radiol. 2003;38:189-92 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate the image quality of composed long-leg examinations with a large-area, flat-panel x-ray detector...
  5. Wünschel M, Leichtle U, Obloh C, Wulker N, Muller O. The effect of different quadriceps loading patterns on tibiofemoral joint kinematics and patellofemoral contact pressure during simulated partial weight-bearing knee flexion. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2011;19:1099-106 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the influence of different quadriceps loading patterns on tibiofemoral joint kinematics and patellofemoral pressure...
  6. Blazquez D, Ruiz Contreras J, Fernández Cooke E, González Granado I, Delgado M, Menendez M, et al. Lichtheimia corymbifera subcutaneous infection successfully treated with amphotericin B, early debridement, and vacuum-assisted closure. J Pediatr Surg. 2010;45:e13-5 pubmed publisher
    ..corymbifera infection in a 13-year-old immune-competent child, with a severe traumatic injury, with a successful outcome after early diagnosis and treatment with lipid amphotericin B, early debridement, and vacuum-assisted closure (VAC)...
  7. Podsiadlo P, Stachowiak G. A rig for acquisition of standardized trabecular bone radiographs. Acta Radiol. 2002;43:101-3 pubmed
  8. Malinin T, Levitt R, Bashore C, Temple H, Mnaymneh W. A study of retrieved allografts used to replace anterior cruciate ligaments. Arthroscopy. 2002;18:163-70 pubmed
    ..The purpose of the study was the examination of retrieved whole anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) replacement grafts to determine the rate and the extent of cellular replacement and remodeling of the grafts...
  9. Eardley W, Bonner T, Gibb I, Clasper J. Spinal fractures in current military deployments. J R Army Med Corps. 2012;158:101-5 pubmed
    ..To describe spinal fracture patterns presenting to deployed medical facilities during recent military operations...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Qiu T, Wu X, Zhang F, Clemens T, Wan M, Cao X. TGF-beta type II receptor phosphorylates PTH receptor to integrate bone remodelling signalling. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12:224-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies reveal a previously unrecognized function for TbetaRII and a mechanism for integration of PTH and local growth factor at the membrane receptor level...
  2. Katz J, Bareille P, Levitt G, Stanhope R. Growth hormone and segmental growth in survivors of head and neck embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. Arch Dis Child. 2001;84:436-9 pubmed
    ..To assess the impact of treatment for embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma on spinal growth and limb length and examine the response of these parameters to growth hormone (GH) treatment...
  3. Bolland M, Ames R, Horne A, Orr Walker B, Gamble G, Reid I. The effect of treatment with a thiazide diuretic for 4 years on bone density in normal postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 2007;18:479-86 pubmed
    ..The improvements in bone density seen in the first 2 years were sustained throughout the extension study. Thiazides provide a further option in the prevention of postmenopausal bone loss...
  4. Belt P, Dickinson I, Theile D. Vascularised free fibular flap in bone resection and reconstruction. Br J Plast Surg. 2005;58:425-30 pubmed
    ..The number of revision procedures required is reduced in the presence of a FFF and is the latter is a useful technique for the salvage of refractory cases...
  5. Nomikos G, Murphey M, Kransdorf M, Bancroft L, Peterson J. Primary bone tumors of the lower extremities. Radiol Clin North Am. 2002;40:971-90 pubmed
    ..Certain lesions with unique characteristics are discussed to facilitate the diagnostic process...
  6. Colnot C, Sidhu S, Balmain N, Poirier F. Uncoupling of chondrocyte death and vascular invasion in mouse galectin 3 null mutant bones. Dev Biol. 2001;229:203-14 pubmed
  7. Motsitsi N. Management of infected nonunion of long bones: the last decade (1996-2006). Injury. 2008;39:155-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Bone results are, in general, better compared to functional results. Overall, the outcome following treatment of infected nonunion are good to excellent...
  8. Kyriakos M, El Khoury G, McDonald D, Buckwalter J, Sundaram M, DeYoung B, et al. Osteoblastomatosis of bone. A benign, multifocal osteoblastic lesion, distinct from osteoid osteoma and osteoblastoma, radiologically simulating a vascular tumor. Skeletal Radiol. 2007;36:237-47 pubmed
    ..The cases are distinguished from multifocal/multicentric osteoid osteoma and osteoblastoma, and from benign and malignant vascular tumors...
  9. Thomas V, Scheuhammer A, Bond D. Bone lead levels and lead isotope ratios in red grouse from Scottish and Yorkshire moors. Sci Total Environ. 2009;407:3494-502 pubmed publisher
  10. Wimsatt J, Withrow S, Danner D, Powers B, Hagler T, Pritzker K. Multicystic bone disease (Gorham-Stout syndrome) in a spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi?). J Med Primatol. 2011;40:61-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In April 2000, a 2.5-year-old pet female Geoffroyi's spider monkey presented for reduced activity, a subdued demeanor, and boney enlargement involving both radii...
  11. Liu J, Sun Z, Rui Y, Shou K, Wang J, Ma Y, et al. [Treatment of refractory sinus in the lower leg with modified VSD technique]. Zhongguo Gu Shang. 2012;25:861-3 pubmed
    ..To investigate the effects of modified vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) technique in treating refractory sinus in the lower leg...
  12. Benali L, Gromb S, Bou C. Post-mortem imaging in traffic fatalities: from autopsy to reconstruction of the scene using freely available software. Int J Legal Med. 2013;127:1045-9 pubmed publisher
  13. Zobrist R, Aponte R, Levin L. Endoscopic access to the extremities: the principle of fascial clefts. J Orthop Trauma. 2002;16:264-71 pubmed
    ..Twenty-five cases, each with an average follow-up of 34 months, are presented. Indications, results, and complications of balloon-assisted endoscopic surgery are described...
  14. Falder S, Sinclair J, Rogers C, Townsend P. Long-term behaviour of the free vascularised fibula following reconstruction of large bony defects. Br J Plast Surg. 2003;56:571-84 pubmed
    ..Our results compare well with other series and alternative reconstructive modalities. We conclude that the free fibula flap can provide excellent results in the salvage of limbs with large bony defects...
  15. Matejovsky Z, Kofranek I. Massive allografts in tumour surgery. Int Orthop. 2006;30:478-83 pubmed
    ..Even with the improvement of tumour endoprostheses, the use of allografts remains an option, especially in young patients...
  16. Martel J, Bueno A, Dominguez M, Llorens P, Quiros J, Delgado C. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation: relationship between different probe types and procedure time on length and extent of osteonecrosis in dog long bones. Skeletal Radiol. 2008;37:147-52 pubmed
    ..Frequently, lesions are located near the joint surface, involve the vertebral body or are close to major nerves. We seek to determine whether radiofrequency ablation (RFA) can be used safely in these cases...
  17. Alexander E, Andriacchi T. Correcting for deformation in skin-based marker systems. J Biomech. 2001;34:355-61 pubmed
    ..This newly developed method has demonstrated that by accounting for the changing shape of the limb segment, a substantial improvement in the estimates of in vivo skeletal movement can be achieved...
  18. Strauss E, Petrucelli G, Bong M, Koval K, Egol K. Blisters associated with lower-extremity fracture: results of a prospective treatment protocol. J Orthop Trauma. 2006;20:618-22 pubmed
    ..To evaluate patient outcomes after treatment of lower-extremity fractures associated with blister formation and to assess complications after soft-tissue treatment using a prospective protocol...
  19. Coursey R, Jones E, Chaljub G, Bertolino P, Cano O, Swischuk L. Prospective analysis of uncomplicated bone bruises in the pediatric knee. Emerg Radiol. 2006;12:266-71 pubmed
    ..8 cm). Given the high incidence of symptomatic but uncomplicated contusions identified in this study of a pediatric population, we suggest appropriate joint rest and follow-up without other intervention as a primary course of treatment...
  20. Anderson H, Harmey D, Camacho N, Garimella R, Sipe J, Tague S, et al. Sustained osteomalacia of long bones despite major improvement in other hypophosphatasia-related mineral deficits in tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase/nucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase 1 double-deficient mice. Am J Pathol. 2005;166:1711-20 pubmed
    ..Thus, the osteomalacia of Akp2-/- mice and the hypomineralized phenotype of the long bones of Enpp1-/- mice are not rescued by simultaneous deletion of TNAP and NPP1 functions...
  21. Dudda M, Hauser J, Muhr G, Esenwein S. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound as a useful adjuvant during distraction osteogenesis: a prospective, randomized controlled trial. J Trauma. 2011;71:1376-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) was proven to have a positive impact on bone healing in animal and clinical studies...
  22. El Gammal T, El Sayed A, Kotb M. Microsurgical reconstruction of lower limb bone defects following tumor resection using vascularized fibula osteoseptocutaneous flap. Microsurgery. 2002;22:193-8 pubmed
    ..Graft fracture occurred in three patients, and all healed conservatively. The Musculoskeletal Tumor Society rating score (MTSRS) averaged 21.2 points at the end of the first postoperative year, and 23.6 at the end of the study...
  23. Iankovskiĭ V, Kiselev V, Piatchuk S. [Investigation of osteoporotic changes of the long tubular leg bones for identification of human biological age]. Sud Med Ekspert. 2006;49:9-12 pubmed
    ..The data confirm nonlinear dependence of age dynamics of osteoporotic changes which can be more effectively described by equations of polynomial regression...
  24. Malincarne L, Ghebregzabher M, Moretti M, Egidi A, Canovari B, Tavolieri G, et al. Penetration of moxifloxacin into bone in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2006;57:950-4 pubmed
    ..To investigate plasma and bone moxifloxacin concentrations following oral administration of a single or double dose of the drug, in order to consider its potential role in the treatment of osteomyelitis...
  25. Eyesan S, Ugwoegbulem O, Obalum D. Bone cement in the management of cystic tumour defects of bone at National Orthopaedic Hospital, Igbobi, Lagos. Niger J Clin Pract. 2009;12:367-70 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study is to evaluate the outcome of filling these defects with bone cement augmented with plate and screw for stability...
  26. Ikegawa S, Nishimura G, Nagai T, Hasegawa T, Ohashi H, Nakamura Y. Mutation of the type X collagen gene (COL10A1) causes spondylometaphyseal dysplasia. Am J Hum Genet. 1998;63:1659-62 pubmed
    ..This initial documented identification of a mutation in SMD expands our knowledge concerning the range of the pathological phenotypes that can be produced by aberrations of type X collagen (type X collagenopathy)...
  27. Streeter M, Stout S, Trinkaus E, Burr D. Brief communication: Bone remodeling rates in Pleistocene humans are not slower than the rates observed in modern populations: A reexamination of Abbott et al. (1996). Am J Phys Anthropol. 2010;141:315-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The corrected remodeling rates for the Pleistocene group are similar to the values obtained in the more recent comparative sample...
  28. Hinterwimmer S, Graichen H, Vogl T, Abolmaali N. An MRI-based technique for assessment of lower extremity deformities-reproducibility, accuracy, and clinical application. Eur Radiol. 2008;18:1497-505 pubmed publisher
    ..Although underestimation of leg length and HKA in valgus knees occurred, this optimized MRI technique can be applied to patients with leg deformities...
  29. Fogliata A, Scorsetti M, Navarria P, Catalano M, Clivio A, Cozzi L, et al. Dosimetric comparison between VMAT with different dose calculation algorithms and protons for soft-tissue sarcoma radiotherapy. Acta Oncol. 2013;52:545-52 pubmed publisher
  30. Weber K, Randall R, Grossman S, Parvizi J. Management of lower-extremity bone metastasis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006;88 Suppl 4:11-9 pubmed
  31. Calbet J, Diaz Herrera P, Rodríguez L. High bone mineral density in male elite professional volleyball players. Osteoporos Int. 1999;10:468-74 pubmed
    ..001; n = 30). These findings clearly demonstrate a considerably high BMC and BMD in professional volleyball players which seems to be related to the loading type of exercise they perform...
  32. Chitty L, Altman D. Charts of fetal size: limb bones. BJOG. 2002;109:919-29 pubmed
    ..To construct new size charts for all fetal limb bones...
  33. Smith S. Stature estimation of 3-10-year-old children from long bone lengths. J Forensic Sci. 2007;52:538-46 pubmed
    ..More routine stature estimation in subadult cases is encouraged both as an aid to possible identification and as a test of the available regression equations...
  34. Sailhan F. [Chondroblastoma in children. A SOFOP series (French Society of Pediatric Orthopedics): 89 cases]. Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot. 2007;93:195-7 pubmed
  35. Ahrar K, Himmerich J, Herzog C, Raymond A, Wallace M, Gupta S, et al. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided biopsy in the definitive diagnosis of osteosarcoma. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2004;15:1329-33 pubmed
    ..All 23 US-guided biopsies resulted in definitive diagnosis. Two of the 12 fluoroscopy- or CT-guided biopsies (17%) were inconclusive...
  36. Lordkipanidze D, Jashashvili T, Vekua A, Ponce De Leon M, Zollikofer C, Rightmire G, et al. Postcranial evidence from early Homo from Dmanisi, Georgia. Nature. 2007;449:305-10 pubmed
    ..Thus, the earliest known hominins to have lived outside of Africa in the temperate zones of Eurasia did not yet display the full set of derived skeletal features...
  37. Peltola E, Koskinen S. Multidetector computed tomography evaluation of bony fragments and donor sites in acute patellar dislocation. Acta Radiol. 2011;52:86-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Patellar dislocation is frequently associated with bony fragments that are difficult to see on radiographs. MRI or MDCT are often used to rule out or characterize these bony fragments...
  38. Selber J, Treadway C, Lopez A, Lewis V, Chang D. The use of free flap for limb salvage in children with tumors of the extremities. J Pediatr Surg. 2011;46:736-744 pubmed publisher
    ..03). In pediatric oncology patients who need limb salvage, use of free flaps can result in good long-term functional outcomes. ..
  39. Kleinman P. A regional approach to osteomyelitis of the lower extremities in children. Radiol Clin North Am. 2002;40:1033-59 pubmed
  40. Bonvini J, Dullenkopf A, Borgeat A, Rentsch K. Iliac crest donor site analgesia with ropivacaine infusion after autogenous bone graft. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2004;21:239-41 pubmed
  41. Mabiala Babela J, Senga P. [First Congolese case report of Caffey disease]. Arch Pediatr. 2005;12:1402-3 pubmed
  42. Cho K, Lee S, Lee Y, Suh K. Ultrasound diagnosis of either an occult or missed fracture of an extremity in pediatric-aged children. Korean J Radiol. 2010;11:84-94 pubmed publisher
    ..To report and assess the usefulness of ultrasound (US) findings for occult fractures of growing bones...
  43. Moncrieff M, Livingston L. Reliability of a digital-photographic-goniometric method for coronal-plane lower limb measurements. J Sport Rehabil. 2009;18:296-315 pubmed
    ..Structural and coronal-plane-alignment characteristics of the lower limb are frequently cited as factors contributing to knee pathologies...
  44. Mays S, Brickley M, Ives R. Growth in an English population from the Industrial Revolution. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2008;136:85-92 pubmed publisher
  45. Kraenzlin M, Graf C, Meier C, Kraenzlin C, Friedrich N. Possible beneficial effect of bisphosphonates in osteonecrosis of the knee. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2010;18:1638-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Further randomized, controlled trials are warranted to confirm the potential beneficial role of bisphosphonates in the treatment of osteonecrosis of the knee...
  46. Hopper K, Morales P, Garcia A, Wagner J. Camptomelia in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2010;49:863-7 pubmed
    ..These conditions are thought to be caused by genetic mutations in enzymes or transcription factors that control development of the epiphyses and are almost always associated with other lethal and nonlethal developmental abnormalities...
  47. Agertoft L, Pedersen S. Lower-leg growth rates in children with asthma during treatment with ciclesonide and fluticasone propionate. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2010;21:e199-205 pubmed publisher
    ..CIC had no significant effect on lower-leg growth rate in children aged 6-12 yr with mild asthma. In contrast, a similar dose of FP significantly reduced lower-leg growth rate compared with placebo and CIC...
  48. Reitsema L, Crews D. Brief communication: oxygen isotopes as a biomarker for sickle-cell disease? Results from transgenic mice expressing human hemoglobin S genes. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2011;145:495-8 pubmed publisher
    ..8‰). These preliminary results suggest that this method may be usefully applied to skeletal materials of past human populations whose diets and water sources do not differ substantially...
  49. Weiler A, Hoffmann R, Bail H, Rehm O, Sudkamp N. Tendon healing in a bone tunnel. Part II: Histologic analysis after biodegradable interference fit fixation in a model of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in sheep. Arthroscopy. 2002;18:124-35 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we studied the tendon-to-bone healing of the anatomic soft-tissue graft interference fit fixation in a model of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in sheep...
  50. Pruthi A, Chauhan V, Rao S, Choudhury P. Incidentally detected arterial thrombosis in (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate skeletal scintigraphy: an atypical observation. Clin Nucl Med. 2014;39:190-2 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding was inferred to be due to avascularity in this region secondary to thrombo-embolism that was substantiated by color Doppler sonography. ..
  51. Kiebzak G, Faulkner K, Wacker W, Hamdy R, Seier E, Watts N. Effect of precision error on T-scores and the diagnostic classification of bone status. J Clin Densitom. 2007;10:239-43 pubmed
    ..We conclude that precision influences the variability around T-scores and that this variability affects the reliability of diagnostic classification...
  52. Wang L, Pegg D, Lorrison J, Vaughan D, Rooney P. Further work on the cryopreservation of articular cartilage with particular reference to the liquidus tracking (LT) method. Cryobiology. 2007;55:138-47 pubmed
    ..Finally, pilot experiments were carried out to provide proof of principle for a closed, continuous flow method in which both temperature and Me(2)SO concentration were computer-controlled...
  53. Coathup M, Cobb J, Walker P, Blunn G. Plate fixation of prostheses after segmental resection for bone tumours. J Orthop Res. 2000;18:865-72 pubmed