foot bones

Summary

Summary: The TARSAL BONES; METATARSAL BONES; and PHALANGES OF TOES. The tarsal bones consists of seven bones: CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid; navicular; internal; middle; and external cuneiform bones. The five metatarsal bones are numbered one through five, running medial to lateral. There are 14 phalanges in each foot, the great toe has two while the other toes have three each.

Top Publications

  1. Dolan C, Henning J, Anderson J, Bohay D, Kornmesser M, Endres T. Randomized prospective study comparing tri-cortical iliac crest autograft to allograft in the lateral column lengthening component for operative correction of adult acquired flatfoot deformity. Foot Ankle Int. 2007;28:8-12 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we undertook this randomized controlled trial to compare graft incorporation and healing of allograft and autograft in the lateral column lengthening component of adult flatfoot reconstruction...
  2. Ledoux W, Rohr E, Ching R, Sangeorzan B. Effect of foot shape on the three-dimensional position of foot bones. J Orthop Res. 2006;24:2176-86 pubmed
    ..Our measure provides insight into how foot bone architecture differs between foot types. The classification tree analysis demonstrated that objective measures can be used to discriminate between feet with high, normal, and low arches...
  3. Marchi D. The cross-sectional geometry of the hand and foot bones of the hominoidea and its relationship to locomotor behavior. J Hum Evol. 2005;49:743-61 pubmed
    ..These results provide a data base from which it will be possible to compare the morphology of the fossils in order to gain insight into the locomotor repertoires of extinct taxa...
  4. Collins M, Schaar M, Wenger D, Mandrekar J. T1-weighted MRI characteristics of pedal osteomyelitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2005;185:386-93 pubmed
    ..The objective of our study was to better define the T1-weighted MRI characteristics of surgically proven pedal osteomyelitis...
  5. Ferrari J, Hopkinson D, Linney A. Size and shape differences between male and female foot bones: is the female foot predisposed to hallux abducto valgus deformity?. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2004;94:434-52 pubmed
    ..Such differences may underlie the predisposition of the female foot to develop hallux valgus deformity...
  6. Boone D. Complications of iliac crest graft and bone grafting alternatives in foot and ankle surgery. Foot Ankle Clin. 2003;8:1-14 pubmed
    ..In the future, with continued research, the fields of tissue engineering and gene therapy will provide even better options for nonautogenous bone graft material...
  7. Urbanová P, Ross A, Jurda M, Šplíchalová I. The virtual approach to the assessment of skeletal injuries in human skeletal remains of forensic importance. J Forensic Leg Med. 2017;49:59-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Three fragmentary skulls and an incomplete set of foot bones with evidence of perimortem fractures (gunshot wounds) and sharp force trauma (saw marks) were digitized using a ..
  8. Suzuki T. How is digit identity determined during limb development?. Dev Growth Differ. 2013;55:130-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, future questions and remarkable points will be discussed...
  9. Roug I, Pierre Jerome C. MRI spectrum of bone changes in the diabetic foot. Eur J Radiol. 2012;81:1625-9 pubmed publisher
    ..1) To assess the prevalence of bone marrow changes in the diabetic foot and (2) to discuss the clinical significance of these changes...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Case D, Heilman J. Pedal symphalangism in modern American and Japanese skeletons. Homo. 2005;55:251-62 pubmed
  2. Mastrantuono D, Martorano D, Verna V, Mancini A, Faletti C. Osteoid osteoma: our experience using radio-frequency (RF) treatment. Radiol Med. 2005;109:220-8 pubmed
    ..To present the results of two years experience with a minimally invasive radio-frequency technique designed by our team in the treatment of osteoid osteoma...
  3. Patil S, de Silva M, Crossan J, Reid R. Chondrosarcoma of the bones of the feet. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2003;42:290-5 pubmed
    ..Follow-up varied from 6 months to 18 years (average, 5.8 years). Local recurrence after surgery was seen in 3 patients. All 3 died because of metastases to the lungs or brain...
  4. Coughlin M, Kennedy M. Operative repair of fourth and fifth toe corns. Foot Ankle Int. 2003;24:147-57 pubmed
    ..Treatment in each case was dependent upon the severity of the deformity...
  5. Schmid M, Hodler J, Vienne P, Binkert C, Zanetti M. Bone marrow abnormalities of foot and ankle: STIR versus T1-weighted contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed spin-echo MR imaging. Radiology. 2002;224:463-9 pubmed
    ..To compare short inversion time inversion-recovery (STIR) and T1-weighted contrast material-enhanced fat-suppressed spin-echo magnetic resonance (MR) sequences for depiction of bone marrow abnormalities of the foot and ankle...
  6. Ji Q, Luo Z, Yuan C, Wible J, Zhang J, Georgi J. The earliest known eutherian mammal. Nature. 2002;416:816-22 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the earliest eutherian lineages developed different locomotory adaptations, facilitating their spread to diverse niches in the Cretaceous...
  7. Blackwood C, Yuen T, Sangeorzan B, Ledoux W. The midtarsal joint locking mechanism. Foot Ankle Int. 2005;26:1074-80 pubmed
    ..However, this mechanism has never been well quantified. This study explores the midtarsal joint locking mechanism by comparing the effect of hindfoot inversion and eversion on midfoot and forefoot mobility...
  8. Li L, Tessier Cloutier B, Wang Y, Bernatsky S, Vinet E, Ménard H, et al. Assessing process of care in rheumatoid arthritis at McGill University hospitals. J Clin Rheumatol. 2013;19:175-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to assess performance of selected QIs from the 2004 Arthritis Foundation's QI Set at 2 major sites of a university network of teaching hospitals...
  9. Lee S, Hertel J. Arch height and maximum rearfoot eversion during jogging in 2 static neutral positions. J Athl Train. 2012;47:83-90 pubmed
    ..Clinically, lowering of the medial longitudinal arch is believed to be closely related to rearfoot eversion. However, the relationship between arch height and rearfoot eversion during gait is unclear...
  10. Greisberg J. Recent innovations and future directions in external fixation of the foot and ankle. Foot Ankle Clin. 2004;9:637-47, ix pubmed
    ..There are many applications in which external fixation is the best option and others in which it is the only surgical option. Because of this, external fixation will remain an essential tool for future orthopedic surgeons...
  11. Hattori H, Takase K, Morohashi A. Osteoid osteoma of the great toe. Orthopedics. 2011;34:e432-5 pubmed publisher
    ..A detailed assessment of both clinical and radiological features can lead to the correct diagnosis, which must be confirmed with histopathological examination to ensure adequate excision...
  12. Barouk L. Scarf osteotomy for hallux valgus correction. Local anatomy, surgical technique, and combination with other forefoot procedures. Foot Ankle Clin. 2000;5:525-58 pubmed
    ..These techniques have very significantly extended the indications for most static disorders where corrective surgery preserves the joints and their mobility...
  13. Cachia V, Culbert B, Warren C, Oka R, Mahar A. Mechanical and structural characteristics of the new BONE-LOK cortical-cancellous internal fixation device. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2003;42:15-20 pubmed
    ..7-mm helical compression anchor as compared with the 3.0-mm titanium cancellous screws in these testing models. This difference represents a distinct advantage in the new device that warrants further in vivo testing...
  14. Polyzois V, Vasiliadis E, Zgonis T, Ayazi A, Gkiokas A, Beris A. Pediatric fractures of the foot and ankle. Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 2006;23:241-55, v pubmed
  15. Mereau T, Ford T. Nitinol compression staples for bone fixation in foot surgery. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2006;96:102-6 pubmed
    ..Good bone apposition and stabilization and compression of the bone surfaces before staple fixation are important when using staple fixation to promote an optimal environment for bone healing...
  16. Bierman R, Christensen J, Johnson C. Biomechanics of the first ray. Part III. Consequences of Lapidus arthrodesis on peroneus longus function: a three-dimensional kinematic analysis in a cadaver model. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2001;40:125-31 pubmed
    ..016) and dorsiflexion of the talus (p = .045) occurred after Lapidus arthrodesis was achieved. This suggests that arthrodesis at the first metatarsocuneiform joint increases the efficiency of PL stabilizing action on the medial column...
  17. Verma R, Sherman O. Athletic stress fractures: part II. The lower body. Part III. The upper body--with a section on the female athlete. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2001;30:848-60 pubmed
    ..Part II reviews the specifics of stress fractures involving the lower body, the upper body, and includes a special section on the female athlete...
  18. Aldridge M, Waddington W, Dickson J, Prakash V, Ell P, Bomanji J. Clinical evaluation of reducing acquisition time on single-photon emission computed tomography image quality using proprietary resolution recovery software. Nucl Med Commun. 2013;34:1116-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinically, any improvement in patient throughput without loss of quality is to be welcomed. Furthermore, future restrictions in radiotracer supplies may add value to this type of data analysis...
  19. Gao Y. Children hospitalized with lower extremity fractures in the United States in 2006: a population-based approach. Iowa Orthop J. 2011;31:173-80 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to examine the demographic and hospitalization characteristics of children hospitalized with lower extremity fractures in the United States in 2006...
  20. Perez W, Weller C, Shou S, Stadler H. Survival of Hoxa13 homozygous mutants reveals a novel role in digit patterning and appendicular skeletal development. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:446-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these results identify Gdf5 as a potential target gene of HOXA13 target gene and confirm a specific role for HOXA13 during appendicular skeletal development...
  21. Lee M, Sucato D. Pediatric issues with cavovarus foot deformities. Foot Ankle Clin. 2008;13:199-219, v pubmed publisher
    ..Triple arthrodesis is considered a salvage procedure reserved for the older child with severe, rigid deformity who has failed other surgical treatments...
  22. Jaillet J, Robert Gnansia E, Till M, Vinciguerra C, Edery P. Biliary lithiasis in early pregnancy and abnormal development of facial and distal limb bones (Binder syndrome): a possible role for vitamin K deficiency. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2005;73:188-93 pubmed
    ..Warfarin- or phenytoin-induced vitamin K deficiency during early pregnancy is a well-established etiology for this syndrome, which occurs nevertheless sporadically in most cases...
  23. Woodman N, Morgan J. Skeletal morphology of the forefoot in shrews (Mammalia: Soricidae) of the genus Cryptotis, as revealed by digital X-rays. J Morphol. 2005;266:60-73 pubmed
    ..mexicana group of species. The position of this species suggests that the mostly South American C. thomasi group shares an early ancestor with the C. mexicana group...
  24. Claerhoudt S, Bergman H, van der Veen H, Duchateau L, Raes E, Vanderperren K, et al. Morphology of distal border synovial invaginations of the equine distal sesamoid bone: comparison between computed tomography and a hoof-specific radiographic projection. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol. 2012;25:453-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare the difference and agreement of the morphology of distal border synovial invaginations on a dorsoproximal-palmarodistal oblique (DPr-PaDiO) projection with hoof-specific angle versus computed tomography...
  25. Kim S, Chung S, Bahk Y, Chung Y, Song K. 99mTc-HDP pinhole SPECT findings of foot reflex sympathetic dystrophy: radiographic and MRI correlation and a speculation about subperiosteal bone resorption. J Korean Med Sci. 2003;18:707-14 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the disuse osteoporosis in unstrained bones did not show any more significantly increased tracer uptake than normal cancellous bones...
  26. Miller S. Dorsomedial cutaneous nerve syndrome: treatment with nerve transection and burial into bone. Foot Ankle Int. 2001;22:198-202 pubmed
    ..6 to a postoperative level of 2.0. Resection and burial of this nerve appears to be a useful treatment for neuritis unresponsive to nonoperative measures...
  27. Kohler M, Moya Sola S. Ape-like or hominid-like? The positional behavior of Oreopithecus bambolii reconsidered. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:11747-50 pubmed
    ..Some unique traits could have been selected only under insular conditions where the absence of predators and the limitation of trophic resources play a crucial role in mammalian evolution...
  28. Strauss E, Petrucelli G, Bong M, Koval K, Egol K. Blisters associated with lower-extremity fracture: results of a prospective treatment protocol. J Orthop Trauma. 2006;20:618-22 pubmed
    ..To evaluate patient outcomes after treatment of lower-extremity fractures associated with blister formation and to assess complications after soft-tissue treatment using a prospective protocol...
  29. Nyska M, Parks B, Chu I, Myerson M. The contribution of the medial calcaneal osteotomy to the correction of flatfoot deformities. Foot Ankle Int. 2001;22:278-82 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) to define the contribution of the Achilles tendon to the flatfoot deformity, and 2) to define the effect of a calcaneal medial displacement osteotomy...
  30. Lombardi C, Silhanek A, Connolly F, Dennis L, Keslonsky A. First metatarsophalangeal arthrodesis for treatment of hallux rigidus: a retrospective study. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2001;40:137-43 pubmed
    ..Significant positive correlations were found between subjective results and patient age (p = .05) and the preoperative lateral talo-first metatarsal angles (p = .001)...
  31. Lochner S, Huissoon J, Bedi S. Development of a patient-specific anatomical foot model from structured light scan data. Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin. 2014;17:1198-205 pubmed publisher
    ..Highest accuracy occurred in the mid-foot and lowest in the forefoot due to the small, irregular bones of the toes. The method must be validated in the intended application to determine if the resulting errors are acceptable...
  32. Milgrom C, Finestone A, Hamel A, Mandes V, Burr D, Sharkey N. A comparison of bone strain measurements at anatomically relevant sites using surface gauges versus strain gauged bone staples. J Biomech. 2004;37:947-52 pubmed
    ..Strain gauged bone staples may be most useful in comparing relative axial intra-subject differences between activities, but inter-subject variability may require larger sample sizes to detect differences between populations...
  33. Wood J, Larsen C, Abigail T. Application of bone grafts in podiatric surgery. Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 2004;21:327-34 pubmed
    ..There are many new types of allograft bone implants evolving each year with better osteogenic potential and structural rigidity...
  34. Fang Z, Chen M. Chondroblastoma associated with aneurysmal cyst of the navicular bone: a case report. World J Surg Oncol. 2013;11:50 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment consisted of aggressive curettage, phenolization, and bone allograft. The patient was able to resume normal activities after treatment, and there was no recurrence of the chondroblastoma during a follow-up of 3 years...
  35. Peotter J, Neiderer K, Walters J, Dancho J. Ewing sarcoma in a diabetic male with history of foot ulceration. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2013;52:533-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a case of Ewing sarcoma of the foot in a patient with type 2 diabetes in his sixth decade of life. ..
  36. Lau J, Daniels T. Outcomes following cheilectomy and interpositional arthroplasty in hallux rigidus. Foot Ankle Int. 2001;22:462-70 pubmed
    ..Management of severe osteoarthritis of the joint with an interpositional arthroplasty should be considered a salvage procedure with less reliable results...
  37. van Bever Y, Balemans W, Duval E, Jespers A, Eyskens F, Van Hul W, et al. Exclusion of OGDH and BMP4 as candidate genes in two siblings with autosomal recessive DOOR syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2007;143A:763-7 pubmed
  38. Thomas V, Scheuhammer A, Bond D. Bone lead levels and lead isotope ratios in red grouse from Scottish and Yorkshire moors. Sci Total Environ. 2009;407:3494-502 pubmed publisher
    Leg and foot bones of adult and juvenile red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus) were collected from hunter-shot birds on two Scottish estates (Glendye and Invermark) and one Yorkshire estate in September, 2003...
  39. El Adwar K, Taha Kotb H. The role of ultrasound in clubfoot treatment: correlation with the Pirani score and assessment of the Ponseti method. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2010;468:2495-506 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate neonates and infants with clubfoot, clinical and imaging modalities are required. Conventional radiography is of limited value because the studied bones are not fully ossified...
  40. Grant W, Garcia Lavin S, Sabo R. Beaming the columns for Charcot diabetic foot reconstruction: a retrospective analysis. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2011;50:182-9 pubmed publisher
    ..054). In both groups, the surgical intervention maintained the correction and was useful for Charcot reconstruction. Complications included pin tract infections, broken pin, osteomyelitis, transfer lesions, and ulcerations...
  41. Thordarson D, Aval S, Krieger L. Failure of hallux MP preservation surgery for rheumatoid arthritis. Foot Ankle Int. 2002;23:486-90 pubmed
  42. Wybier M, Mathieu P, Morvan G, Vuillemin Bodaghi V, Guerini H. [Muculoskeletal radiology: ankle and foot in adults]. J Radiol. 2008;89:711-24, quis 735-6 pubmed
    ..The correlation existing between some subtle radiographic changes and their counterpart on US, CT, or MR examinations are also emphasized...
  43. Cammack P, Donahue M, Manoli A. The bridge and barrel hoop plates as alternatives to external fixation techniques in the foot and ankle. Foot Ankle Clin. 2004;9:625-36, xi pubmed
    ..This article describes the technique of temporary bridge plating which may be used as an alternative to external fixation...
  44. Tillmann F, Jager M, Blondin D, Schooldermann D, Voiculescu A, Sucker C, et al. Intravenous iloprost: a new therapeutic option for patients with post-transplant distal limb syndrome (PTDLS). Am J Transplant. 2007;7:667-71 pubmed
    ..0004). PTDLS represents a benign but disabling complication following renal transplantation. Intravenous iloprost might be a promising therapeutic concept leading to a quick relief of symptoms without relevant side effects...
  45. Wei S, Cai X, Yu G. [Progress in soft tissue reconstruction of adult-acquired flatfoot deformity]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2012;26:1259-62 pubmed
    ..To review the progress in clinical and biomechanical study on soft tissue reconstruction of adult-acquired flatfoot deformity (AAFD)...
  46. Chitty L, Altman D. Charts of fetal size: limb bones. BJOG. 2002;109:919-29 pubmed
    ..To construct new size charts for all fetal limb bones...
  47. Ludwig K. [Tumors of the foot skeleton]. Radiologe. 2007;47:240, 242-9 pubmed
    ..This article describes the most important tumors and tumor-like lesions of the foot, their differential diagnosis, and the principles of local staging...
  48. Di Cesare P, Fang C, Leslie M, Tulli H, Perris R, Carlson C. Expression of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) by embryonic and adult osteoblasts. J Orthop Res. 2000;18:713-20 pubmed
  49. Eberl R, Ruttenstock E, Singer G, Brader P, Hoellwarth M. Treatment algorithm for complex injuries of the foot in paediatric patients. Injury. 2011;42:1171-8 pubmed
    ..While standardised protocols exist for the adult population to achieve an optimal result in the treatment of such injuries, therapy in paediatric patientsmust be managed without a firm treatment algorithm...
  50. Lagoutaris E, DiDomenico L, Haber L. Early surgical repair of macrodactyly. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2004;94:499-501 pubmed
  51. Case D, Ross A. Sex determination from hand and foot bone lengths. J Forensic Sci. 2007;52:264-70 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, the phalanges were better sex discriminators than either the metacarpals or metatarsals. This study suggests that length measures are more appropriate than robusticity measures for sex estimation...
  52. Cheng S, Njeh C, Fan B, Cheng X, Hans D, Wang L, et al. Influence of region of interest and bone size on calcaneal BMD: implications for the accuracy of quantitative ultrasound assessments at the calcaneus. Br J Radiol. 2002;75:59-68 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that variation in ROI and bone size might affect the accuracy of QUS measurements, since the calcaneus is heterogeneous both in terms of its external geometry and its internal structure and density...
  53. Redden R. Radiographic imaging of the equine foot. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 2003;19:379-92, vi pubmed
    ..Positioning and selection of exposure factors are of central importance if one is to produce radiographs of maximum diagnostic value...