skeleton

Summary

Summary: The rigid framework of connected bones that gives form to the body, protects and supports its soft organs and tissues, and provides attachments for MUSCLES.

Top Publications

  1. Canci A, Marchi D, Caramella D, Fornaciari G, Borgognini Tarli S. Coexistence of melorheostosis and DISH in a female skeleton from Magna Graecia (Sixth Century BC). Am J Phys Anthropol. 2005;126:305-10 pubmed
    This paper reports on a case of massive hyperostotic alterations observed in the skeleton of an adult woman from the necropolis of Montescaglioso Belvedere (Basilicata, Southern Italy) attributed to the Enotrian culture and dated to the ..
  2. Song Y, Hui J, Fu K, Richman J. Control of retinoic acid synthesis and FGF expression in the nasal pit is required to pattern the craniofacial skeleton. Dev Biol. 2004;276:313-29 pubmed
    ..In addition, our data suggest a novel role for endogenous retinoids from the nasal pit in controlling the precise downregulation of FGF in the center of the frontonasal mass observed during normal vertebrate development...
  3. Stafford D, Brunet L, Khokha M, Economides A, Harland R. Cooperative activity of noggin and gremlin 1 in axial skeleton development. Development. 2011;138:1005-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, Nog mutants that also lack one allele of Grem1 exhibit a dramatic reduction in axial skeleton relative to animals mutant for Nog alone...
  4. Rotllant J, Liu D, Yan Y, Postlethwait J, Westerfield M, Du S. Sparc (Osteonectin) functions in morphogenesis of the pharyngeal skeleton and inner ear. Matrix Biol. 2008;27:561-72 pubmed publisher
    ..A comparison of the phenotypes of Sparc knockdown and known zebrafish mutants with similar defects places Sparc downstream of sox9 in the genetic network that regulates development of the pharyngeal skeleton and inner ear of vertebrates.
  5. Neves W, Prous A, González José R, Kipnis R, Powell J. Early Holocene human skeletal remains from Santana do Riacho, Brazil: implications for the settlement of the New World. J Hum Evol. 2003;45:19-42 pubmed
  6. Joo J, Lee Y, Munguba G, Park S, Taxter T, Elsagga M, et al. Role of Pinin in neural crest, dorsal dermis, and axial skeleton development and its involvement in the regulation of Tcf/Lef activity in mice. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:2147-58 pubmed
    ..are lethal at perinatal stages and exhibit defects in the cardiac outflow tract, palate, dorsal dermis, and axial skeleton. Since Wnt/beta-catenin signaling has been shown to play pivotal roles in development of all tissues affected by ..
  7. Kirkland J, Zanno L, Sampson S, Clark J, DeBlieux D. A primitive therizinosauroid dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of Utah. Nature. 2005;435:84-7 pubmed
    ..The taxon provides the first documentation, to our knowledge, of therizinosauroids in North America during the Early Cretaceous...
  8. Ahlberg P, Clack J, Blom H. The axial skeleton of the Devonian tetrapod Ichthyostega. Nature. 2005;437:137-40 pubmed
    ..Uniquely among early tetrapods, the presacral vertebral column shows pronounced regionalization of neural arch morphology, suggesting that it was adapted for dorsoventral rather than lateral flexion...
  9. Alemseged Z, Spoor F, Kimbel W, Bobe R, Geraads D, Reed D, et al. A juvenile early hominin skeleton from Dikika, Ethiopia. Nature. 2006;443:296-301 pubmed
    ..Here we describe a well-preserved 3.3-million-year-old juvenile partial skeleton of Australopithecus afarensis discovered in the Dikika research area of Ethiopia...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Xu X, Norell M. A new troodontid dinosaur from China with avian-like sleeping posture. Nature. 2004;431:838-41 pubmed
    ..Evidence of this behaviour outside of the crown group Aves further demonstrates that many bird features occurred early in dinosaurian evolution...
  2. Zhou G, Zheng Q, Engin F, Munivez E, Chen Y, Sebald E, et al. Dominance of SOX9 function over RUNX2 during skeletogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:19004-9 pubmed
    ..In summary, SOX9 is dominant over RUNX2 function in mesenchymal precursors that are destined for a chondrogenic lineage during endochondral ossification...
  3. Strobel K, Burger C, Seifert B, Husarik D, Soyka J, Hany T. Characterization of focal bone lesions in the axial skeleton: performance of planar bone scintigraphy compared with SPECT and SPECT fused with CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007;188:W467-74 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of planar 99mTc methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy compared with SPECT and SPECT fused with CT in patients with focal bone lesions of the axial skeleton.
  4. Mountzios G, Dimopoulos M, Bamias A, Papadopoulos G, Kastritis E, Syrigos K, et al. Abnormal bone remodeling process is due to an imbalance in the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) axis in patients with solid tumors metastatic to the skeleton. Acta Oncol. 2007;46:221-9 pubmed
    ..with solid tumors metastatic to the bone in relation to the type of malignancy and the neoplastic burden to the skeleton. Levels of soluble RANKL (sRANKL), OPG and OPN were assessed in 61 patients with breast, lung and prostate cancer ..
  5. Chinappen Horsley U, Blake G, Fogelman I, Spector T. A method for determining skeletal lengths from DXA images. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2007;8:113 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to show that skeletal ratios, such as length of femur to height, could be accurately measured from a DXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) image...
  6. D Anastasio R, Zipfel B, Moggi Cecchi J, Stanyon R, Capasso L. Possible brucellosis in an early hominin skeleton from sterkfontein, South Africa. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6439 pubmed publisher
    We report on the paleopathological analysis of the partial skeleton of the late Pliocene hominin species Australopithecus africanus Stw 431 from Sterkfontein, South Africa...
  7. Lessa A, Guidon N. Osteobiographic analysis of skeleton I, Sítio Toca dos Coqueiros, Serra da Capivara National Park, Brazil, 11,060 BP: first results. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2002;118:99-110 pubmed
    This paper presents an osteobiographic analysis of a single skeleton found in a small rock shelter known as Toca dos Coqueiros, Piauí, Brazil. This find is of interest because of an exceptionally old radiocarbon date associated with it...
  8. Sherwood R, Ward S, Hill A, Duren D, Brown B, Downs W. Preliminary description of the Equatorius africanus partial skeleton (KNM-TH 28860) from Kipsaramon, Tugen Hills, Baringo District, Kenya. J Hum Evol. 2002;42:63-73 pubmed
    A partial skeleton was recovered from middle Miocene Muruyur sediments near Kipsaramon in the Tugen Hills, Baringo District, Kenya. The specimen, representing much of the upper skeleton, comes from locality BPRP#122 dated between 15...
  9. Wang D, Miller S, Shlyakhtenko L, Portillo A, Liu X, Papangkorn K, et al. Osteotropic Peptide that differentiates functional domains of the skeleton. Bioconjug Chem. 2007;18:1375-8 pubmed
    HPMA copolymer-d-aspartic acid octapeptide (D-Asp8) conjugates have been found to target the entire skeleton after systemic administration...
  10. Yin L, Du X, Li C, Xu X, Chen Z, Su N, et al. A Pro253Arg mutation in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (Fgfr2) causes skeleton malformation mimicking human Apert syndrome by affecting both chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. Bone. 2008;42:631-43 pubmed publisher
    ..And the Erk1/2 signaling pathway partially mediated the effects of P253R mutation of Fgfr2 on cranial sutures and long bones...
  11. Li C, Wu X, Rieppel O, Wang L, Zhao L. An ancestral turtle from the Late Triassic of southwestern China. Nature. 2008;456:497-501 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis places the new species basal to all known turtles, fossil and extant. The marine deposits that yielded the fossils indicate that this primitive turtle inhabited marginal areas of the sea or river deltas...
  12. Feldman J, Singh M. Bayesian estimation of the shape skeleton. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:18014-9 pubmed
    ..But effective computation of the shape skeleton remains a notorious unsolved problem; existing approaches are extremely sensitive to noise and give ..
  13. Zhang G, Miyamoto M, Cohn M. Lamprey type II collagen and Sox9 reveal an ancient origin of the vertebrate collagenous skeleton. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:3180-5 pubmed
    Type II collagen is the major cartilage matrix protein in the jawed vertebrate skeleton. Lampreys and hagfishes, by contrast, are thought to have noncollagenous cartilage...
  14. Konstantinidis P, Conway K. The median-fin skeleton of the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean clingfishes Lepadogaster lepadogaster (Bonnaterre) and Gouania wildenowi (Risso) (Teleostei: Gobiesocidae). J Morphol. 2010;271:215-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Little attention has been paid to the skeleton of the median fins...
  15. Callewaert F, Boonen S, Vanderschueren D. Sex steroids and the male skeleton: a tale of two hormones. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2010;21:89-95 pubmed publisher
    Traditionally, the stronger male skeleton was considered to result from higher androgen levels in men compared to women. However, the regulation of male bone growth by sex steroids appears more complex than originally anticipated...
  16. Ni X, Gebo D, Dagosto M, Meng J, Tafforeau P, Flynn J, et al. The oldest known primate skeleton and early haplorhine evolution. Nature. 2013;498:60-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report the discovery of a nearly complete and partly articulated skeleton of a primitive haplorhine primate from the early Eocene of China, about 55?million years ago, the oldest fossil ..
  17. Hu Y, Meng J, Wang Y, Li C. Large Mesozoic mammals fed on young dinosaurs. Nature. 2005;433:149-52 pubmed
    ..robustus was the size of a Virginia opossum. Here we report a new species of the genus, represented by a skeleton with most of the skull and postcranium preserved in articulation. The new species is 50% larger than R...
  18. DiGirolamo D, Clemens T, Kousteni S. The skeleton as an endocrine organ. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2012;8:674-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Specialized bone cells also evolved and produced endocrine hormones to integrate the skeleton in global mineral and nutrient homeostasis...
  19. Brown P, Sutikna T, Morwood M, Soejono R, Jatmiko -, Saptomo E, et al. A new small-bodied hominin from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia. Nature. 2004;431:1055-61 pubmed
    ..erectus population. Importantly, H. floresiensis shows that the genus Homo is morphologically more varied and flexible in its adaptive responses than previously thought...
  20. Johnson G, Britz R. Leis' conundrum: homology of the clavus of the ocean sunfishes. 2. Ontogeny of the median fins and axial skeleton of Ranzania laevis (Teleostei, Tetraodontiformes, Molidae). J Morphol. 2005;266:11-21 pubmed
    ..We thus conclude that the molid clavus is unequivocally formed by modified elements of the dorsal and anal fin and that the caudal fin is lost in molids...
  21. Ricaut F, Keyser Tracqui C, Bourgeois J, Crubezy E, Ludes B. Genetic analysis of a Scytho-Siberian skeleton and its implications for ancient Central Asian migrations. Hum Biol. 2004;76:109-25 pubmed
    ..of a frozen grave on the Kizil site (dated to be 2500 years old) in the Altai Republic (Central Asia) revealed a skeleton belonging to the Scytho-Siberian population...
  22. Gingerich P, Haq Mu -, Zalmout I, Khan I, Malkani M. Origin of whales from early artiodactyls: hands and feet of Eocene Protocetidae from Pakistan. Science. 2001;293:2239-42 pubmed
    ..The new skeletons are important in augmenting the diversity of early Protocetidae, clarifying that Cetacea evolved from early Artiodactyla rather than Mesonychia and showing how early protocetids swam...
  23. Case N, Rubin J. Beta-catenin--a supporting role in the skeleton. J Cell Biochem. 2010;110:545-53 pubmed publisher
    In the last 5 years a role for beta-catenin in the skeleton has been cemented...
  24. Argot C. Functional-adaptive anatomy of the axial skeleton of some extant marsupials and the paleobiology of the paleocene marsupials Mayulestes ferox and Pucadelphys andinus. J Morphol. 2003;255:279-300 pubmed
    ..It is emphasized here that the analysis of the axial skeleton complements and improves the conclusions provided by the forelimb and hindlimb analyses...
  25. Sellers W, Hepworth Bell J, Falkingham P, Bates K, Brassey C, Egerton V, et al. Minimum convex hull mass estimations of complete mounted skeletons. Biol Lett. 2012;8:842-5 pubmed publisher
  26. Biermasz N, Hamdy N, Pereira A, Romijn J, Roelfsema F. Long-term maintenance of the anabolic effects of GH on the skeleton in successfully treated patients with acromegaly. Eur J Endocrinol. 2005;152:53-60 pubmed
    ..Data on BMD are not available after successful treatment of acromegaly. Whether the positive effect of GH excess on bone mass is maintained in the long term after clinical and biochemical cure of acromegaly remains to be established...
  27. Nesbitt S, Smith N, Irmis R, Turner A, Downs A, Norell M. A complete skeleton of a Late Triassic saurischian and the early evolution of dinosaurs. Science. 2009;326:1530-3 pubmed publisher
  28. Pobiner B, Rogers M, Monahan C, Harris J. New evidence for hominin carcass processing strategies at 1.5 Ma, Koobi Fora, Kenya. J Hum Evol. 2008;55:103-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These assemblages increase our knowledge of the dietary behavior and ecology of Homo erectus, and provide support for variability in early Pleistocene hominin carcass foraging patterns...
  29. Claessens L, O Connor P, Unwin D. Respiratory evolution facilitated the origin of pterosaur flight and aerial gigantism. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4497 pubmed publisher
    ..density reduction by expansion of the pulmonary air sac system throughout the trunk and the distal limb girdle skeleton, highlighting the importance of respiratory adaptations in pterosaur evolution, and the dramatic effect of the ..
  30. Salton J, Sargis E. Evolutionary morphology of the Tenrecoidea (Mammalia) hindlimb skeleton. J Morphol. 2009;270:367-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, several characters that are constrained at the subfamily level were identified. Such characters are more indicative of postural behavior than locomotor behavior...
  31. Storre J, Elsässer H, Fuchs M, Ullmann D, Livingston D, Gaubatz S. Homeotic transformations of the axial skeleton that accompany a targeted deletion of E2f6. EMBO Rep. 2002;3:695-700 pubmed
    ..However, E2f6-/- animals display overt homeotic transformations of the axial skeleton that are strikingly similar to the skeletal transformations observed in polycomb mutant mice...
  32. Kawai M, Sousa K, MacDougald O, Rosen C. The many facets of PPARgamma: novel insights for the skeleton. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;299:E3-9 pubmed publisher
    ..sensitivity, and observations of decreased bone turnover in diabetic subjects, underscore the contribution of the skeleton to systemic energy requirements...
  33. Montanari S, Brusatte S, De Wolf W, Norell M. Variation of osteocyte lacunae size within the tetrapod skeleton: implications for palaeogenomics. Biol Lett. 2011;7:751-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, a suite of new methods is introduced to further automate the measurement of bone cells and other microstructural features on histological thin sections...
  34. Baffi M, Slattery E, Sohn P, Moses H, Chytil A, Serra R. Conditional deletion of the TGF-beta type II receptor in Col2a expressing cells results in defects in the axial skeleton without alterations in chondrocyte differentiation or embryonic development of long bones. Dev Biol. 2004;276:124-42 pubmed
    ..The data provide information regarding mechanisms of skeletal development and suggest that TGF-beta signaling is a critical component...
  35. O Connor P. Pulmonary pneumaticity in the postcranial skeleton of extant aves: a case study examining Anseriformes. J Morphol. 2004;261:141-61 pubmed
    ..Finally, enigmatic pneumatic features located in distal forelimb elements of screamers (Anhimidae) result from invasion of bone by a network of subcutaneous air sac diverticula spreading distally along the wings...
  36. Travan L, Saccheri P, Sabbadini G, Crivellato E. Bilateral arcuate foramen associated with partial defect of the posterior arch of the atlas in a medieval skeleton: case report and review of the literature. Looking backward to go forward. Surg Radiol Anat. 2011;33:495-500 pubmed publisher
    We observed a complex atlas (C1) dysmorphism in a human medieval skeleton dug up from the sixth to the seventh century necropolis located in the north-eastern Italy...
  37. Wada H. Origin and genetic evolution of the vertebrate skeleton. Zoolog Sci. 2010;27:119-23 pubmed publisher
    ..may have already existed in protochordate ancestors, and may operate in the development of the pharyngeal gill skeleton. Accompanied by genome duplications in vertebrate ancestors, this genetic cassette may have also been duplicated ..
  38. Gillis J, Dahn R, Shubin N. Chondrogenesis and homology of the visceral skeleton in the little skate, Leucoraja erinacea (Chondrichthyes: Batoidea). J Morphol. 2009;270:628-43 pubmed publisher
    ..erinacea visceral skeleton and discuss these data in the context of what is known from classical descriptions of chondrichthyan visceral ..
  39. Mabee P, Crotwell P, Bird N, Burke A. Evolution of median fin modules in the axial skeleton of fishes. J Exp Zool. 2002;294:77-90 pubmed
    ..In acanthopterygians, a new first dorsal fin module evolved via duplication and divergence. The median fins provide an example of how basic modularity is maintained over 400 million years of evolution...
  40. Anderson P, Atkins G. The skeleton as an intracrine organ for vitamin D metabolism. Mol Aspects Med. 2008;29:397-406 pubmed publisher
    ..In this context, 1,25D is generally recognized as necessary for the maintenance of a healthy skeleton through its actions on the small intestine...
  41. Bowman B, Siska C, Miller S. Greatly increased cancellous bone formation with rapid improvements in bone structure in the rat maternal skeleton after lactation. J Bone Miner Res. 2002;17:1954-60 pubmed
    ..The skeletal changes that occur during the postlactational period may serve to prepare and protect the maternal skeleton for subsequent reproductive cycles.
  42. Ishida H, Kunimatsu Y, Takano T, Nakano Y, Nakatsukasa M. Nacholapithecus skeleton from the Middle Miocene of Kenya. J Hum Evol. 2004;46:69-103 pubmed
    An almost entire skeleton of a male individual of Nacholapithecus kerioi (KNM-BG 35250) was discovered from Middle Miocene (approximately 15 Ma) sediments at Nachola, northern Kenya. N...
  43. Lettice L, Hecksher Sørensen J, Hill R. The role of Bapx1 (Nkx3.2) in the development and evolution of the axial skeleton. J Anat. 2001;199:181-7 pubmed
    ..The Bapxl gene found in fish, amphibians, birds and mammals appears to have derived vertebrate specific functions sometime after the split between the jawless fish and gnathostomes...
  44. Dean M, Summers A. Mineralized cartilage in the skeleton of chondrichthyan fishes. Zoology (Jena). 2006;109:164-8 pubmed
    ..The tessellated skeleton is composed of small blocks (tesserae) of calcified cartilage (both prismatic and globular) overlying a core of ..
  45. Makovicky P, Apesteguia S, Agnolin F. The earliest dromaeosaurid theropod from South America. Nature. 2005;437:1007-11 pubmed
  46. Tribioli C, Frasch M, Lufkin T. Bapx1: an evolutionary conserved homologue of the Drosophila bagpipe homeobox gene is expressed in splanchnic mesoderm and the embryonic skeleton. Mech Dev. 1997;65:145-62 pubmed
  47. Kaplan F, Shen Q, Lounev V, Seemann P, Groppe J, Katagiri T, et al. Skeletal metamorphosis in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP). J Bone Miner Metab. 2008;26:521-30 pubmed publisher
    ..stimulus permits the renegade metamorphosis of normal functioning connective tissue into a highly ramified skeleton of heterotopic bone...
  48. Hjorten R, Hansen U, Underwood R, Telfer H, Fernandes R, Krakow D, et al. Type XXVII collagen at the transition of cartilage to bone during skeletogenesis. Bone. 2007;41:535-42 pubmed
    ..The timing and location of synthesis suggest that type XXVII collagen plays a role during the calcification of cartilage and the transition of cartilage to bone...
  49. Adam D. Brazilian forensic medicine: Back from the dead. Nature. 2003;423:13-4 pubmed
  50. Steyn M, Nienaber W, Meiring J. An assessment of the health status and physical characteristics of an early 20th century community a + Maroelabult in the north west province, South Africa. Homo. 2002;53:131-45 pubmed
    ..It thus seems as though this was a community under considerable stress. A surprising find was the unusually high incidence of individuals with dental abnormalities and variations...
  51. Sargis E. Paleontology. Primate origins nailed. Science. 2002;298:1564-5 pubmed
  52. Li Y, Wang W, Liu X, Luo W, Zhang J, Gul Y. DNA extraction from crayfish exoskeleton. Indian J Exp Biol. 2011;49:953-7 pubmed
    ..Since the extracted DNA from CE is suitable for gene amplification, the results present usefulness of CE as an easy and convenient DNA source for PCR-based population genetic research...
  53. Lindberg D, Berger R, Reynolds M, Alwan R, Harper N. Yield of skeletal survey by age in children referred to abuse specialists. J Pediatr. 2014;164:1268-73.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine rates of skeletal survey completion and injury identification as a function of age among children who underwent subspecialty evaluation for concerns of physical abuse...