taste threshold


Summary: The minimum concentration at which taste sensitivity to a particular substance or food can be perceived.

Top Publications

  1. Ullrich N, Touger Decker R, O Sullivan Maillet J, Tepper B. PROP taster status and self-perceived food adventurousness influence food preferences. J Am Diet Assoc. 2004;104:543-9 pubmed
    ..Previous studies might have overestimated the influence of PROP taster status on rejection of strong-tasting foods by not distinguishing individuals by food adventurousness. ..
  2. Mennella J, Pepino M, Reed D. Genetic and environmental determinants of bitter perception and sweet preferences. Pediatrics. 2005;115:e216-22 pubmed
    ..New knowledge about the molecular basis of food likes and dislikes in children, a generation that will struggle with obesity and diabetes, may suggest strategies to overcome diet-induced diseases. ..
  3. Eylam S, Spector A. Oral amiloride treatment decreases taste sensitivity to sodium salts in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice. Chem Senses. 2003;28:447-58 pubmed
    ..81 both strains) suggests that ENaCs are also sufficient to support the detection of sodium in weak solutions by B6 and D2 mice. ..
  4. Stewart Knox B, Simpson E, Parr H, Rae G, Polito A, Intorre F, et al. Taste acuity in response to zinc supplementation in older Europeans. Br J Nutr. 2008;99:129-36 pubmed
    ..Supplemented Zn may have potential to enhance salt taste acuity in those over the age of 70 years. Further research is required to determine if enhanced salt taste acuity is reflected in the eating experiences of older individuals. ..
  5. Khobragade R, Wakode S, Kale A. Physiological taste threshold in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2012;56:42-7 pubmed
    The sense of taste is one of the important oral chemical senses that play a critical role in human life. The taste threshold increases by number of factors such as age, local and systemic disease like diabetes, consumption of alcohol, ..
  6. Genick U, Kutalik Z, Ledda M, Destito M, Souza M, Cirillo C, et al. Sensitivity of genome-wide-association signals to phenotyping strategy: the PROP-TAS2R38 taste association as a benchmark. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27745 pubmed publisher
    ..To facilitate further, target-gene driven, studies on PROP taste perception we provide the genome-wide list of p-values for all SNPs genotyped in the current study. ..
  7. McDaid O, Stewart Knox B, Parr H, Simpson E. Dietary zinc intake and sex differences in taste acuity in healthy young adults. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2007;20:103-10 pubmed
    ..02) and bitter (P=0.014) taste. These findings suggest that zinc is more important for taste acuity in males than females and indicate the importance of taking sex differences into account when studying taste acuity. ..
  8. Kim G, Lee H. Frequent consumption of certain fast foods may be associated with an enhanced preference for salt taste. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2009;22:475-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study aimed to investigate the effects of liking or frequent eating of high-salt food on salt taste perception among schoolchildren...
  9. Bachmanov A, Li X, Li S, Neira M, Beauchamp G, Azen E. High-resolution genetic mapping of the sucrose octaacetate taste aversion (Soa) locus on mouse Chromosome 6. Mamm Genome. 2001;12:695-9 pubmed
    ..Positions of the markers were further resolved by using radiation hybrid mapping. The results show that the Soa locus is contained in an approximately 1-cM (3.3-4.9 Mb) region including the Prp locus. ..

More Information


  1. Hayes J, Bartoshuk L, Kidd J, Duffy V. Supertasting and PROP bitterness depends on more than the TAS2R38 gene. Chem Senses. 2008;33:255-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Variability in receptor expression may explain attenuated bitterness-FP relationships. PROP bitterness does associate with heightened taste sensations (i.e., supertasting), but this is not due to TAS2R38 polymorphisms. ..
  2. Boughter J, St John S, Noel D, Ndubuizu O, Smith D. A brief-access test for bitter taste in mice. Chem Senses. 2002;27:133-42 pubmed
    ..The brief-access test is a suitable assay for bitter taste function in mice because it minimizes possible post-ingestive influences on taste. ..
  3. Kim U, Jorgenson E, Coon H, Leppert M, Risch N, Drayna D. Positional cloning of the human quantitative trait locus underlying taste sensitivity to phenylthiocarbamide. Science. 2003;299:1221-5 pubmed
  4. Curtis K, Stratford J, Contreras R. Estrogen increases the taste threshold for sucrose in rats. Physiol Behav. 2005;86:281-6 pubmed
    ..075 and 0.025 M sucrose. These results show that estrogen affects the ability to discriminate dilute sucrose from water and suggest that estrogen may have short-term effects on the detection threshold for sucrose taste in rats. ..
  5. Bajec M, Pickering G. Thermal taste, PROP responsiveness, and perception of oral sensations. Physiol Behav. 2008;95:581-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that pSTs and TTs possess greater responsiveness across a range of taste and trigeminal stimuli and concentrations...
  6. Mattes R. Is there a fatty acid taste?. Annu Rev Nutr. 2009;29:305-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Oral exposure to free fatty acids likely serves as a warning signal to discourage intake and influences lipid metabolism. ..
  7. DeSimone J, Lyall V. Taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract III. Salty and sour taste: sensing of sodium and protons by the tongue. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006;291:G1005-10 pubmed
    ..Adaptation to sour arises from the activation of the basolateral sodium-hydrogen exchanger isoform-1 by an increase in intracellular calcium that sustains the tonic phase of the sour taste response. ..
  8. Tsuji M, Nakamura K, Tamai Y, Wada K, Sahashi Y, Watanabe K, et al. Relationship of intake of plant-based foods with 6-n-propylthiouracil sensitivity and food neophobia in Japanese preschool children. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012;66:47-52 pubmed publisher
    ..0024). These data suggest that sensitivity to bitter taste and food neophobia may influence the consumption of vegetables and soy foods among Japanese preschool boys. ..
  9. Mennella J, Pepino M, Duke F, Reed D. Psychophysical dissection of genotype effects on human bitter perception. Chem Senses. 2011;36:161-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Human PROP sensitivity is determined by the combination of each of these 3 polymorphisms within the TAS2R38 gene. ..
  10. Inoue M, McCaughey S, Bachmanov A, Beauchamp G. Whole nerve chorda tympani responses to sweeteners in C57BL/6ByJ and 129P3/J mice. Chem Senses. 2001;26:915-23 pubmed
    ..Thus, variation between the B6 and 129 strains in the peripheral gustatory system may contribute to differences in their consumption of many sweeteners. ..
  11. Glendinning J, Gresack J, Spector A. A high-throughput screening procedure for identifying mice with aberrant taste and oromotor function. Chem Senses. 2002;27:461-74 pubmed
    ..This screen represents a significant improvement over the common two-bottle preference test because it assesses taste function more specifically and in a fraction of the time. ..
  12. Padiglia A, Zonza A, Atzori E, Chillotti C, Calo C, Tepper B, et al. Sensitivity to 6-n-propylthiouracil is associated with gustin (carbonic anhydrase VI) gene polymorphism, salivary zinc, and body mass index in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92:539-45 pubmed publisher
  13. Watanabe M, Kudo H, Fukuoka Y, Hatakeyama A, Kudo H, Kodama H, et al. Salt taste perception and salt intake in older people. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2008;8:62-4 pubmed publisher
  14. Cannon D, Baker T, Piper M, Scholand M, Lawrence D, Drayna D, et al. Associations between phenylthiocarbamide gene polymorphisms and cigarette smoking. Nicotine Tob Res. 2005;7:853-8 pubmed
    ..392, p = .001. The predicted relationship between PAV and AVI and taste motivation was found, F(2, 348) = 3.303, p = .038. The results encourage further exploration of the role of taste/sensory processes in tobacco dependence. ..
  15. Mattes R. Oral thresholds and suprathreshold intensity ratings for free fatty acids on 3 tongue sites in humans: implications for transduction mechanisms. Chem Senses. 2009;34:415-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, they challenge current views on transduction as sensory responsiveness was observed at tongue sites not predicted to support FFA detection. ..
  16. Bartoshuk L, Duffy V, Green B, Hoffman H, Ko C, Lucchina L, et al. Valid across-group comparisons with labeled scales: the gLMS versus magnitude matching. Physiol Behav. 2004;82:109-14 pubmed
    ..The two methods produced similar results suggesting that the gLMS is valid for taste comparisons across nontasters, medium tasters, and supertasters. ..
  17. Bachmanov A, Tordoff M, Beauchamp G. Sweetener preference of C57BL/6ByJ and 129P3/J mice. Chem Senses. 2001;26:905-13 pubmed
    ..Glycyrrhizic acid, neohesperidin, thaumatin and cyclamate are not palatable to B6 or 129 mice. ..
  18. Nelson T, Munger S, Boughter J. Taste sensitivities to PROP and PTC vary independently in mice. Chem Senses. 2003;28:695-704 pubmed
    ..Most strikingly, these results demonstrate that in mice, unlike in humans, PTC and PROP taste sensitivities vary independently, thereby suggesting a subtle functional diversity of bitter-taste mechanisms across mammalian species. ..
  19. Bachmanov A, Li X, Reed D, Ohmen J, Li S, Chen Z, et al. Positional cloning of the mouse saccharin preference (Sac) locus. Chem Senses. 2001;26:925-33 pubmed
    ..This study provides compelling evidence that Tas1r3 is equivalent to the Sac locus and that the T1R3 receptor responds to sweeteners. ..
  20. Tepper B. Nutritional implications of genetic taste variation: the role of PROP sensitivity and other taste phenotypes. Annu Rev Nutr. 2008;28:367-88 pubmed publisher
    ..The contribution of other receptors (both bitter and nonbitter) to human taste variation is also discussed. ..
  21. Yeomans M, Tepper B, Rietzschel J, Prescott J. Human hedonic responses to sweetness: role of taste genetics and anatomy. Physiol Behav. 2007;91:264-73 pubmed
    ..Overall these data confirm that PROP super-tasters are more likely to be sweet dislikers, and that this cannot be explained as secondary to cognitive attitudes to sweetness (restraint) or enhanced sweet intensity. ..
  22. Pasquet P, Monneuse M, Simmen B, Marez A, Hladik C. Relationship between taste thresholds and hunger under debate. Appetite. 2006;46:63-6 pubmed
    ..Our Bayesian analysis did not corroborate the hypothesis of increased sensitivity to nutrition-related tastants in the fasting state that was recently supported by data obtained with the two-alternative forced-choice method. ..
  23. Essick G, Chopra A, Guest S, McGlone F. Lingual tactile acuity, taste perception, and the density and diameter of fungiform papillae in female subjects. Physiol Behav. 2003;80:289-302 pubmed
    ..Tactile and taste sensitivities covary and reflect individual differences in the density and diameter of fungiform papillae on the anterior tongue. ..
  24. Meyerhof W. Elucidation of mammalian bitter taste. Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol. 2005;154:37-72 pubmed
    ..Thus, dedicated taste receptor cells appear to function as broadly tuned detectors for bitter substances and are wired to elicit aversive behavior. ..
  25. Basson M, Bartoshuk L, Dichello S, Panzini L, Weiffenbach J, Duffy V. Association between 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness and colonic neoplasms. Dig Dis Sci. 2005;50:483-9 pubmed
    ..In the subset reporting vegetable intake, men who tasted PROP as more bitter consumed fewer vegetables. These preliminary findings suggest that taste genetics may influence colon cancer risk, possibly through intake of vegetables. ..
  26. Yamagata T, Nakamura Y, Yamagata Y, Nakanishi M, Matsunaga K, Nakanishi H, et al. The pilot trial of the prevention of the increase in electrical taste thresholds by zinc containing fluid infusion during chemotherapy to treat primary lung cancer. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2003;22:557-63 pubmed
    ..These results suggest the possibility that the administration of zinc during chemotherapy could be a useful supportive therapy for preventing taste disorder and to help maintain a better quality of life. ..
  27. Meyerhof W, Batram C, Kuhn C, Brockhoff A, Chudoba E, Bufe B, et al. The molecular receptive ranges of human TAS2R bitter taste receptors. Chem Senses. 2010;35:157-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that the detection of the numerous bitter chemicals is related to the molecular receptive ranges of hTAS2Rs. ..
  28. Mojet J, Christ Hazelhof E, Heidema J. Taste perception with age: generic or specific losses in threshold sensitivity to the five basic tastes?. Chem Senses. 2001;26:845-60 pubmed
    ..32 (aspartame) to 5.70 times (IMP) higher concentration than the younger subjects. A significant decline in thresholds with replication was shown. The age effect found could be attributed predominantly to a generic taste loss. ..
  29. Coldwell S, Oswald T, Reed D. A marker of growth differs between adolescents with high vs. low sugar preference. Physiol Behav. 2009;96:574-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The change in sugar preference from high to low during adolescence appears to be associated with the cessation of growth. ..
  30. Pasquet P, Oberti B, El Ati J, Hladik C. Relationships between threshold-based PROP sensitivity and food preferences of Tunisians. Appetite. 2002;39:167-73 pubmed
    ..These results together with the evidence of a limited set of food actually used by low-threshold tasters suggest that these subjects might have difficulties at overcoming an inherent neophobia. ..
  31. McAnally H, Poulton R, Hancox R, Prescott J, Welch D. Psychosocial correlates of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) ratings in a birth cohort. Appetite. 2007;49:700-3 pubmed
    ..12). Results suggest that psychosocial variables, sex and scale use, in addition to established genetic determinants, may help explain variability in ratings of supra-threshold concentrations of PROP. ..
  32. Stewart J, Feinle Bisset C, Golding M, Delahunty C, Clifton P, Keast R. Oral sensitivity to fatty acids, food consumption and BMI in human subjects. Br J Nutr. 2010;104:145-52 pubmed publisher
    ..4, P < 0.05). These data suggest that oral fatty acid hypersensitivity is associated with lower energy and fat intakes and BMI, and it may serve as a factor that influences fat consumption in human subjects. ..
  33. Melis M, Aragoni M, Arca M, Cabras T, Caltagirone C, Castagnola M, et al. Marked increase in PROP taste responsiveness following oral supplementation with selected salivary proteins or their related free amino acids. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59810 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that Ps-1 protein facilitates PROP bitter taste perception and identifies a role for free L-Arg and L-Lys in PROP tasting. ..
  34. Whitney G, Harder D. Genetics of bitter perception in mice. Physiol Behav. 1994;56:1141-7 pubmed
    ..Likewise, a hop extract containing primarily iso-alpha acids (e.g., isohumulone) produced an SOA-like pattern, while an extract with nonisomerized alpha-acids (e.g., humulone) did not...
  35. Drewnowski A, Henderson S, Barratt Fornell A. Genetic taste markers and food preferences. Drug Metab Dispos. 2001;29:535-8 pubmed
    ..Consumer acceptance of these plant-based foods may depend critically on inherited taste factors. This review examines the role of genetic taste markers in determining taste preferences and food choices. ..
  36. Capeless C, Whitney G, Azen E. Chromosome mapping of Soa, a gene influencing gustatory sensitivity to sucrose octaacetate in mice. Behav Genet. 1992;22:655-63 pubmed
    ..The data are consistent with a position for the Soa locus on mouse chromosome 6, 62 cM from the centromere. ..
  37. Bartoshuk L, Duffy V, Miller I. PTC/PROP tasting: anatomy, psychophysics, and sex effects. Physiol Behav. 1994;56:1165-71 pubmed
    ..Future investigations of PTC/PROP tasting and food behaviors should include scaling to identify supertasters and separate sex effects. ..
  38. Bartoshuk L, Duffy V, Lucchina L, Prutkin J, Fast K. PROP (6-n-propylthiouracil) supertasters and the saltiness of NaCl. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1998;855:793-6 pubmed
    ..Note that the association between PROP status and salt taste is interesting in itself, since variability in salt taste may have important nutritional consequences. ..
  39. Zacarias I, Yáñez C, Araya M, Oraka C, Olivares M, Uauy R. Determination of the taste threshold of copper in water. Chem Senses. 2001;26:85-9 pubmed
    ..The purpose of the study was to determine the taste threshold of copper in different types of water, using soluble and insoluble salts (copper sulfate and copper chloride)...
  40. Eddy M, Eschle B, Delay E. Comparison of the Tastes of L-Alanine and Monosodium Glutamate in C57BL/6J Wild Type and T1r3 Knockout Mice. Chem Senses. 2017;42:563-573 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that while the T1r3 receptor is important for tasting L-alanine and L-glutamate, other receptors are also important for tasting these amino acids. ..
  41. Barbarossa I, Atzori E, Zonza A, Padiglia A. A rapid screening method for the identification of a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the carbonic anhydrase VI gene in studies of sensitivity to the bitter taste of 6-n-propylthiouracil. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2011;15:721-4 pubmed publisher
  42. Wen X. Salt taste sensitivity, physical activity and gastric cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2010;11:1473-7 pubmed
    ..7%, specificity of 57%). Salt and salted food intake is associated with gastric cancer, while physical activity is protective. A high STST is strongly linked to gastric cancer risk. ..
  43. van Aardt M, Duncan S, Marcy J, Long T, Hackney C. Effectiveness of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and high-density polyethylene in protection of milk flavor. J Dairy Sci. 2001;84:1341-7 pubmed
    ..Acetaldehyde concentration never exceeded flavor threshold levels, regardless of packaging material. Amber and PETE-UV materials proved to be a competitive packaging choice for milk in preserving fresh milk flavor. ..
  44. Saito T, Manabe Y, Shibamori Y, Yamagishi T, Igawa H, Tokuriki M, et al. Long-term follow-up results of electrogustometry and subjective taste disorder after middle ear surgery. Laryngoscope. 2001;111:2064-70 pubmed
    ..Preservation or repair of the chorda tympani nerve is recommended in order to maintain or recover gustatory function. ..
  45. Sako N, Tokita K, Sugimura T, Yamamoto T. Synergistic responses of the chorda tympani to mixtures of umami and sweet substances in rats. Chem Senses. 2003;28:261-6 pubmed
    ..These findings are different from the characteristics of synergism between glutamate and IMP. The multiple transduction mechanisms for the umami taste in rat taste cells are discussed. ..
  46. Kim U, Breslin P, Reed D, Drayna D. Genetics of human taste perception. J Dent Res. 2004;83:448-53 pubmed
    ..Salty and sour tastes are still poorly characterized in genetic terms, and represent opportunities for the future. ..
  47. Kang Y, Yan J, Huang T. Blocking of AMPA receptors in the central amygdaloid nucleus modulates the parabrachial nucleus taste responses in rats. Sheng Li Xue Bao. 2004;56:671-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that AMPA receptors within the CeA may be involved in the descending modulation in the PBN taste neurons. ..
  48. Devantier H, Long D, Brennan F, Carlucci S, Hendrix C, Bryant R, et al. Quantitative assessment of TRPM5-dependent oral aversiveness of pharmaceuticals using a mouse brief-access taste aversion assay. Behav Pharmacol. 2008;19:673-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest the BATA assay will facilitate formulation strategies and taste assessment of late development-phase APIs. ..
  49. Schiffman S, Sattely Miller E, Graham B, Zervakis J, Butchko H, Stargel W. Effect of repeated presentation on sweetness intensity of binary and ternary mixtures of sweeteners. Chem Senses. 2003;28:219-29 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the decline in sweetness intensity experienced over repeated exposure to a sweet stimulus could be reduced by the blending of sweeteners. ..
  50. Liem D, de Graaf C. Sweet and sour preferences in young children and adults: role of repeated exposure. Physiol Behav. 2004;83:421-9 pubmed
    ..Future research is needed to investigate whether the changed preferences for sweet taste are stable over time and how these changed taste preferences are related to a change in the consumption of sugar rich foods. ..
  51. Botezatu A, Pickering G. Determination of ortho- and retronasal detection thresholds and odor impact of 2,5-dimethyl-3-methoxypyrazine in wine. J Food Sci. 2012;77:S394-8 pubmed publisher
    ..When considered with other recent results on DMMP concentrations found in wine, DMMP can be considered a hitherto undescribed impact odorant in some wine styles. ..
  52. Kayser J, Tenke C, Kroppmann C, Alschuler D, Ben David S, Fekri S, et al. Olfaction in the psychosis prodrome: electrophysiological and behavioral measures of odor detection. Int J Psychophysiol. 2013;90:190-206 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, despite the lack of overall group differences, olfactory measures may be of utility in predicting transition to psychosis among CHR patients. ..
  53. Neyraud E, Peyron M, Vieira C, Dransfield E. Influence of bitter taste on mastication pattern. J Dent Res. 2005;84:250-4 pubmed
    ..5 g/min). Bitterness increased, while acceptability and sweetness decreased, with increasing concentration of quinine in the gel and in saliva. Taste cognition could therefore modify food breakdown in the mouth. ..