reaction time


Summary: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.

Top Publications

  1. Herz D, Christensen M, Brüggemann N, Hulme O, Ridderinkhof K, Madsen K, et al. Motivational tuning of fronto-subthalamic connectivity facilitates control of action impulses. J Neurosci. 2014;34:3210-7 pubmed publisher
  2. Cheng K, Pratt J, Maki B. Effects of spatial-memory decay and dual-task interference on perturbation-evoked reach-to-grasp reactions in the absence of online visual feedback. Hum Mov Sci. 2013;32:328-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Further work is needed to determine effects of age-related impairments in visuospatial memory and attentional capacity. ..
  3. He B. Spontaneous and task-evoked brain activity negatively interact. J Neurosci. 2013;33:4672-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, incoming sensory stimuli modulate the brain's activity in a manner that depends on its initial state. We propose that across-trial variability may provide a new approach to brain mapping in the context of cognitive experiments. ..
  4. Hou M, Safron A, Paller K, Guo C. Neural correlates of familiarity and conceptual fluency in a recognition test with ancient pictographic characters. Brain Res. 2013;1518:48-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings linked familiarity and conceptual fluency with different brain potentials - LPC and FN400, respectively - and provide additional evidence that explicit memory and implicit memory have distinct neural substrates. ..
  5. Antonini T, Narad M, Langberg J, Epstein J. Behavioral correlates of reaction time variability in children with and without ADHD. Neuropsychology. 2013;27:201-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Reaction time (RT) variability is often purported to indicate behavioral attention...
  6. Simpson A, Gillingwater T, Anderson H, Cottrell D, Sherman D, Ribchester R, et al. Effect of limb lengthening on internodal length and conduction velocity of peripheral nerve. J Neurosci. 2013;33:4536-9 pubmed publisher
  7. Adamo N, Huo L, Adelsberg S, Petkova E, Castellanos F, Di Martino A. Response time intra-subject variability: commonalities between children with autism spectrum disorders and children with ADHD. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014;23:69-79 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that children with ADHD and those with ASD(+) share common underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of RT-ISV. ..
  8. Wiecki T, Frank M. A computational model of inhibitory control in frontal cortex and basal ganglia. Psychol Rev. 2013;120:329-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show how this network can be extended to include the inferior frontal cortex to simulate key qualitative patterns of global response inhibition demands as required in the stop-signal task. ..
  9. Palazova M, Sommer W, Schacht A. Interplay of emotional valence and concreteness in word processing: an event-related potential study with verbs. Brain Lang. 2013;125:264-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the elicitation of the EPN seems to be based on semantic processes, with emotional valence being accessed before other semantic aspects such as concreteness of verbs. ..

More Information


  1. Stokes M, Kusunoki M, Sigala N, Nili H, Gaffan D, Duncan J. Dynamic coding for cognitive control in prefrontal cortex. Neuron. 2013;78:364-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate how neural tuning profiles in prefrontal cortex adapt to accommodate changes in behavioral context. Highly flexible tuning could be mediated via short-term synaptic plasticity...
  2. Salinas E, Stanford T. The countermanding task revisited: fast stimulus detection is a key determinant of psychophysical performance. J Neurosci. 2013;33:5668-85 pubmed publisher
    ..thought to be at work in the task, typically using an inferred, model-dependent metric called the stop-signal reaction time. This approach has consistently overlooked the impact of perceptual evaluation on performance...
  3. Crump M, McDonnell J, Gureckis T. Evaluating Amazon's Mechanical Turk as a tool for experimental behavioral research. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57410 pubmed publisher
    ..A number of important lessons were encountered in the process of conducting these replications that should be of value to other researchers. ..
  4. Logan G, Van Zandt T, Verbruggen F, Wagenmakers E. On the ability to inhibit thought and action: general and special theories of an act of control. Psychol Rev. 2014;121:66-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss implications of viewing cognitive control as the result of a repertoire of acts of control tailored to different tasks and situations. ..
  5. Sun Y, Kim Y, Ibrahim L, Tao H, Zhang L. Synaptic mechanisms underlying functional dichotomy between intrinsic-bursting and regular-spiking neurons in auditory cortical layer 5. J Neurosci. 2013;33:5326-39 pubmed publisher
    ..The spectrally and temporally broad synaptic integration in IB neurons may ensure robust feedback signals to facilitate subcortical function and plasticity in a general manner. ..
  6. Stonehouse W, Conlon C, Podd J, Hill S, Minihane A, Haskell C, et al. DHA supplementation improved both memory and reaction time in healthy young adults: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97:1134-43 pubmed publisher
    ..were calculated and clustered into cognitive domains as follows: episodic and working memory, attention, reaction time (RT) of episodic and working memory, and attention and processing speed...
  7. Nonnekes J, Oude Nijhuis L, de Niet M, de Bot S, Pasman J, van de Warrenburg B, et al. StartReact restores reaction time in HSP: evidence for subcortical release of a motor program. J Neurosci. 2014;34:275-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These delayed onsets in HSP were normalized when the imperative stimulus was combined with a SAS, presumably through release of a subcortically stored motor program conveyed by the preserved reticulospinal tract. ..
  8. Ester E, Anderson D, Serences J, Awh E. A neural measure of precision in visual working memory. J Cogn Neurosci. 2013;25:754-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide important new evidence linking the precision of sustained population-level responses in visual cortex and memory acuity. ..
  9. Weissman D, Carp J. The congruency effect in the posterior medial frontal cortex is more consistent with time on task than with response conflict. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62405 pubmed publisher
    ..a process that detects conflict between competing response alternatives, which is indexed by trial-specific reaction time (RT)...
  10. Temprado J, Sleimen Malkoun R, Lemaire P, Rey Robert B, Retornaz F, Berton E. Aging of sensorimotor processes: a systematic study in Fitts' task. Exp Brain Res. 2013;228:105-16 pubmed publisher
  11. Norris J, Carr W, Herzig T, LaBrie D, Sams R. ANAM4 TBI reaction time-based tests have prognostic utility for acute concussion. Mil Med. 2013;178:767-74 pubmed publisher
    ..TBI, loss of consciousness, and post-traumatic amnesia were associated with increased RTD time; ANAM4 TBI reaction time-based subtests, collectively, showed the largest effect sizes...
  12. Alemi Neissi A, Rosselli F, Zoccolan D. Multifeatural shape processing in rats engaged in invariant visual object recognition. J Neurosci. 2013;33:5939-56 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that their visual system may serve as a powerful model to study the neuronal substrates of object recognition. ..
  13. Brücke C, Bock A, Huebl J, Krauss J, Schönecker T, Schneider G, et al. Thalamic gamma oscillations correlate with reaction time in a Go/noGo task in patients with essential tremor. Neuroimage. 2013;75:36-45 pubmed publisher
    ..onset of contralateral gamma band synchronization following imperative Go cues is positively correlated with reaction time. Remarkably, baseline levels of gamma activity shortly before the Go cue correlated with the reaction times...
  14. McLoughlin G, Palmer J, Rijsdijk F, Makeig S. Genetic overlap between evoked frontocentral theta-band phase variability, reaction time variability, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in a twin study. Biol Psychiatry. 2014;75:238-47 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Reaction time variability (RTV) is consistently increased in ADHD and is known to share genetic effects with the disorder...
  15. Kofler M, Rapport M, Sarver D, Raiker J, Orban S, Friedman L, et al. Reaction time variability in ADHD: a meta-analytic review of 319 studies. Clin Psychol Rev. 2013;33:795-811 pubmed publisher
    ..ADHD are characterized as ubiquitously slower and more variable than their unaffected peers, and increased reaction time (RT) variability is considered by many to reflect an etiologically important characteristic of ADHD...
  16. Hedenius M, Ullman M, Alm P, Jennische M, Persson J. Enhanced recognition memory after incidental encoding in children with developmental dyslexia. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63998 pubmed publisher
    ..g., visuo-spatial processing) in DD. Possible underlying mechanisms for the observed DD advantage in declarative memory, and the possibility of compensation by this system for reading deficits in dyslexia, are discussed...
  17. Duecker F, Sack A. Pre-stimulus sham TMS facilitates target detection. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57765 pubmed publisher
    ..These non-neural effects of TMS need to be controlled for in TMS research and the present findings provide an empirical basis for deciding what constitutes a valid control condition. ..
  18. Luo C, Proctor R. Asymmetry of congruency effects in spatial Stroop tasks can be eliminated. Acta Psychol (Amst). 2013;143:7-13 pubmed publisher
  19. McKenna B, Young J, Dawes S, Asgaard G, Eyler L. Bridging the bench to bedside gap: validation of a reverse-translated rodent continuous performance test using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Psychiatry Res. 2013;212:183-91 pubmed publisher
    ..This task can be used for powerful parallel human and animal investigations of the biological basis of vigilance deficits in populations with severe mental illness. ..
  20. Albert J, López Martín S, Hinojosa J, Carretié L. Spatiotemporal characterization of response inhibition. Neuroimage. 2013;76:272-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Present results suggest that the frontocentral P3 and the preSMA play a core role in response inhibition. The findings of this study substantiate and complement previous results obtained by hemodynamic procedures. ..
  21. Phillips M, Rogers P, Haworth J, Bayer A, Tales A. Intra-individual reaction time variability in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: gender, processing load and speed factors. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e65712 pubmed publisher
    Compared to cognitively healthy ageing (CH), intra-individual variability in reaction time (IIV(RT)), a behavioural marker of neurological integrity, is commonly reported to increase in both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive ..
  22. Mudar R, Chiang H, Eroh J, Nguyen L, Maguire M, Spence J, et al. The Effects of Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment on Go/NoGo Semantic Categorization Task Performance and Event-Related Potentials. J Alzheimers Dis. 2016;50:577-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Prolonged Go-N2 latency in aMCI appears to precede behavioral changes in response execution, whereas prolonged NoGo-N2 latency underlies behavioral deterioration in response inhibition. ..
  23. Umemoto A, Holroyd C. Neural mechanisms of reward processing associated with depression-related personality traits. Clin Neurophysiol. 2017;128:1184-1196 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite recent evidence arguing for an anticipatory deficit in depression, impaired reward valuation as a primary deficit should be further examined in clinical samples. ..
  24. van Wouwe N, Kanoff K, Claassen D, Spears C, Neimat J, van den Wildenberg W, et al. Dissociable Effects of Dopamine on the Initial Capture and the Reactive Inhibition of Impulsive Actions in Parkinson's Disease. J Cogn Neurosci. 2016;28:710-23 pubmed publisher
  25. van der Jagt A, Craig T, Brewer M, Pearson D. A view not to be missed: Salient scene content interferes with cognitive restoration. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0169997 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these findings demonstrate an important link between the saliency of scene content and related cognitive restoration. ..
  26. Kalogeropoulou Z, Rolfs M. Saccadic eye movements do not disrupt the deployment of feature-based attention. J Vis. 2017;17:4 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, a decomposition of orientation reports into target reports and random guesses confirmed continuity of report precision and guess rates across the saccade. We discuss the role of FBA in perceptual continuity across saccades. ..
  27. Frey J, Ruhnau P, Leske S, Siegel M, Braun C, Weisz N. The Tactile Window to Consciousness is Characterized by Frequency-Specific Integration and Segregation of the Primary Somatosensory Cortex. Sci Rep. 2016;6:20805 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, they indicate that also a reduction of irrelevant functional connections contributes to the window to consciousness by tuning pre-stimulus pathways of information flow. ..
  28. Binétruy M, Chopard G, Laurent E, Galmiche J, Vandel P, Moreau T, et al. Slowing of information processing speed without motor slowing in multiple sclerosis observed during two crossing-off tasks. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2016;172:225-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that only some of the IPS cognitive subcomponents linked with COT1 tasks are initially involved in the slowing of IPS during MS, suggesting that different mechanisms are involved in each tested version of the COT. ..
  29. Crollen V, Lazzouni L, Rezk M, Bellemare A, Lepore F, Collignon O. Visual Experience Shapes the Neural Networks Remapping Touch into External Space. J Neurosci. 2017;37:10097-10103 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results therefore conclusively demonstrate the intrinsic role that developmental vision plays in scaffolding the neural implementation of touch perception. ..
  30. Baugh A, Ryan M. Vasotocin induces sexually dimorphic effects on acoustically-guided behavior in a tropical frog. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2017;203:265-273 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively we show that AVT promotes phonotaxis in both sexes in a dimorphic manner-a result that is consistent with sex differences in the neural vasotocin system. ..
  31. Kieffaber P, Okhravi H, Hershaw J, Cunningham E. Evaluation of a clinically practical, ERP-based neurometric battery: Application to age-related changes in brain function. Clin Neurophysiol. 2016;127:2192-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These markers may be used individually or in combination to characterize/classify patterns of sensory and/or perceptual brain function in clinical populations. ..
  32. Takiyama K, Sakai Y. Balanced motor primitive can explain generalization of motor learning effects between unimanual and bimanual movements. Sci Rep. 2016;6:23331 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the balanced motor primitive can reproduce another previously reported phenomenon: the learning of different force fields for unimanual and bimanual movements. ..
  33. Wang C, Tsai C. Physical Activity Is Associated With Greater Visuospatial Cognitive Functioning Regardless of the Level of Cognitive Load in Elderly Adults. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2016;38:69-81 pubmed publisher
  34. Timmins L, Barnes Holmes D, Cullen C. Measuring Implicit Sexual Response Biases to Nude Male and Female Pictures in Androphilic and Gynephilic Men. Arch Sex Behav. 2016;45:829-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Correlations between the IRAP and explicit measures of sexual orientation were consistently high. The findings support the IRAP as a potentially valuable tool in the study of sexual preferences. ..
  35. Piguet C, Cojan Y, Sterpenich V, Desseilles M, Bertschy G, Vuilleumier P. Alterations in neural systems mediating cognitive flexibility and inhibition in mood disorders. Hum Brain Mapp. 2016;37:1335-48 pubmed publisher
  36. Nelson M, Murthy A, Schall J. Neural control of visual search by frontal eye field: chronometry of neural events and race model processes. J Neurophysiol. 2016;115:1954-69 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings offer new insights into the sources of control of target selection and saccade production in dynamic environments. ..
  37. Kakuszi B, Tombor L, Papp S, Bitter I, Czobor P. Altered response-preparation in patients with adult ADHD: A high-density ERP study. Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging. 2016;249:57-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the correlation with neuropsychological and psychopathological measures, these changes may constitute a pathway for core symptoms of ADHD, including premature and impaired response-preparation and motor-hyperactivity. ..
  38. Leedo E, Beck A, Astrup A, Lassen A. The effectiveness of healthy meals at work on reaction time, mood and dietary intake: a randomised cross-over study in daytime and shift workers at an university hospital. Br J Nutr. 2017;118:121-129 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Reaction time (Go/No-Go test), mood-related scores (POMS) and dietary intake were assessed at run-in, and at the end of the ..
  39. Altieri N, Hudock D. Normative data on audiovisual speech integration using sentence recognition and capacity measures. Int J Audiol. 2016;55:206-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Results suggest that a listener's integration skills may be assessed optimally using a measure that incorporates both processing speed and accuracy. ..
  40. Petermeijer S, Bazilinskyy P, Bengler K, de Winter J. Take-over again: Investigating multimodal and directional TORs to get the driver back into the loop. Appl Ergon. 2017;62:204-215 pubmed publisher
    ..More salient and semantically congruent cues, as well as explicit instructions, may be needed to guide a driver into a specific direction during a take-over scenario. ..
  41. Taylor A, Flynn M, Edmonds C, Gardner M. Observed bodies generate object-based spatial codes. Acta Psychol (Amst). 2016;169:71-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This evidence for object-based spatial coding implies that the domain general cognitive mechanisms that result in spatial compatibility effects may contribute to certain spatial perspective-taking and social cognition phenomena. ..
  42. Wantz A, Martarelli C, Cazzoli D, Kalla R, Müri R, Mast F. Disrupting frontal eye-field activity impairs memory recall. Neuroreport. 2016;27:374-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the FEF is involved in retrieving object information from scene memory, supporting the hypothesis that the oculomotor system contributes to memory recall. ..
  43. Zimmermann M, Verhagen L, de Lange F, Toni I. The Extrastriate Body Area Computes Desired Goal States during Action Planning. Eneuro. 2016;3: pubmed publisher
    ..These findings specify the temporal and functional characteristics for a mechanism that integrates perceptual processing with motor planning. ..
  44. Turatto M, Pascucci D. Short-term and long-term plasticity in the visual-attention system: Evidence from habituation of attentional capture. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2016;130:159-69 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that the mechanisms subserving exogenous attentional orienting are subject to profound and enduring plastic changes based on previous experience, and that habituation can impact high-order cognitive functions. ..
  45. Bravo F, Cross I, Stamatakis E, Rohrmeier M. Sensory cortical response to uncertainty and low salience during recognition of affective cues in musical intervals. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0175991 pubmed publisher
  46. Schepis T, Tapscott B, Krishnan Sarin S. Stress-related increases in risk taking and attentional failures predict earlier relapse to smoking in young adults: A pilot investigation. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2016;24:110-9 pubmed publisher
    ..10), greater stress-related increases in reaction time (RT) variability (p = ...
  47. Rivers A. The Weapons Identification Task: Recommendations for adequately powered research. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177857 pubmed publisher
    ..Racial priming effects are detected in this prospective test providing increased confidence in the WIT priming effect and credibility to the proposed recommendations for power. ..
  48. Seer C, Joop M, Lange F, Lange C, Dengler R, Petri S, et al. Attenuated error-related potentials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with executive dysfunctions. Clin Neurophysiol. 2017;128:1496-1503 pubmed publisher
    ..Assessment of Ne/ERN amplitudes might provide a cost-efficient and non-invasive marker for executive dysfunction in ALS. ..
  49. Radwin R, Chourasia A, Fronczak F, Subedi Y, Howery R, Yen T, et al. Predicting tool operator capacity to react against torque within acceptable handle deflection limits in automotive assembly. Appl Ergon. 2016;54:205-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that biodynamic tool operator models may be useful for identifying stressful tool installations and interventions that bring them within the capacity of most operators. ..
  50. Auzias G, Coulon O, Brovelli A. MarsAtlas: A cortical parcellation atlas for functional mapping. Hum Brain Mapp. 2016;37:1573-92 pubmed publisher
  51. Yashar A, White A, Fang W, Carrasco M. Feature singletons attract spatial attention independently of feature priming. J Vis. 2017;17:7 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, color repetition per se does not make a singleton more salient for stimulus-driven attention. Rather, we suggest that IFP requires voluntary selection of color singletons in each consecutive trial. ..
  52. Rejman M, Bilewski M, Szczepan S, Klarowicz A, Rudnik D, Maćkała K. Assessing the impact of a targeted plyometric training on changes in selected kinematic parameters of the swimming start. Acta Bioeng Biomech. 2017;19:149-160 pubmed
  53. Rosen B, Padovan N, Marinkovic K. Alcohol Hits You When It Is Hard: Intoxication, Task Difficulty, and Theta Brain Oscillations. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2016;40:743-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Compromised executive control under alcohol may underlie a range of adverse effects including reduced competency in conflict-inducing or complex situations. ..