time and motion studies


Summary: The observation and analysis of movements in a task with an emphasis on the amount of time required to perform the task.

Top Publications

  1. Ahmed A, Chandra S, Herasevich V, Gajic O, Pickering B. The effect of two different electronic health record user interfaces on intensive care provider task load, errors of cognition, and performance. Crit Care Med. 2011;39:1626-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Task-specific user interfaces, developed from an understanding of provider information requirements, offer advantages over interfaces currently available within a standard electronic medical record. ..
  2. Zheng K, Guo M, Hanauer D. Using the time and motion method to study clinical work processes and workflow: methodological inconsistencies and a call for standardized research. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2011;18:704-10 pubmed publisher
  3. Abbey M, Chaboyer W, Mitchell M. Understanding the work of intensive care nurses: a time and motion study. Aust Crit Care. 2012;25:13-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides baseline evidence on the activities nurses undertake on a daily basis, with only about a quarter of their time not being spent on patient care activities, either directly or indirectly. ..
  4. Forte L, Shum C. Comparative cost-efficiency of the EVOTECH endoscope cleaner and reprocessor versus manual cleaning plus automated endoscope reprocessing in a real-world Canadian hospital endoscopy setting. BMC Gastroenterol. 2011;11:105 pubmed publisher
    ..The increased efficiency with EVOTECH ECR could lead to even further cost-savings by shifting endoscopy laboratory personnel responsibilities but further study is required. ..
  5. Cornell P, Herrin Griffith D, Keim C, Petschonek S, Sanders A, D Mello S, et al. Transforming nursing workflow, part 1: the chaotic nature of nurse activities. J Nurs Adm. 2010;40:366-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The implications for cognition and role transformation are discussed. Part 2 of this research explores the impact of new technology on nurse activities and workflow. ..
  6. Westbrook J, Duffield C, Li L, Creswick N. How much time do nurses have for patients? A longitudinal study quantifying hospital nurses' patterns of task time distribution and interactions with health professionals. BMC Health Serv Res. 2011;11:319 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no evidence of an increase in team-based, multi-disciplinary care. Over time nurses spent significantly less time talking with colleagues and more time alone. ..
  7. Tipping M, Forth V, O Leary K, Malkenson D, Magill D, Englert K, et al. Where did the day go?--a time-motion study of hospitalists. J Hosp Med. 2010;5:323-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Hospitalists spend more time reviewing the EMR and documenting in it, than directly with the patient. Multi-tasking occurred frequently and occupied a significant portion of each shift. ..
  8. van Oostveen C, Vermeulen H, Gouma D, Bakker P, Ubbink D. Explaining the amount of care needed by hospitalised surgical patients: a prospective time and motion study. BMC Health Serv Res. 2013;13:42 pubmed publisher
    ..This makes it a relatively easy instrument to help healthcare professionals and managers appreciate the amount of care needed on (surgical) wards and may be used to appreciate trends in time. ..
  9. Hollingworth W, Devine E, Hansen R, Lawless N, Comstock B, Wilson Norton J, et al. The impact of e-prescribing on prescriber and staff time in ambulatory care clinics: a time motion study. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2007;14:722-30 pubmed
    ..4 minutes/hour; 0.0, 10.7 CI). E-prescribing was not associated with an increase in combined computer and writing time for prescribers. If carefully implemented, e-prescribing will not greatly disrupt workflow. ..

More Information


  1. Lo H, Newmark L, Yoon C, Volk L, Carlson V, Kittler A, et al. Electronic health records in specialty care: a time-motion study. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2007;14:609-15 pubmed
    ..94 min., p = 0.83) from 28.8 (SE = 3.6) to 29.8 (SE = 3.6) min. These data suggest that implementation of an EHR had little effect on overall visit time in specialty clinics. ..
  2. Nash K, Zachariah B, Nitschmann J, Psencik B. Evaluation of the fast track unit of a university emergency department. J Emerg Nurs. 2007;33:14-20; quiz 90 pubmed
    ..Patient satisfaction data suggested that the FT staffed by NPs is a welcome addition to the emergency department. The findings provide direction for the future study of NP utilization in the emergency department. ..
  3. Combs S, Chapman R, Bushby A. Evaluation of Fast Track. Accid Emerg Nurs. 2007;15:40-7 pubmed
    ..As a result of Fast Track, the Emergency Department waiting area is less congested and staff moral has increased. A further consequence of Fast Track is that nurses are providing more advanced clinical services to patients. ..
  4. Poissant L, Pereira J, Tamblyn R, Kawasumi Y. The impact of electronic health records on time efficiency of physicians and nurses: a systematic review. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2005;12:505-16 pubmed
    ..It also identified how the selection of bedside or central station desktop EHRs may influence documentation time for the two main user groups, physicians and nurses. ..
  5. Kobayashi N, Yamamoto M. Impact of the stage of dementia on the time required for bathing-related care: a pilot study in a Japanese nursing home. Int J Nurs Stud. 2004;41:767-74 pubmed
    ..For dressing and undressing, additional time was required when caregivers failed to keep to a specific routine. ..
  6. O Leary K, Liebovitz D, Baker D. How hospitalists spend their time: insights on efficiency and safety. J Hosp Med. 2006;1:88-93 pubmed
    ..Multitasking and paging interruptions were common. The inherent distraction caused by interruptions and multitasking is a potential contributor to medical error and warrants further study. ..
  7. Westbrook J, Ampt A, Kearney L, Rob M. All in a day's work: an observational study to quantify how and with whom doctors on hospital wards spend their time. Med J Aust. 2008;188:506-9 pubmed
    ..Doctors on wards are interrupted at considerably lower rates than those in emergency and intensive care units. The results confirm interns' previously reported dissatisfaction with their level of administrative work and documentation. ..
  8. Sanchez M, Smally A, Grant R, Jacobs L. Effects of a fast-track area on emergency department performance. J Emerg Med. 2006;31:117-20 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the opening of a FTA improved ED effectiveness, measured by decreased WT and LOS, without deterioration in the quality of care provided, measured by rates of mortality and revisits. ..
  9. Gilchrist V, McCord G, Schrop S, King B, McCormick K, Oprandi A, et al. Physician activities during time out of the examination room. Ann Fam Med. 2005;3:494-9 pubmed
    ..Care delivery extends beyond direct patient contact. Models of health care delivery need to recognize this component of care. ..
  10. Gottschalk A, Flocke S. Time spent in face-to-face patient care and work outside the examination room. Ann Fam Med. 2005;3:488-93 pubmed
    ..National estimates of visit duration overestimate the combination of face-to-face time and time spent on visit-specific work outside the examination room by 41%. ..
  11. Colombo A, Solberg B, Vanderhoeft E, Ramsay G, Schouten H. Measurement of nursing care time of specific interventions on a hematology-oncology unit related to diagnostic categories. Cancer Nurs. 2005;28:476-80 pubmed
    ..The results obtained are an estimate of the different daily workload that is required for these categories of patients in selected nursing procedures. ..
  12. Tang Z, Weavind L, Mazabob J, Thomas E, Chu Weininger M, Johnson T. Workflow in intensive care unit remote monitoring: A time-and-motion study. Crit Care Med. 2007;35:2057-63 pubmed
    ..Workflow interruption, clinical information system usability, and collaboration with bedside caregivers are the major issues that may affect the quality and efficiency of clinicians' work in this particular critical care setting. ..
  13. Devine E, Hollingworth W, Hansen R, Lawless N, Wilson Norton J, Martin D, et al. Electronic prescribing at the point of care: a time-motion study in the primary care setting. Health Serv Res. 2010;45:152-71 pubmed publisher
    ..E-prescribing takes longer than handwriting. E-prescribing at the point of care takes longer than e-prescribing in offices/workstations. Improvements in safety and quality may be worth the investment of time. ..
  14. Zheng K, Haftel H, Hirschl R, O REILLY M, Hanauer D. Quantifying the impact of health IT implementations on clinical workflow: a new methodological perspective. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2010;17:454-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Prior research investigating this effect has shown conflicting results. Recent time and motion studies have consistently found that this impact is negligible; whereas qualitative studies have repeatedly ..
  15. Darrab A, Fan J, Fernandes C, Zimmerman R, Smith R, Worster A, et al. How does fast track affect quality of care in the emergency department?. Eur J Emerg Med. 2006;13:32-5 pubmed
    ..A dedicated fast track for CTAS 4/5 patients can reduce the length of stay and the left-without-being-seen rate with no impact on CTAS 3 patients seen in the main emergency department. ..
  16. Pizziferri L, Kittler A, Volk L, Honour M, Gupta S, Wang S, et al. Primary care physician time utilization before and after implementation of an electronic health record: a time-motion study. J Biomed Inform. 2005;38:176-88 pubmed
    ..While the EHR did not require more time for physicians during a clinic session, further studies should assess the EHR's potential impact on non-clinic time. ..
  17. Morton J, Baker C, Farrell T, Yohe M, Kimple R, Herman D, et al. What do surgery residents do on their call nights?. Am J Surg. 2004;188:225-9 pubmed
    ..Sleep accounts for nearly one third of all on-call activity. These data may be useful in improving both patient care and resident call experience. ..
  18. Gabbett T, Wiig H, Spencer M. Repeated high-intensity running and sprinting in elite women's soccer competition. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2013;8:130-8 pubmed
    ..These findings emphasize the importance of RSA and RHIA to elite women's soccer and highlight the importance of training this quality to prevent reductions in performance during competitive match play. ..
  19. Boland G, Halpern E, Gazelle G. Radiologist report turnaround time: impact of pay-for-performance measures. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2010;195:707-11 pubmed publisher
    ..A radiologist PFP program appears to have a marked effect on expediting final report turnaround times, which continues after its termination. ..
  20. Boswell P, Carr P, Cohen J, Hegeman A. Easy and accurate calculation of programmed temperature gas chromatographic retention times by back-calculation of temperature and hold-up time profiles. J Chromatogr A. 2012;1263:179-88 pubmed publisher
    ..We also developed new, open-source software (http://www.retentionprediction.org/gc) to demonstrate the system. ..
  21. McMahon C, Toomey J, Kane D. Insights on correlation dimension from dynamics mapping of three experimental nonlinear laser systems. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181559 pubmed publisher
    ..The CD/minimum gradient algorithm measure provides additional information that complements other measures of complexity and relative complexity, such as the permutation entropy; and conventional physical measurements. ..
  22. Wall D, Kosmicki J, Deluca T, Harstad E, Fusaro V. Use of machine learning to shorten observation-based screening and diagnosis of autism. Transl Psychiatry. 2012;2:e100 pubmed publisher
  23. Alonso W, McCormick B. EPIPOI: a user-friendly analytical tool for the extraction and visualization of temporal parameters from epidemiological time series. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:982 pubmed publisher
    ..It also provides an analytical environment where even advanced users can benefit by enabling a higher degree of control over model assumptions, such as those associated with detecting disease outbreaks and pandemics. ..
  24. Dranitsaris G, Yu B, Wang L, Sun W, Zhou Y, King J, et al. Abraxane® versus Taxol® for patients with advanced breast cancer: A prospective time and motion analysis from a Chinese health care perspective. J Oncol Pharm Pract. 2016;22:205-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Abraxane® was associated with fewer acute adverse drug reactions and significant reductions in health care resources, physician/nurse time and overall drug delivery costs compared to Taxol®. ..
  25. Gabbett T. Effects of physical, technical, and tactical factors on final ladder position in semiprofessional rugby league. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2014;9:680-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that a combination of activity profiles and technical and tactical performance are associated with playing success in semiprofessional rugby league players. ..
  26. Apelt G, Ellert S, Kuhlmey A, Garms Homolova V. [Temporal and structural differences in the care of obese and non-obese people in nursing homes]. Pflege. 2012;25:271-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This should lead to further research because it has implications for staffing in nursing homes. ..
  27. Gentric J, Trelhu B, Jannin P, Riffaud L, Ferre J, Gauvrit J. Development of workflow task analysis during cerebral diagnostic angiographies: time-based comparison of junior and senior tasks. J Neuroradiol. 2013;40:342-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This new tool can improve the quality and safety of procedures, and facilitate the learning process for neuroradiologists. ..
  28. Simon N, Decaudin B, Lannoy D, Danicourt F, Barthélémy C, Odou P. Technical evaluation of a new sterile medical device to improve anticancer chemotherapy administration. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2010;37:E370-6 pubmed publisher
    ..PCHIMX-1 guarantees that the complete prescribed dose of chemotherapy is administered without any change in infusion quality and adheres to the latest recommendations concerning occupational exposure protection. ..
  29. Mason J, Ansell J, Warren N, Torkington J. Is motion analysis a valid tool for assessing laparoscopic skill?. Surg Endosc. 2013;27:1468-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Valid parameters are time taken, path length and number of hand movements. Future work should concentrate on the conversion of motion data into competency-based scores for trainee feedback. ..
  30. Gains G, Swedenhjelm A, Mayhew J, Bird H, Houser J. Comparison of speed and agility performance of college football players on field turf and natural grass. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24:2613-7 pubmed publisher
    ..49 ± 0.28 seconds) than on grass (4.64 ± 0.33 seconds). Thus, it appears that straight-ahead sprint speed is similar between FT and NG, but change-of-direction speed may be significantly faster on FT. ..
  31. Füchtbauer L, Nørgaard B, Mogensen C. Emergency department physicians spend only 25% of their working time on direct patient care. Dan Med J. 2013;60:A4558 pubmed
    ..We speculate whether it is really administrative systems and IT-solutions that influence time distribution in physicians' work. Not relevant. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01722721. ..
  32. Jones T. A holistic framework for nursing time: implications for theory, practice, and research. Nurs Forum. 2010;45:185-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Patterns of overlapping and competing time structures for nurses should be identified and evaluated for their effect on physical time available for patient care and the psychological experiences of time by nurses and patients. ..
  33. Koopman R, Kochendorfer K, Moore J, Mehr D, Wakefield D, Yadamsuren B, et al. A diabetes dashboard and physician efficiency and accuracy in accessing data needed for high-quality diabetes care. Ann Fam Med. 2011;9:398-405 pubmed publisher
    ..Usability analysis tools can provide important insights into the value of optimizing physician use of health information technologies. ..
  34. Nagarkatti S, Mekel M, Sofferman R, Parangi S. Overcoming obstacles to setting up office-based ultrasound for evaluation of thyroid and parathyroid diseases. Laryngoscope. 2011;121:548-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Although these are discussed with respect to surgeons with an interest in endocrine disease, with some modifications they may also apply to any surgeon who uses ultrasound frequently. ..
  35. Goodman C, Davies S, Dinan S, See Tai S, Iliffe S. Activity promotion for community-dwelling older people: a survey of the contribution of primary care nurses. Br J Community Nurs. 2011;16:12-7 pubmed
  36. Tschannen D, Talsma A, Reinemeyer N, Belt C, Schoville R. Nursing medication administration and workflow using computerized physician order entry. Comput Inform Nurs. 2011;29:401-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Areas for nursing workflow improvement include (1) medication reconciliation/order duplication, (2) strategies to improve communication, and (3) evaluation of the impact of computerized physician order entry on practice standards. ..
  37. Yi Y, Zhang W, Guo W, Zhou Q, Su Y. Meta-analysis: the comparison of clinical results between vaginal and laparoscopic myomectomy. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2011;283:1275-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, more studies and data should be awaited and involved for further evaluation. ..
  38. Do Y, Foo K, Ng Y, Ong M. A quantile regression analysis of ambulance response time. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2013;17:170-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The quantile regression model is more useful than the OLS model for estimating ART, revealing that in Singapore, ART is influenced heterogeneously by the volume of emergency calls in the past one hour. ..
  39. Nabli M, Ben Abdelkrim N, Castagna C, Jabri I, Batikh T, Chamari K. Physical and physiological demands of U-19 basketball refereeing: Aerobic and anaerobic demands. Phys Sportsmed. 2016;44:158-63 pubmed publisher
    ..L(-1)). In light of this study, we conclude that U-19 basketball refereeing is a moderate intensity activity where referees spent 81% of total game time at low-intensity with bouts of high-intensity activities throughout the game. ..
  40. Minami I, Akhter R, Luraschi J, Oogai K, Nemoto T, Peck C, et al. Jaw-movement smoothness during empty chewing and gum chewing. Eur J Oral Sci. 2012;120:195-200 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the influence of the mechanical effects of tooth contact on jerk-cost is not restricted just to the occlusal phase of chewing, but rather the effect influences the entire opening and closing phases of chewing. ..
  41. Amtmann J. Anticipating and training for the worst-case metabolic scenario: a comment on Del Vecchio, Hirata, and Franchini (2011). Percept Mot Skills. 2012;114:123-4 pubmed
    ..Del Vecchio and associates' research is an important first step in gathering information which can help enhance training programs for injury prevention and performance enhancement. ..
  42. Singhal A, Huang Y, Kohli V. Laparoscopic liver resection for benign and malignant liver tumors. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2011;10:38-42 pubmed
    ..Laparoscopic liver resections can be safely performed in selected patients with benign and malignant liver tumors. With increasing experience, laparoscopic liver resections are likely to become a favorable alternative to open resection. ..
  43. Kyriakos N, Karagiannis S, Galanis P, Liatsos C, Zouboulis Vafiadis I, Georgiou E, et al. Evaluation of four time-saving methods of reading capsule endoscopy videos. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012;24:1276-80 pubmed
    ..The quickview mode is a safe diagnostic tool only when larger or diffuse lesions are suspected, such as Crohn's or celiac disease. ..
  44. Cormack S, Smith R, Mooney M, Young W, O Brien B. Accelerometer load as a measure of activity profile in different standards of netball match play. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2014;9:283-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Load/min (AU) appears to be a useful method for assessing activity profile in netball. ..
  45. Agrinier N, Altieri C, Alla F, Jay N, Dobre D, Thilly N, et al. Effectiveness of a multidimensional home nurse led heart failure disease management program--a French nationwide time-series comparison. Int J Cardiol. 2013;168:3652-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Coordinated DMP of HF might improve outcome cost-effectively when implemented in a real-world population setting, and was associated in Lorraine with a substantial modification of the trend of HF hospitalizations. ..
  46. Niegisch G, Rabenalt R, Albers P. [Quality control in the implementation of new surgical procedures: Da Vinci robot-assisted systems]. Urologe A. 2011;50:1288-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Only by using these measures will it be possible to compare robot-assisted procedures of different institutions and historical data of conventional surgery with regard to oncological and functional efficacy. ..
  47. Ramos G, Nakamura F, Pereira L, Junior W, Mahseredjian F, Wilke C, et al. Movement Patterns of a U-20 National Women's Soccer Team during Competitive Matches: Influence of Playing Position and Performance in the First Half. Int J Sports Med. 2017;38:747-754 pubmed publisher
    ..This information could be useful in the development and prescription of sex- and age-specific training regimes. ..
  48. Kriaucioniene V, Klumbiene J, Petkeviciene J, Sakytė E. Time trends in social differences in nutrition habits of a Lithuanian population: 1994-2010. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:218 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data highlight the need for future food and nutrition policies, as well as health promotion programmes, targeting the whole population, particularly those with lower education and living in rural areas. ..
  49. Wyon M, Twitchett E, Angioi M, Clarke F, Metsios G, Koutedakis Y. Time motion and video analysis of classical ballet and contemporary dance performance. Int J Sports Med. 2011;32:851-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, classical ballet and contemporary dance performances are as significantly different in the underlying physical demands placed on their performers as the artistic aspects of the choreography. ..
  50. Casamichana D, Castellano J. Time-motion, heart rate, perceptual and motor behaviour demands in small-sides soccer games: effects of pitch size. J Sports Sci. 2010;28:1615-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The results show that the size of the pitch should be taken into account when planning training drills, as it influences the intensity of the task and the motor response of players. ..
  51. von Jako R, Finn M, Yonemura K, Araghi A, Khoo L, Carrino J, et al. Minimally invasive percutaneous transpedicular screw fixation: increased accuracy and reduced radiation exposure by means of a novel electromagnetic navigation system. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2011;153:589-96 pubmed publisher
  52. Cashmore A, Muscatello D, Merrifield A, Spokes P, Macartney K, Jalaludin B. Relationship between the population incidence of pertussis in children in New South Wales, Australia and emergency department visits with cough: a time series analysis. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2013;13:40 pubmed publisher
    ..Real time monitoring of ED visits with cough in children is therefore unlikely to consistently detect a potential outbreak of pertussis before passive surveillance. ..
  53. Rothberg M, Steele J, Wheeler J, Arora A, Priya A, Lindenauer P. The relationship between time spent communicating and communication outcomes on a hospital medicine service. J Gen Intern Med. 2012;27:185-9 pubmed publisher
    ..09, p=0.30). Hospitalists vary in the amount of time they spend communicating, but we found no association between time spent and either patient satisfaction or nurse-physician agreement on plan of care. ..