axonal transport

Summary

Summary: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)

Top Publications

  1. Cantuti Castelvetri L, Givogri M, Hebert A, Smith B, Song Y, Kaminska A, et al. The sphingolipid psychosine inhibits fast axonal transport in Krabbe disease by activation of GSK3? and deregulation of molecular motors. J Neurosci. 2013;33:10048-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Myelin-free in vitro analyses showed that psychosine inhibited fast axonal transport through the activation of axonal PP1 and GSK3? in the axon...
  2. Isonaka R, Takenami T, Katakura T, Kawakami T. Neurotropin inhibits axonal transport in cultured mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons. Neurosci Lett. 2013;543:101-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Axonal transport is a basic neuronal cell function and important for the supply of materials that maintain neuronal cells, and any increase or decrease in axonal transport expresses the state of neurons...
  3. Massaad C, Amin S, Hu L, Mei Y, Klann E, Pautler R. Mitochondrial superoxide contributes to blood flow and axonal transport deficits in the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10561 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings directly link free radicals of specific mitochondrial origin to AD-associated vascular and neuronal pathology. ..
  4. Mitchell D, Blasier K, Jeffery E, Ross M, Pullikuth A, Suo D, et al. Trk activation of the ERK1/2 kinase pathway stimulates intermediate chain phosphorylation and recruits cytoplasmic dynein to signaling endosomes for retrograde axonal transport. J Neurosci. 2012;32:15495-510 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that neurotrophin binding to Trk initiates the recruitment of cytoplasmic dynein to signaling endosomes through ERK1/2 phosphorylation of intermediate chains for their subsequent retrograde transport in axons...
  5. DiLeonardi A, Huh J, Raghupathi R. Impaired axonal transport and neurofilament compaction occur in separate populations of injured axons following diffuse brain injury in the immature rat. Brain Res. 2009;1263:174-82 pubmed publisher
    ..basis for these behavioral deficits may be traumatic axonal injury (TAI), which manifests as impaired axonal transport (IAT) and neurofilament compaction (NFC), and may occur as a result of glutamate receptor activation...
  6. Yi J, Ori McKenney K, McKenney R, Vershinin M, Gross S, Vallee R. High-resolution imaging reveals indirect coordination of opposite motors and a role for LIS1 in high-load axonal transport. J Cell Biol. 2011;195:193-201 pubmed publisher
    ..LIS1 inhibition or LIS1 RNA interference had little effect on lysosomes/late endosomes but severely inhibited axonal transport of large, but not small, vesicular structures...
  7. Mitchell C, Lee R. Cargo distributions differentiate pathological axonal transport impairments. J Theor Biol. 2012;300:277-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Axonal transport is an essential process in neurons, analogous to shipping goods, by which energetic and cellular building supplies are carried downstream (anterogradely) and wastes are carried upstream (retrogradely) by molecular motors, ..
  8. Vossel K, Zhang K, Brodbeck J, Daub A, Sharma P, Finkbeiner S, et al. Tau reduction prevents Abeta-induced defects in axonal transport. Science. 2010;330:198 pubmed publisher
    ..How exactly they impair cognitive functions is unknown. We assessed the effects of A? and tau on axonal transport of mitochondria and the neurotrophin receptor TrkA, cargoes that are critical for neuronal function and ..
  9. Liu S, Sawada T, Lee S, Yu W, Silverio G, Alapatt P, et al. Parkinson's disease-associated kinase PINK1 regulates Miro protein level and axonal transport of mitochondria. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002537 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the different effects of loss of PINK1 function on Miro protein level in Drosophila and mouse cells may offer one explanation of the distinct phenotypic manifestations of PINK1 mutants in these two species. ..

Scientific Experts

More Information

Publications62

  1. Chowdary P, Che D, Cui B. Neurotrophin signaling via long-distance axonal transport. Annu Rev Phys Chem. 2012;63:571-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We emphasize high-resolution studies at the single-molecule level and also discuss recent technical advances in the field. ..
  2. Miao T, Wu D, Wheeler A, Wang P, Zhang Y, Bo X, et al. Two cytokine signaling molecules co-operate to promote axonal transport and growth. Exp Neurol. 2011;228:165-72 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Axonal transport was studied in vitro in adult rat primary sensory neurons by analyses of recovery of fluorescence after ..
  3. Chen X, Wang B, Wu C, Pan J, Yuan B, Su Y, et al. Endosome-mediated retrograde axonal transport of P2X3 receptor signals in primary sensory neurons. Cell Res. 2012;22:677-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Impairment of either microtubule-based axonal transport in vivo or dynein function in vitro blocked ?, ?-MeATP-induced retrograde signals...
  4. Zhang Q, Wang F, Cao J, Shen Y, Huang Q, Bao L, et al. Nudel promotes axonal lysosome clearance and endo-lysosome formation via dynein-mediated transport. Traffic. 2009;10:1337-49 pubmed publisher
    b>Axonal transport is critical for neuronal function and survival. Cytoplasmic dynein and its accessory complex dynactin form a microtubule minus end-directed motor in charge of retrograde transport...
  5. Kim Han J, Antenor Dorsey J, O Malley K. The parkinsonian mimetic, MPP+, specifically impairs mitochondrial transport in dopamine axons. J Neurosci. 2011;31:7212-21 pubmed publisher
    Impaired axonal transport may play a key role in Parkinson's disease. To test this notion, a microchamber system was adapted to segregate axons from cell bodies using green fluorescent protein-labeled mouse dopamine (DA) neurons...
  6. Ye X, Tai W, Zhang D. The early events of Alzheimer's disease pathology: from mitochondrial dysfunction to BDNF axonal transport deficits. Neurobiol Aging. 2012;33:1122.e1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..is closely related with mitochondrial dysfunction induced by A? and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) axonal transport deficits...
  7. Lee S, Sato Y, Nixon R. Primary lysosomal dysfunction causes cargo-specific deficits of axonal transport leading to Alzheimer-like neuritic dystrophy. Autophagy. 2011;7:1562-3 pubmed
    ..form of "neuritic dystrophy" in Alzheimer disease (AD), which implies dysfunction of autophagy and axonal transport. In this punctum, we discuss our recent findings that autophagic/lysosomal degradation is critical to proper ..
  8. Tang Y, Das U, Scott D, Roy S. The slow axonal transport of alpha-synuclein--mechanistic commonalities amongst diverse cytosolic cargoes. Cytoskeleton (Hoboken). 2012;69:506-13 pubmed publisher
    Slow axonal transport conveys perikaryally-synthesized cytosolic proteins in a rate-class called Slow Component-b (SCb)...
  9. Morfini G, Bosco D, Brown H, Gatto R, Kaminska A, Song Y, et al. Inhibition of fast axonal transport by pathogenic SOD1 involves activation of p38 MAP kinase. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e65235 pubmed publisher
    ..neurons affected in FALS include abnormal kinase activation, aberrant neurofilament phosphorylation, and fast axonal transport (FAT) deficits, but functional relationships among these pathogenic events were unclear...
  10. Wang X, Perry G, Smith M, Zhu X. Amyloid-beta-derived diffusible ligands cause impaired axonal transport of mitochondria in neurons. Neurodegener Dis. 2010;7:56-9 pubmed publisher
    ..results suggest that an impaired mitochondrial transport likely contributes to ADDL-induced abnormal mitochondrial distribution and dysfunction and also reinforce the idea that axonal transport is likely involved in AD pathogenesis.
  11. Winter M, Fang C, Banker G, Roysam B, Cohen A. Axonal transport analysis using Multitemporal Association Tracking. Int J Comput Biol Drug Des. 2012;5:35-48 pubmed publisher
    ..been applied to hundreds of image sequences, tracking organelle and vesicles to quantify the deficiencies in axonal transport that can accompany neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's Disease and Multiple Sclerosis and to ..
  12. Abe N, Almenar Queralt A, Lillo C, Shen Z, Lozach J, Briggs S, et al. Sunday driver interacts with two distinct classes of axonal organelles. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:34628-39 pubmed publisher
    ..The distant synaptic terminals must communicate via axonal transport with the cell soma for neuronal survival, function, and repair...
  13. Gentil B, Cooper L. Molecular basis of axonal dysfunction and traffic impairments in CMT. Brain Res Bull. 2012;88:444-53 pubmed publisher
    ..While KIF1B and DYNC1H1, two genes coding for molecular motors, are directly linked to axonal transport, the involvement of the other CMT2-causing genes in this function is less obvious...
  14. Salegio E, Samaranch L, Kells A, Mittermeyer G, San Sebastián W, Zhou S, et al. Axonal transport of adeno-associated viral vectors is serotype-dependent. Gene Ther. 2013;20:348-52 pubmed publisher
    We have previously shown that adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) undergoes anterograde axonal transport in rat and non-human primate brain...
  15. Sunil N, Lee S, Shea T. Interference with kinesin-based anterograde neurofilament axonal transport increases neurofilament-neurofilament bundling. Cytoskeleton (Hoboken). 2012;69:371-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Association of NFs with the stationary phase indirectly competes with NF axonal transport by withdrawing NFs from kinesin-dependent motility along microtubules...
  16. Morel M, Héraud C, Nicaise C, Suain V, Brion J. Levels of kinesin light chain and dynein intermediate chain are reduced in the frontal cortex in Alzheimer's disease: implications for axoplasmic transport. Acta Neuropathol. 2012;123:71-84 pubmed publisher
  17. Xie W, Zhang K, Cui B. Functional characterization and axonal transport of quantum dot labeled BDNF. Integr Biol (Camb). 2012;4:953-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we labeled BDNF with bright, photostable quantum dots (QD-BDNF) and followed the axonal transport of QD-BDNF in real time in hippocampal neurons...
  18. Torres M, Jimenez S, Sanchez Varo R, Navarro V, Trujillo Estrada L, Sanchez Mejias E, et al. Defective lysosomal proteolysis and axonal transport are early pathogenic events that worsen with age leading to increased APP metabolism and synaptic Abeta in transgenic APP/PS1 hippocampus. Mol Neurodegener. 2012;7:59 pubmed publisher
    ..These axonal dystrophies could reflect the disruption of axonal transport and the accumulation of multiple vesicles at local points...
  19. Huang S, Duan S, Sun T, Wang J, Zhao L, Geng Z, et al. JIP3 mediates TrkB axonal anterograde transport and enhances BDNF signaling by directly bridging TrkB with kinesin-1. J Neurosci. 2011;31:10602-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we find that TrkB axonal transport mediated by JIP3 could regulate BDNF-induced Erk activation and axonal filopodia formation...
  20. Curra A, Berardelli A. Do the unintended actions of botulinum toxin at distant sites have clinical implications?. Neurology. 2009;72:1095-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Whatever the mechanism, the lack of deleterious central effects implies that while research into action mechanisms continues, physicians can safely use BT for therapy. ..
  21. Russo G, Louie K, Wellington A, Macleod G, Hu F, Panchumarthi S, et al. Drosophila Miro is required for both anterograde and retrograde axonal mitochondrial transport. J Neurosci. 2009;29:5443-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that dMiro promotes effective antero- and retrograde mitochondrial transport by extending the processivity of kinesin and dynein motors according to a mitochondrion's programmed direction of transport. ..
  22. Matak I, Bach Rojecky L, Filipóvi B, Lackovi Z. Behavioral and immunohistochemical evidence for central antinociceptive activity of botulinum toxin A. Neuroscience. 2011;186:201-7 pubmed publisher
    ..demonstrated bilateral reduction of pain after unilateral toxin injection, and proposed retrograde axonal transport, presumably in sensory neurons...
  23. Wang X, Schwarz T. Imaging axonal transport of mitochondria. Methods Enzymol. 2009;457:319-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we present useful tools to analyze axonal transport of mitochondria both in vitro in cultured rat neurons and in vivo in Drosophila larval neurons...
  24. Salinas Navarro M, Alarcón Martínez L, Valiente Soriano F, Jiménez López M, Mayor Torroglosa S, Avilés Trigueros M, et al. Ocular hypertension impairs optic nerve axonal transport leading to progressive retinal ganglion cell degeneration. Exp Eye Res. 2010;90:168-83 pubmed publisher
    ..we have investigated the effects of laser photocoagulation (LP)-induced OHT, on the survival and retrograde axonal transport (RAT) of adult rat retinal ganglion cells (RGC) from 1 to 12 wks...
  25. Deruddre S, Combettes E, Estebe J, Duranteau J, Benhamou D, Beloeil H, et al. Effects of a bupivacaine nerve block on the axonal transport of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in a rat model of carrageenan-induced inflammation. Brain Behav Immun. 2010;24:652-9 pubmed publisher
    Many pro-inflammatory cytokines are involved in the process of inflammatory pain. Bi directional axonal transport of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) occurs in case of neuropathic pain induced by nerve ligation...
  26. Lancaster K, Pfeiffer J. Limited trafficking of a neurotropic virus through inefficient retrograde axonal transport and the type I interferon response. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000791 pubmed publisher
    ..Second, retrograde axonal transport of poliovirus in peripheral neurons was inefficient; however, the efficiency was increased upon muscle damage,..
  27. Shidara Y, Hollenbeck P. Defects in mitochondrial axonal transport and membrane potential without increased reactive oxygen species production in a Drosophila model of Friedreich ataxia. J Neurosci. 2010;30:11369-78 pubmed publisher
    ..expression (DfhIR), we evaluated possible mechanisms of cellular neuropathology by quantifying mitochondrial axonal transport, membrane potential (MMP), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the DfhIR versus wild-type nervous ..
  28. Abbott C, Choe T, Lusardi T, Burgoyne C, Wang L, Fortune B. Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and axonal transport 1 and 2 weeks after 8 hours of acute intraocular pressure elevation in rats. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014;55:674-87 pubmed publisher
    To compare in vivo retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) and axonal transport at 1 and 2 weeks after an 8-hour acute IOP elevation in rats.
  29. Kasher P, De Vos K, Wharton S, Manser C, Bennett E, Bingley M, et al. Direct evidence for axonal transport defects in a novel mouse model of mutant spastin-induced hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) and human HSP patients. J Neurochem. 2009;110:34-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Spastin functions to regulate microtubule organisation, and because of the essential role of microtubules in axonal transport, this has led to the suggestion that defects in axonal transport may underlie at least part of the disease ..
  30. Su K, Banker G, Bourdette D, Forte M. Axonal degeneration in multiple sclerosis: the mitochondrial hypothesis. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2009;9:411-7 pubmed
    ..free radical production, and permeability transition pore opening as key players in mitochondrial failure, axonal transport impairment, and subsequent axonal degeneration...
  31. Shi P, Gal J, Kwinter D, Liu X, Zhu H. Mitochondrial dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1802:45-51 pubmed publisher
    ..in the pathology of ALS, such as oxidative stress, glutamate excitotoxicity, mitochondrial damage, defective axonal transport, glia cell pathology and aberrant RNA metabolism...
  32. Decker H, Lo K, Unger S, Ferreira S, Silverman M. Amyloid-beta peptide oligomers disrupt axonal transport through an NMDA receptor-dependent mechanism that is mediated by glycogen synthase kinase 3beta in primary cultured hippocampal neurons. J Neurosci. 2010;30:9166-71 pubmed publisher
    Disruption of axonal transport is a hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
  33. Qiao L, Grider J. Colitis elicits differential changes in the expression levels of receptor tyrosine kinase TrkA and TrkB in colonic afferent neurons: a possible involvement of axonal transport. Pain. 2010;151:117-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that colitis-induced primary afferent activation involved retrograde transport of TrkA but not TrkB from the distal colon to primary afferent neurons in DRG. ..
  34. Falzone T, Gunawardena S, McCleary D, Reis G, Goldstein L. Kinesin-1 transport reductions enhance human tau hyperphosphorylation, aggregation and neurodegeneration in animal models of tauopathies. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:4399-408 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent experiments in kinesin-1 deficient mice suggested that axonal transport defects can initiate biochemical changes that induce activation of axonal stress kinase pathways leading to ..
  35. Roux J, Zala D, Panayotis N, Borges Correia A, Saudou F, Villard L. Modification of Mecp2 dosage alters axonal transport through the Huntingtin/Hap1 pathway. Neurobiol Dis. 2012;45:786-95 pubmed publisher
    ..two master genes, Huntingtin (Htt) and huntingtin-associated protein (Hap1), involved in the control of Bdnf axonal transport, are altered in the brain of Mecp2-deficient mice...
  36. Chidlow G, Ebneter A, Wood J, Casson R. The optic nerve head is the site of axonal transport disruption, axonal cytoskeleton damage and putative axonal regeneration failure in a rat model of glaucoma. Acta Neuropathol. 2011;121:737-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The earliest indication of RGC damage was accumulation of proteins, transported by orthograde fast axonal transport within axons in the optic nerve head (ONH), which occurred as soon as 8 h after induction of glaucoma and was ..
  37. Malik B, Nirmalananthan N, Bilsland L, La Spada A, Hanna M, Schiavo G, et al. Absence of disturbed axonal transport in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:1776-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the mechanisms that underlie SBMA remain unclear, defective axonal transport has been implicated in MND and other forms of poly-Q disease...
  38. Riemer J, Kins S. Axonal transport and mitochondrial dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. Neurodegener Dis. 2013;12:111-24 pubmed publisher
    ..tau might trigger mitochondrial dysfunction associated with oxidative stress as well as dysfunctions of axonal transport, leading to the loss of spines and neurodegeneration...
  39. Aschauer D, Kreuz S, Rumpel S. Analysis of transduction efficiency, tropism and axonal transport of AAV serotypes 1, 2, 5, 6, 8 and 9 in the mouse brain. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e76310 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we show that self-complementing rAAV can be used to significantly decrease the time required for the onset of transgene expression in the mouse brain. ..
  40. Ohka S, Sakai M, Bohnert S, Igarashi H, Deinhardt K, Schiavo G, et al. Receptor-dependent and -independent axonal retrograde transport of poliovirus in motor neurons. J Virol. 2009;83:4995-5004 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously demonstrated that a fast retrograde axonal transport process is required for PV dissemination through the sciatic nerves of hPVR-Tg mice and that intramuscularly ..
  41. Song Y, Nagy M, Ni W, Tyagi N, Fenton W, Lopez Giraldez F, et al. Molecular chaperone Hsp110 rescues a vesicle transport defect produced by an ALS-associated mutant SOD1 protein in squid axoplasm. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:5428-33 pubmed publisher
    ..One aspect of toxicity in motor neurons involves diminished fast axonal transport, observed both in transgenic mice and, more recently, in axoplasm isolated from squid giant axons...
  42. Zala D, Hinckelmann M, Yu H, Lyra da Cunha M, Liot G, Cordelières F, et al. Vesicular glycolysis provides on-board energy for fast axonal transport. Cell. 2013;152:479-91 pubmed publisher
    Fast axonal transport (FAT) requires consistent energy over long distances to fuel the molecular motors that transport vesicles. We demonstrate that glycolysis provides ATP for the FAT of vesicles...
  43. Stoothoff W, Jones P, Spires Jones T, Joyner D, Chhabra E, Bercury K, et al. Differential effect of three-repeat and four-repeat tau on mitochondrial axonal transport. J Neurochem. 2009;111:417-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Tau over-expression diminishes axonal transport in several systems, but differential effects of 3 repeat and 4 repeat isoforms have not been studied...
  44. Xiong Y, Chen Q, Chen J, Zhou J, Wang H. Melatonin reduces the impairment of axonal transport and axonopathy induced by calyculin A. J Pineal Res. 2011;50:319-27 pubmed publisher
    ..have reported that calyculin A (CA), a selective inhibitor of protein phosphatase (PP)-2A and PP-1, impairs axonal transport in neuroblastoma N2a cells...
  45. Klassen M, Wu Y, Maeder C, Nakae I, Cueva J, Lehrman E, et al. An Arf-like small G protein, ARL-8, promotes the axonal transport of presynaptic cargoes by suppressing vesicle aggregation. Neuron. 2010;66:710-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggest that arl-8 promotes a trafficking identity for presynaptic cargoes, facilitating their efficient transport by repressing premature self-association. ..
  46. Zhou B, Cai Q, Xie Y, Sheng Z. Snapin recruits dynein to BDNF-TrkB signaling endosomes for retrograde axonal transport and is essential for dendrite growth of cortical neurons. Cell Rep. 2012;2:42-51 pubmed publisher
    ..endosomes" hypothesis is one of the accepted models, the molecular machinery that drives retrograde axonal transport of TrkB signaling endosomes is largely unknown...
  47. Salinas S, Schiavo G, Kremer E. A hitchhiker's guide to the nervous system: the complex journey of viruses and toxins. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2010;8:645-55 pubmed publisher
    ..can then be mistaken for cargo and recruit trafficking components, allowing them to undergo long-range axonal transport to neuronal cell bodies...
  48. Volpicelli Daley L, Luk K, Patel T, Tanik S, Riddle D, Stieber A, et al. Exogenous ?-synuclein fibrils induce Lewy body pathology leading to synaptic dysfunction and neuron death. Neuron. 2011;72:57-71 pubmed publisher
  49. Bull N, Guidi A, Goedert M, Martin K, Spillantini M. Reduced axonal transport and increased excitotoxic retinal ganglion cell degeneration in mice transgenic for human mutant P301S tau. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34724 pubmed publisher
    The effects of tau hyperphosphorylation and aggregation on axonal transport were investigated in the optic nerve of mice transgenic for human mutant P301S tau. Transport was examined using cholera toxin B tracing...
  50. Reddy P, Shirendeb U. Mutant huntingtin, abnormal mitochondrial dynamics, defective axonal transport of mitochondria, and selective synaptic degeneration in Huntington's disease. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1822:101-10 pubmed publisher
    ..activity, and causes excessive mitochondrial fragmentation and abnormal distribution, leading to defective axonal transport of mitochondria and selective synaptic degeneration...
  51. Mocchetti I, Bachis A, Avdoshina V. Neurotoxicity of human immunodeficiency virus-1: viral proteins and axonal transport. Neurotox Res. 2012;21:79-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, these proteins have been shown to possess neurotoxic properties. This review describes new evidence of a direct interaction of the HIV protein gp120 with neurons, which might play a role in the etiopathology of HAND. ..
  52. Chowdhury S, Brum M, Coats C, Doster A, Wei H, Jones C. The bovine herpesvirus type 1 envelope protein Us9 acidic domain is crucial for anterograde axonal transport. Vet Microbiol. 2011;152:270-9 pubmed publisher
    ..the functional role of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) Us9 acidic domain residues 83-90 in the anterograde axonal transport of the virus in calves (natural host), rabbits, and in cultured neurons...
  53. Andres R, Horie N, Slikker W, Keren Gill H, Zhan K, Sun G, et al. Human neural stem cells enhance structural plasticity and axonal transport in the ischaemic brain. Brain. 2011;134:1777-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate that axonal transport, which is critical for both proper axonal function and axonal sprouting, is inhibited by stroke and that this ..