physical exertion


Summary: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.

Top Publications

  1. Winwood Smith H, Franklin C, White C. Low-carbohydrate diet induces metabolic depression: a possible mechanism to conserve glycogen. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2017;313:R347-R356 pubmed publisher
  2. Shimaoka M, Hiruta S, Ono Y, Nonaka H, Hjelm E, Hagberg M. A comparative study of physical work load in Japanese and Swedish nursery school teachers. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1998;77:10-8 pubmed
    ..The physical work load measured in the present study was not sufficient to explain the difference in the magnitude of musculoskeletal problems for nursery school teachers in the two countries, and other factors should now be examined. ..
  3. Iversen E, Røstad V. Low-load ischemic exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis. Clin J Sport Med. 2010;20:218-9 pubmed publisher
  4. Wall J, Charteris J. A kinematic study of long-term habituation to treadmill walking. Ergonomics. 1981;24:531-42 pubmed
  5. Pearson R, Merritt J. Intake, digestion and gastrointestinal transit time in resting donkeys and ponies and exercised donkeys given ad libitum hay and straw diets. Equine Vet J. 1991;23:339-43 pubmed
    ..Intake of barley straw by both species was not sufficient to meet maintenance requirements. ..
  6. Hinchcliff K, Reinhart G, Burr J, Schreier C, Swenson R. Metabolizable energy intake and sustained energy expenditure of Alaskan sled dogs during heavy exertion in the cold. Am J Vet Res. 1997;58:1457-62 pubmed
    ..This study validated use of the DLW technique in dogs with exceptionally high energy expenditure associated with prolonged exercise in the cold. ..
  7. Stephens T. Physical activity and mental health in the United States and Canada: evidence from four population surveys. Prev Med. 1988;17:35-47 pubmed
    ..Data on the comparative effects of recreation and housework suggest that quality of time, and not mere energy expenditure, must be taken into account in attempts to explain the psychological benefits of physical activity. ..
  8. Kelly D. Medicine. Irisin, light my fire. Science. 2012;336:42-3 pubmed publisher
  9. Jennings G, Nelson L, Nestel P, Esler M, Korner P, Burton D, et al. The effects of changes in physical activity on major cardiovascular risk factors, hemodynamics, sympathetic function, and glucose utilization in man: a controlled study of four levels of activity. Circulation. 1986;73:30-40 pubmed
    ..The same exercise seven times per week enhances physical performance with little further reduction in cardiovascular risk factors. Exercise is potentially a major nonpharmacologic method of lowering blood pressure. ..

More Information


  1. Reffad A, Mebarkia K, Vieira T, Disselhorst Klug C. Effect of contraction force and knee joint angle on the spatial representation of soleus activity using high-density surface EMG. Biomed Tech (Berl). 2014;59:399-411 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, new parameters have been introduced, helping to analyze the resulting information about the spatial activation pattern in the soleus muscle. ..
  2. Taylor H, Jacobs D, Schucker B, Knudsen J, Leon A, DeBacker G. A questionnaire for the assessment of leisure time physical activities. J Chronic Dis. 1978;31:741-55 pubmed
  3. Armstrong L, Maresh C, Castellani J, Bergeron M, Kenefick R, LaGasse K, et al. Urinary indices of hydration status. Int J Sport Nutr. 1994;4:265-79 pubmed
  4. Bergstrom J, Hultman E. Muscle glycogen synthesis after exercise: an enhancing factor localized to the muscle cells in man. Nature. 1966;210:309-10 pubmed
  5. Janssen T, van Oers C, van der Woude L, Hollander A. Physical strain in daily life of wheelchair users with spinal cord injuries. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1994;26:661-70 pubmed
    ..The periods of peak strain might restrict the mobility and independence of persons with SCI, and, therefore, reduce their quality of life. ..
  6. Rispin K, Wee J. A paired outcomes study comparing two pediatric wheelchairs for low-resource settings: the regency pediatric wheelchair and a similarly sized wheelchair made in Kenya. Assist Technol. 2014;26:88-95 pubmed
    ..Both wheelchairs are designed for and distributed in less-resourced settings. The Regency chair significantly outperformed the APDK chair in one of the energy cost assessments on both surfaces and in one of three timed skills tests. ..
  7. McCully K, Argov Z, Boden B, Brown R, Bank W, Chance B. Detection of muscle injury in humans with 31-P magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Muscle Nerve. 1988;11:212-6 pubmed
    ..We conclude that elevated Pi/PCr at rest can reflect nonspecific muscle damage in normal and diseased subjects. ..
  8. Hlavenka T, Christner V, Gregory D. Neck posture during lifting and its effect on trunk muscle activation and lumbar spine posture. Appl Ergon. 2017;62:28-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The increased trunk and sternocleidomastoid activity and decreased spine flexion observed in the seven participants of this study when lifting with a retracted neck may have the potential to help lower the risk of spine pain/injury. ..
  9. Qin L, Wang Q, Fang Z, Wang T, Yu A, Zhou Y, et al. Effects of Three Commercially Available Sports Drinks on Substrate Metabolism and Subsequent Endurance Performance in a Postprandial State. Nutrients. 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..The subsequent exercise performance (as evaluated by TTE) was not influenced by the type of CHO or the addition of PRO in the commercially available sports beverages used in the present study. ..
  10. Drori D, Folman Y. Environmental effects on longevity in the male rat: exercise, mating, castration and restricted feeding. Exp Gerontol. 1976;11:25-32 pubmed
  11. Justice J, Carter C, Beck H, Gioscia Ryan R, McQueen M, Enoka R, et al. Battery of behavioral tests in mice that models age-associated changes in human motor function. Age (Dordr). 2014;36:583-92 pubmed
  12. Grace A, Chan E, Giallauria F, Graham P, Smart N. Clinical outcomes and glycaemic responses to different aerobic exercise training intensities in type II diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2017;16:37 pubmed publisher
    ..25, -3.53; p value = 0.003. Our analysis support existing guidelines that for those who can tolerate it, exercise at higher intensity may offer superior fitness benefits and longer program duration will optimize reductions in HbA1C%. ..
  13. Hoekstra S, Bishop N, Leicht C. Can intervals enhance the inflammatory response and enjoyment in upper-body exercise?. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2017;117:1155-1163 pubmed publisher
    ..As the fashion in which upper-body exercise is performed does not seem to influence the inflammatory response, it might be advised to prescribe varied exercise to enhance its enjoyment. ..
  14. Saha P, Datta S, Banerjee P, Narayane G. An acceptable workload for Indian workers. Ergonomics. 1979;22:1059-71 pubmed
  15. Bennett R. Fibromyalgia and the facts. Sense or nonsense. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 1993;19:45-59 pubmed
    ..A paradigm to link some of these newer findings is presented. ..
  16. Rehunen S, Näveri H, Kuoppasalmi K, Harkonen M. High-energy phosphate compounds during exercise in human slow-twitch and fast-twitch muscle fibres. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1982;42:499-506 pubmed
  17. Bond V, Franks B, Howley E. Alcohol, cardiorespiratory function and work performance. Br J Sports Med. 1984;18:203-6 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the results indicated that the ingestion of a small or moderate amount of alcohol had no significant effect on heart rate, blood pressure, ventilation, oxygen uptake or work performance. ..
  18. Van Der Meulen J, Kuipers H, Drukker J. Relationship between exercise-induced muscle damage and enzyme release in rats. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1991;71:999-1004 pubmed
    ..5 to 2.5 h resulted in a disproportional increase in both histological muscle damage and muscle enzyme release. From the present study it is concluded that muscle enzyme release is not clearly reflected in histological muscle damage. ..
  19. Holmes J, Robinson D, Ashmore C. Blood lactic acid and behaviour in cattle with hereditary muscular hypertrophy. J Anim Sci. 1972;35:1011-3 pubmed
  20. Ferreira G, Felippe L, Silva R, Bertuzzi R, De Oliveira F, Pires F, et al. Effect of pre-exercise carbohydrate availability on fat oxidation and energy expenditure after a high-intensity exercise. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2018;51:e6964 pubmed publisher
  21. McNarry M, Wilson R, Holton M, Griffiths I, Mackintosh K. Investigating the relationship between energy expenditure, walking speed and angle of turning in humans. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182333 pubmed publisher
    ..5 km?hr-1). These findings therefore highlight the importance of accounting for the quantity and magnitude of turns completed when estimating energy expenditure and have significant implications within both sport and health contexts. ..
  22. Bayly W, Grant B, Breeze R. Arterial blood gas tension and acid base balance during exercise in horses with pharyngeal lymphoid hyperplasia. Equine Vet J. 1984;16:435-8 pubmed
    ..In the other horses, the only changes which could be attributed to PLH were seen immediately upon stopping. It seems that PLH does not inhibit gas exchange during exercise unless the lesions are extremely severe. ..
  23. Evans D, Rose R. Cardiovascular and respiratory responses to submaximal exercise training in the thoroughbred horse. Pflugers Arch. 1988;411:316-21 pubmed
    ..Cardiac capacity to pump blood is therefore of primary importance as a determinant of increases in VO2max due to training in the horse. ..
  24. Richardson M, Leon A, Jacobs D, Ainsworth B, Serfass R. Comprehensive evaluation of the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire. J Clin Epidemiol. 1994;47:271-81 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that although validation results were found to be quite good, several possible refinements were identified, which should improve the accuracy of the Minnesota LTPA Questionnaire in assessing habitual physical activity. ..
  25. Schenkman M, Shipp K, Chandler J, Studenski S, Kuchibhatla M. Relationships between mobility of axial structures and physical performance. Phys Ther. 1996;76:276-85 pubmed
    ..Controlling for age, the results also demonstrated associations between measures of axial mobility and physical performance. ..
  26. Sohal R, Allen R. Relationship between metabolic rate, free radicals, differentiation and aging: a unified theory. Basic Life Sci. 1985;35:75-104 pubmed
    ..The establishment of this equilibrium is associated with differentiation. It is hypothesized that loss of the equilibrium between free radical generation and antioxidant defenses results in dysdifferentiation, aging and cancer. ..
  27. Bejma J, Ramires P, Ji L. Free radical generation and oxidative stress with ageing and exercise: differential effects in the myocardium and liver. Acta Physiol Scand. 2000;169:343-51 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, aged myocardium showed greater susceptibility to oxidative stress after heavy exercise. ..
  28. Wilson T, Firor W, Johnson G, Holmes G, Tsianco M, Huber P, et al. Timolol and propranolol: bioavailability, plasma concentrations, and beta blockade. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1982;32:676-85 pubmed
    ..Pharmacologic response to an oral dose of timolol, unlike that to propranolol, can be predicted from the response to an intravenous dose and reflects its plasma concentration. ..
  29. Amagasa S, Fukushima N, Kikuchi H, Takamiya T, Oka K, Inoue S. Light and sporadic physical activity overlooked by current guidelines makes older women more active than older men. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2017;14:59 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering accumulated evidence on health benefits of LPA and short-bout MVPA, our findings highlight the potential for the limitation of assessing PA using current PA guidelines. ..
  30. Berntsen S, Malnes L, Langåker A, Bere E. Physical activity when riding an electric assisted bicycle. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2017;14:55 pubmed publisher
    ..However, most of the time was spent in MVPA. This suggests that changing the commuting mode from car to E-bike will significantly increase levels of physical activity while commuting. ..
  31. Bayly W, Gabel A, Barr S. Cardiovascular effects of submaximal aerobic training on a treadmill in Standardbred horses, using a standardized exercise test. Am J Vet Res. 1983;44:544-53 pubmed
    ..Subsequently, they were not different from resting values. Differences in the effects of the different training programs could not be detected. ..
  32. Kupari M, Heikkila J, Ylikahri R. Acute effects of alcohol on left ventricular dynamics during isometric exercise in normal subjects. Clin Cardiol. 1983;6:103-8 pubmed
    ..Although preload, afterload, and heart rate were altered by ethanol at rest, myocardial contractility was not impaired even during the afterload stress imposed by isometric exercise. ..
  33. Weibel E, Taylor C, Weber J, Vock R, Roberts T, Hoppeler H. Design of the oxygen and substrate pathways. VII. Different structural limits for oxygen and substrate supply to muscle mitochondria. J Exp Biol. 1996;199:1699-709 pubmed
  34. Lykkeboe G, Schugaard H, Johansen K. Training and exercise change respiratory properties of blood in race horses. Respir Physiol. 1977;29:315-25 pubmed
  35. Grondalen T. Leg weakness in pigs. I. Incidence and relationship to skeletal lesions, feed level, protein and mineral supply, exercise and exterior conformation. Acta Vet Scand. 1974;15:555-73 pubmed
  36. Hirai T, Visneski M, Kearns K, Zelis R, Musch T. Effects of NO synthase inhibition on the muscular blood flow response to treadmill exercise in rats. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1994;77:1288-93 pubmed
    ..1 (%SO + %FOG) + 16.4; r = 0.88, P < 0.001]. These results suggest that NO-mediated vasodilation contributes to the BF responses within and among the muscles of the rat's hindquarters during exercise. ..
  37. Parkhouse W, McKenzie D, Hochachka P, Ovalle W. Buffering capacity of deproteinized human vastus lateralis muscle. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1985;58:14-7 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that the sprinters and rowers possess elevated buffering capabilities and carnosine levels compared with marathon runners and untrained subjects. ..
  38. Turner J, Carroll D, Hanson J, Sims J. A comparison of additional heart rates during active psychological challenge calculated from upper body and lower body dynamic exercise. Psychophysiology. 1988;25:209-16 pubmed
  39. Degraff A, Grover R, Johnson R, Hammond J, Miller J. Diffusing capacity of the lung in Caucasians native to 3,100 m. J Appl Physiol. 1970;29:71-6 pubmed
  40. Parks C, Manohar M. Blood-gas tensions and acid-base status in ponies during treadmill exercise. Am J Vet Res. 1984;45:15-9 pubmed
    ..6 +/- 1.3 mM/L during severe exercise vs 0.6 +/- 0.3 mM/L at rest). This increase in lactate was accompanied by a decrease in arterial pH and bicarbonate concentration. ..
  41. Service F, Molnar G, Rosevear J, Ackerman E, Gatewood L, Taylor W. Mean amplitude of glycemic excursions, a measure of diabetic instability. Diabetes. 1970;19:644-55 pubmed
  42. Nadesan K, Kumari C, Afiq M. Dancing to death: A case of heat stroke. J Forensic Leg Med. 2017;50:1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..developed complications arising from a combination of severe adverse weather condition, prolonged outdoor physical exertion due to long hours of dancing and drug-use, resulting in heat stroke...
  43. Morel P, Ulbrich P, Gail A. What makes a reach movement effortful? Physical effort discounting supports common minimization principles in decision making and motor control. PLoS Biol. 2017;15:e2001323 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results thereby support the idea that motor control and economic choice are governed by partly overlapping optimization principles. ..
  44. McKeever K, Hinchcliff K, Schmall L, Muir W. Renal tubular function in horses during submaximal exercise. Am J Physiol. 1991;261:R553-60 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that, in horses, submaximal exercise-induced increases in urine flow and sodium excretion are associated with a concurrent increase in the plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide. ..
  45. Guyton A, Coleman T, Granger H. Circulation: overall regulation. Annu Rev Physiol. 1972;34:13-46 pubmed
  46. Martínez López D, Enriquez R, Sirvent A, Redondo Pachón M, Millan I, Amorós F. Rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure following hard physical activity in a patient treated with rosuvastatin. Nefrologia. 2012;32:127-8 pubmed publisher
  47. Breen E, Johnson E, Wagner H, Tseng H, Sung L, Wagner P. Angiogenic growth factor mRNA responses in muscle to a single bout of exercise. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1996;81:355-61 pubmed
    ..We suggest that VEGF, bFGF, and TGF-beta 1 may be involved in the angiogenic response to exercise and that reduced intracellular PO2 (as occurs during normoxic exercise) may be part of the stimulus to such growth factor production. ..
  48. Thorp B, Duff S. Effect of exercise on the vascular pattern in the bone extremities of broiler fowl. Res Vet Sci. 1988;45:72-7 pubmed
    ..The low level of activity in the unexercised fowls of the present study appeared to contribute to these abnormalities. ..
  49. Van Iterson E, Johnson B, Joyner M, Curry T, Olson T. V?o2 kinetics associated with moderate-intensity exercise in heart failure: impact of intrathecal fentanyl inhibition of group III/IV locomotor muscle afferents. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2017;313:H114-H124 pubmed publisher
    ..Steady-state V?o2 cannot properly phenotype abnormal muscle afferent contributions to impaired exercise V?o2 in HF. ..
  50. Smith P. Physical activity, vascular health, and cognitive impairment. Arch Intern Med. 2012;172:83; author reply 84 pubmed publisher
  51. Guyton A, Douglas B, Langston J, RICHARDSON T. Instantaneous increase in mean circulatory pressure and cardiac output at onset of muscular activity. Circ Res. 1962;11:431-41 pubmed
  52. Feldman M, Nixon J. Effect of exercise on postprandial gastric secretion and emptying in humans. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol. 1982;53:851-4 pubmed
    ..These studies indicate that strenuous exercise shortly after a meal has little effect on postprandial gastric secretory or motor function in humans. ..
  53. Harms C, Babcock M, McClaran S, Pegelow D, Nickele G, Nelson W, et al. Respiratory muscle work compromises leg blood flow during maximal exercise. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1997;82:1573-83 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Wb normally incurred during maximal exercise causes vasoconstriction in locomotor muscles and compromises locomotor muscle perfusion and VO2. ..