sperm transport


Summary: Passive or active movement of SPERMATOZOA from the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES through the male reproductive tract as well as within the female reproductive tract.

Top Publications

  1. Troedsson M, Desvousges A, Alghamdi A, Dahms B, Dow C, Hayna J, et al. Components in seminal plasma regulating sperm transport and elimination. Anim Reprod Sci. 2005;89:171-86 pubmed
    Seminal plasma has been suggested to be involved in sperm transport, and as a modulator of sperm-induced inflammation, which is thought to be an important part of sperm elimination from the female reproductive tract...
  2. Suarez S, Pacey A. Sperm transport in the female reproductive tract. Hum Reprod Update. 2006;12:23-37 pubmed
    ..Knowledge of the biology of sperm transport can inspire improvements in artificial insemination, IVF, the diagnosis of infertility and the development of ..
  3. Shimmin G, Jones M, Taggart D, Temple Smith P. Sperm transport and storage in the agile antechinus (Antechinus agilis). Biol Reprod. 1999;60:1353-9 pubmed
    This study was an examination of the timing of ejaculation and the dynamics of sperm transport in the female reproductive tract of the agile Antechinus (Antechinus agilis) and the relationship of these parameters to single and multiple ..
  4. Kissler S, Zangos S, Wiegratz I, Kohl J, Rody A, Gaetje R, et al. Utero-tubal sperm transport and its impairment in endometriosis and adenomyosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1101:38-48 pubmed
    ..endometriosis is associated in 80-90% of subjects with adenomyosis and our data clearly indicate that sperm transport is disturbed by hyperperistalsis when at least one focus of adenomyosis can be detected via magnetic ..
  5. Nicholson H, Parkinson T, Lapwood K. Effects of oxytocin and vasopressin on sperm transport from the cauda epididymis in sheep. J Reprod Fertil. 1999;117:299-305 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that oxytocin has specific actions on the epididymis to increase sperm transport. They indicate that local oxytocin may be involved in regulating basal contractility of the cauda ..
  6. England G, Burgess C, Freeman S, Smith S, Pacey A. Relationship between the fertile period and sperm transport in the bitch. Theriogenology. 2006;66:1410-8 pubmed
    ..The aim of this paper is to review current knowledge of the transportation of sperm and their biology within the reproductive tract of the bitch. ..
  7. Langendijk P, Soede N, Kemp B. Uterine activity, sperm transport, and the role of boar stimuli around insemination in sows. Theriogenology. 2005;63:500-13 pubmed
    ..activity, and the possible role of uterine contractions in the process of (artificial) insemination, sperm transport and fertilization. Myometrial activity in the sow increases during estrus...
  8. Kissler S, Siebzehnruebl E, Kohl J, Mueller A, Hamscho N, Gaetje R, et al. Uterine contractility and directed sperm transport assessed by hysterosalpingoscintigraphy (HSSG) and intrauterine pressure (IUP) measurement. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2004;83:369-74 pubmed
    Uterine peristalsis sustains sperm transport and can be detected by hysterosalpingoscintigraphy (HSSG)...
  9. Langendijk P, Bouwman E, Kidson A, Kirkwood R, Soede N, Kemp B. Role of myometrial activity in sperm transport through the genital tract and in fertilization in sows. Reproduction. 2002;123:683-90 pubmed
    ..Stimulation of uterine contractility above a certain level probably increases reflux and impedes transuterine transport of sufficient numbers of sperm cells. ..

More Information


  1. Fazeli A, Duncan A, Watson P, Holt W. Sperm-oviduct interaction: induction of capacitation and preferential binding of uncapacitated spermatozoa to oviductal epithelial cells in porcine species. Biol Reprod. 1999;60:879-86 pubmed
    ..This interaction is initiated by uncapacitated spermatozoa binding to OEC and is continued by the induction of capacitation in cocultured spermatozoa. ..
  2. Gadella B. The assembly of a zona pellucida binding protein complex in sperm. Reprod Domest Anim. 2008;43 Suppl 5:12-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The relevance for this to predict and identify the proteins involved in sperm zona binding in vivo is discussed...
  3. Helinski M, Hood Nowotny R, Mayr L, Knols B. Stable isotope-mass spectrometric determination of semen transfer in malaria mosquitoes. J Exp Biol. 2007;210:1266-74 pubmed
  4. Barth A. Sperm accumulation in the ampullae and cauda epididymides of bulls. Anim Reprod Sci. 2007;102:238-46 pubmed
    Bulls that appear to have an abnormality of sperm transport accumulate large numbers of senescent sperm in the excurrent ducts of the reproductive tract...
  5. Albrizio M, Guaricci A, Maritato F, Sciorsci R, Mari G, Calamita G, et al. Expression and subcellular localization of the mu-opioid receptor in equine spermatozoa: evidence for its functional role. Reproduction. 2005;129:39-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, this study provides the first evidence that the mu-opioid receptor is expressed in equine spermatozoa and that naloxone significantly affects motility and capacitation...
  6. Sever D, Tait C, Diller L, Burkholder L. Ultrastructure of the annual cycle of female sperm storage in spermathecae of the torrent salamander, Rhyacotriton variegatus (Amphibia: Rhyacotritonidae). J Morphol. 2004;261:1-17 pubmed
    ..Secretory activity in the distal bulbs is initiated in the fall. Spermathecae of R. variegatus are most similar to those of a stream-dwelling plethodontid, Eurycea cirrigera. ..
  7. Croxatto H. Physiology of gamete and embryo transport through the fallopian tube. Reprod Biomed Online. 2002;4:160-9 pubmed
    ..The diverse and exquisite patterns and regulatory signals typical of sperm migration and ovum transport across many species provide fascinating examples of adaptations according with differing reproductive strategies in various mammals. ..
  8. Zaneveld L, Waller D, Anderson R, Chany C, Rencher W, Feathergill K, et al. Efficacy and safety of a new vaginal contraceptive antimicrobial formulation containing high molecular weight poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate). Biol Reprod. 2002;66:886-94 pubmed
    ..T-PSS in gel form is worthy of clinical evaluation as a vaginal contraceptive HIV/STD preventative. ..
  9. Nöbel S, Witte K. Public information influences sperm transfer to females in sailfin molly males. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53865 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first study showing that public information use turns into fitness investment, which is the crucial factor to understand the role of public information in the dynamic processes in sexual selection. ..
  10. Kadirvel G, Machado S, Korneli C, Collins E, Miller P, Bess K, et al. Porcine sperm bind to specific 6-sialylated biantennary glycans to form the oviduct reservoir. Biol Reprod. 2012;87:147 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that sperm binding to oviduct 6-sialylated biantennary glycans is necessary for normal adhesion to the oviduct. ..
  11. Green K. Age-related variation in mean sperm length, in the rove beetle Aleochara bilineata. J Insect Physiol. 2003;49:993-8 pubmed
    ..These findings are interesting in the field of postcopulatory sexual selection, as this is the first time that such an increase in mean sperm length has been recorded. ..
  12. Burkitt M, Walker D, Romano D, Fazeli A. Using computational modeling to investigate sperm navigation and behavior in the female reproductive tract. Theriogenology. 2012;77:703-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The inclusion or potential exclusion of each factor is discussed, along with problems identifying parameters and defining behavioral rules from available literature. Finally, the benefits and limitations of the model are described. ..
  13. Lloyd S, Carrick F, Hall L. Unique features of spermiogenesis in the Musky Rat-kangaroo: reflection of a basal lineage or a distinct fertilization process?. J Anat. 2008;212:257-74 pubmed publisher
  14. Lewis R, Taylor D, Natavio M, Melamed A, Felix J, MISHELL D. Effects of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system on cervical mucus quality and sperm penetrability. Contraception. 2010;82:491-6 pubmed publisher
    ..85% in controls with 2-h score ?6, p<.001; 6 h 0% vs. 79% in controls, p<.001). Mid-cycle cervical mucus of LNG-IUS users is poor quality and prevents endocervical sperm transport in vitro.
  15. Pena P, Sanchez R, Vasquez B, Castillo C, Miska W. [Effects of proteolytic enzymes and sexual abstinence on alpha glucosidase biochemical quantification in human seminal plasma]. Rev Med Chil. 2001;129:489-93 pubmed
    ..of alpha-glucosidase activity is a marker of the secretory function of the epididymis and indemnity of the sperm transport pathway...
  16. Cherr G, Morisawa M, Vines C, Yoshida K, Smith E, Matsubara T, et al. Two egg-derived molecules in sperm motility initiation and fertilization in the Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi). Int J Dev Biol. 2008;52:743-52 pubmed publisher
    ..SMIF, which is bound to the micropylar region of the chorion, is required for fertilization and induces circular motility that is a prerequisite for sperm to enter the micropylar canal and fertilize the egg. ..
  17. Pretorius E, Franken D. The immunobead technique: an indicator of disturbed sperm cervical mucus interaction. Andrologia. 1988;20:5-9 pubmed
    ..It was also clear that a strong positive SCMC-T result correlated with agglutinating antibodies in the semen or seminal plasma. In conclusion, the IBT is a sensitive, specific and predictable test for sperm antibodies. ..
  18. Cobellis G, Lombardi M, Scarpa D, Izzo G, Fienga G, Meccariello R, et al. Fra1 activity in the frog, Rana esculenta, testis: a new potential role in sperm transport. Biol Reprod. 2005;72:1101-8 pubmed
    ..We report for the first time in a vertebrate, experimental evidence showing that the expression of Fra1 is related to peritubular myoid cells during sperm transport from the tubular compartment to efferent ducts.
  19. Lin M, Rodger J. Acrosome formation during sperm transit through the epididymis in two marsupials, the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) and the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). J Anat. 1999;194 ( Pt 2):223-32 pubmed
  20. Brüssow K, Torner H, Ratky J, Manabe N, Tuchscherer A. Experimental evidence for the influence of cumulus-oocyte-complexes on sperm release from the porcine oviductal sperm reservoir. J Reprod Dev. 2006;52:249-57 pubmed
    ..6 +/- 0.2 to 3.1 +/- 0.2). In summary, this study was demonstrated that cumulus-oocyte-complexes may be involved in triggering sperm release from the pig oviductal SR and that HA might be related to sperm release. ..
  21. Priyadarsana M, Wijayagunawardane B, Miyamoto A. Endothelin-1 system in the bovine oviduct: a regulator of local contraction and gamete transport. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2004;44 Suppl 1:S248-51 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the oviductal ET system enhances the release of contraction-related substances and modulates local contraction to optimize the oviductal transport of the gametes and embryo. ..
  22. Dacheux J, Castella S, Gatti J, Dacheux F. Epididymal cell secretory activities and the role of proteins in boar sperm maturation. Theriogenology. 2005;63:319-41 pubmed
    ..Relationships between the highly regionalized epididymal activities, sperm characteristics linked to their survival and fertility potential are also presented in this review. ..
  23. Ambrosini G, Andrisani A, Fiore C, Faggian D, D Antona D, Ragazzi E, et al. Anti-Helicobacter pylori antibodies in cervical mucus: a new cause of infertility. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2011;155:157-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering the close correlation found between serum and cervical mucus anti-H. pylori antibody titres, measuring serum antibodies could become an additional test, in particular in couples with unexplained infertility. ..
  24. Druart X, Cognie J, Baril G, Clement F, Dacheux J, Gatti J. [In vivo imaging of ram spermatozoa in the ewe genital tract using fibered confocal microscopy]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2011;39:633-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show the active role of the uterotubal junction in the selection of sperm during their transit. ..
  25. Tollner T, Bevins C, Cherr G. Multifunctional glycoprotein DEFB126--a curious story of defensin-clad spermatozoa. Nat Rev Urol. 2012;9:365-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Insights into the biology of DEFB126 are contributing to a better understanding of reproductive fitness in humans, as well as the development of diagnostics and therapeutics for male infertility...
  26. Fanchin R, Ayoubi J. Uterine dynamics: impact on the human reproduction process. Reprod Biomed Online. 2009;18 Suppl 2:57-62 pubmed
    ..Approaches aimed at either stimulating or inhibiting uterine contractions could be instrumental in improving pregnancy rates after the use of assisted reproductive technologies. ..
  27. Kölle S, Dubielzig S, Reese S, Wehrend A, Konig P, Kummer W. Ciliary transport, gamete interaction, and effects of the early embryo in the oviduct: ex vivo analyses using a new digital videomicroscopic system in the cow. Biol Reprod. 2009;81:267-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The early embryo is able to induce the formation of secretory cells, modify vascularization, and downregulate speed of transport, thus creating the prerequisite for the first embryo-maternal communication in the oviduct...
  28. Chaturapanich G, Sujarit K, Pholpramool C. Effects of sulphapyridine on sperm transport through the rat epididymis and contractility of the epididymal duct. J Reprod Fertil. 1999;117:199-205 pubmed
    ..b>Sperm transport was investigated by labelling testicular spermatozoa with [3H]thymidine and measuring intraluminal pressures ..
  29. Dacheux J, Dacheux F, Druart X. Epididymal protein markers and fertility. Anim Reprod Sci. 2016;169:76-87 pubmed publisher
  30. Kinukawa M, Nagata M, Aoki F. Changes in flagellar bending during the course of hyperactivation in hamster spermatozoa. Reproduction. 2003;125:43-51 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that complex physiological changes occur before hyperactivation. ..
  31. Schorn M. How does oral emergency contraception work?. Nursing. 2006;36:31 pubmed
  32. Nahum G, Stanislaw H, McMahon C. Preventing ectopic pregnancies: how often does transperitoneal transmigration of sperm occur in effecting human pregnancy?. BJOG. 2004;111:706-14 pubmed
    ..To minimise the risk of ectopic tubal pregnancy in woman with unilaterally damaged fallopian tubes, salpingectomy should be the preferred surgical treatment, rather than attempting tubal salvage and repair. ..
  33. Sauter A, Brown M, Baer B, Schmid Hempel P. Males of social insects can prevent queens from multiple mating. Proc Biol Sci. 2001;268:1449-54 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, such male interference could be a more general phenomenon in social insects, with obvious ramifications for the evolution of polyandry in this group. ..
  34. Barriere P, Thibault E, Jean M. [Role of Fallopian tube in fertilization]. Rev Prat. 2002;52:1757-61 pubmed
    ..Alteration of part of these functions could explain some tubal infertilities leading with normal tube morphology. ..
  35. Chrétien F. Involvement of the glycoproteic meshwork of cervical mucus in the mechanism of sperm orientation. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2003;82:449-61 pubmed
    ..The high resolution and three-dimensional aspect of SEM micrographs support the correlation of sperm orientation with current data on rheologic properties of biologic hydrogels. ..
  36. Lemaitre J, Ramm S, Hurst J, Stockley P. Sperm competition roles and ejaculate investment in a promiscuous mammal. J Evol Biol. 2012;25:1216-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that sperm competition roles can have significant but unexpected influences on ejaculate investment in mammals with clearly defined differences in male social status. ..
  37. Akbarsha M, Kadalmani B, Girija R, Faridha A, Hamid K. Spermatotoxic effect of carbendazim. Indian J Exp Biol. 2001;39:921-4 pubmed
    ..The study indicates that carbendazim affects the cauda epididymal sperm as seen in decreased sperm counts, inhibition of motility and increased incidence of abnormalities. ..
  38. Alghamdi A, Lovaas B, Bird S, Lamb G, Rendahl A, Taube P, et al. Species-specific interaction of seminal plasma on sperm-neutrophil binding. Anim Reprod Sci. 2009;114:331-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The increased binding with SP reduced the number of free spermatozoa indicating that sperm transport to the site of fertilization (and thus fertility) may be hindered...
  39. Rath D, Schuberth H, Coy P, Taylor U. Sperm interactions from insemination to fertilization. Reprod Domest Anim. 2008;43 Suppl 5:2-11 pubmed publisher
  40. Yaniz J, Lopez Gatius F, Santolaria P, Mullins K. Study of the functional anatomy of bovine oviductal mucosa. Anat Rec. 2000;260:268-78 pubmed
    ..The topography of the oviduct provides a complex system of regulation which may influence not only the passage of gametes and/or embryos, but also movement of fluid within the oviductal canal. ..
  41. Brüssow K, Ratky J, Rodriguez Martinez H. Fertilization and early embryonic development in the porcine fallopian tube. Reprod Domest Anim. 2008;43 Suppl 2:245-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Experimental evidence of an ovarian control on sperm release from the SR is highlighted. Furthermore, the impact of oviductal secretion on sperm capacitation, oocyte maturation, fertilization and early embryo development is stressed. ..
  42. Sanchez R, Pena P, Villagrán E. [Use of midodrine and frozen semen to treat semen transport disturbances. Report of 2 cases]. Rev Med Chil. 2000;128:93-7 pubmed
    ..In both cases, pregnancies that developed satisfactorily, were obtained. ..
  43. Rutllant J, Lopez Gatius F, Camon J, Lopez Bejar M, López Plana C. A structural study of the bovine vaginal fluid at estrus. Scanning. 1999;21:204-11 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that the freeze-drying procedure better preserves the true structural dimensions of the vaginal fluid. Furthermore, the filamentous structure of the vaginal fluid does not appear to impede sperm transport.
  44. Axnér E. Sperm maturation in the domestic cat. Theriogenology. 2006;66:14-24 pubmed
    ..Additional knowledge of the feline epididymis should be beneficial for developing sperm preservation protocols and advance the prospects for effective male contraceptive methods. ..
  45. Cavaco Gonçalves S, Marques C, Horta A, Figueroa J. Increased cervical electrical activity during oestrus in progestagen treated ewes: Possible role in sperm transport. Anim Reprod Sci. 2006;93:360-5 pubmed
    ..found around the time of mating and/or AI suggests it may play an important role as a regulatory mechanism of sperm transport. Taking advantage of the cervical responsiveness to various drugs, experimental modulation of cervical ..
  46. Kadanali S, Varoglu E, Komec D, Uslu H. Evaluation of active and passive transport mechanisms in genital tracts of IUD-bearing women with radionuclide hysterosalpingoscintigraphy. Contraception. 2001;63:41-5 pubmed
    ..However, the direction of active and passive transport related to dominant follicle side was unchanged in IUD-bearing women and was preferentially toward the tube ipsilateral to the dominant follicle. ..
  47. Zhang M, Hong H, Zhou B, Jin S, Wang C, Fu M, et al. The expression of atrial natriuretic peptide in the oviduct and its functions in pig spermatozoa. J Endocrinol. 2006;189:493-507 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the expression of ANP in the oviduct may be involved in the regulation of the acrosome reaction and the fertilising ability of pig spermatozoa, and the PKG pathway possibly participates in the process. ..
  48. Mann R, Hyne R, Choung C. Hormonal induction of spermiation, courting behavior and spawning in the southern bell frog, Litoria raniformis. Zoo Biol. 2010;29:774-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The lack of response in females may limit the use of reproduction technology in the southern bell frog and closely related species of Australian bell frogs. ..
  49. Kissler S, Wildt L, Schmiedehausen K, Kohl J, Mueller A, Rody A, et al. Predictive value of impaired uterine transport function assessed by negative hysterosalpingoscintigraphy (HSSG). Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2004;113:204-8 pubmed
    Hysterosalpingoscintigraphy (HSSG) has given insight into the dynamics of rapid sperm transport inside the female genital tract...
  50. Saxena D, Oh oka T, Kadomatsu K, Muramatsu T, Toshimori K. Behaviour of a sperm surface transmembrane glycoprotein basigin during epididymal maturation and its role in fertilization in mice. Reproduction. 2002;123:435-44 pubmed
  51. Zervomanolakis I, Ott H, Hadziomerovic D, Mattle V, Seeber B, Virgolini I, et al. Physiology of upward transport in the human female genital tract. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1101:1-20 pubmed
    ..Results from HSS could be a useful adjunct for choosing treatment modalities in patients with patent fallopian tubes suffering from infertility. These patients may be better served with in vitro fertilization (IVF). ..
  52. Byrne P, Simmons L, Roberts J. Sperm competition and the evolution of gamete morphology in frogs. Proc Biol Sci. 2003;270:2079-86 pubmed
    ..These data provide a conclusive demonstration that sperm competition selects for increased sperm length in frogs, and evidence for evolutionary covariance between aspects of male and female gamete morphology. ..
  53. Yang Y, Lu X. Drosophila sperm motility in the reproductive tract. Biol Reprod. 2011;84:1005-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analyses here suggest that Pkd2 is required for the sperm to adopt the correct waveform and movement orientation during SR entry. A working model for the sperm's SR entry movement is proposed. ..