sperm motility


Summary: Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.

Top Publications

  1. Valcarce D, Cartón García F, Riesco M, Herraez M, Robles V. Analysis of DNA damage after human sperm cryopreservation in genes crucial for fertilization and early embryo development. Andrology. 2013;1:723-30 pubmed publisher
  2. Fortes M, Reverter A, Kelly M, McCulloch R, Lehnert S. Genome-wide association study for inhibin, luteinizing hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1, testicular size and semen traits in bovine species. Andrology. 2013;1:644-50 pubmed publisher
    ..at 4 months (LH), insulin-like growth factor 1 at 6 months (IGF1), scrotal circumference at 12 months (SC), sperm motility at 18 months (MOT), percentage of normal spermatozoa at 24 months (PNS) and age at a scrotal circumference of ..
  3. Battistone M, Da Ros V, Salicioni A, Navarrete F, Krapf D, Visconti P, et al. Functional human sperm capacitation requires both bicarbonate-dependent PKA activation and down-regulation of Ser/Thr phosphatases by Src family kinases. Mol Hum Reprod. 2013;19:570-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas the presence of SKI606 during capacitation produced a negative effect (P < 0.05) on sperm motility, progesterone-induced AR and fertilizing ability, none of these inhibitions were observed when sperm were ..
  4. Saha S, Das S, Bhoumik A, Ghosh P, Majumder G, Dungdung S. Identification of a novel sperm motility-stimulating protein from caprine serum: its characterization and functional significance. Fertil Steril. 2013;100:269-79.e1-5 pubmed publisher
    To identify and characterize a novel sperm motility-stimulating protein (MSP) from caprine serum. Prospective experimental study. Research laboratory. Rabbits and male and female BALB/c mice...
  5. McKnight K, Hoang H, Prasain J, Brown N, Vibbert J, Hollister K, et al. Neurosensory perception of environmental cues modulates sperm motility critical for fertilization. Science. 2014;344:754-7 pubmed publisher
    ..in the Caenorhabditis elegans nose alter the lipid microenvironment within the oviduct, thereby affecting sperm motility. In favorable environments, pheromone-responsive sensory neurons secrete a transforming growth factor-? ligand ..
  6. Takasaki N, Tachibana K, Ogasawara S, Matsuzaki H, Hagiuda J, Ishikawa H, et al. A heterozygous mutation of GALNTL5 affects male infertility with impairment of sperm motility. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:1120-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This strongly suggests that the genetic mutation of human GALNTL5 results in male infertility with the reduction of sperm motility and that GALNTL5 is a functional molecule essential for mammalian sperm formation.
  7. Korrodi Gregório L, Ferreira M, Vintém A, Wu W, Müller T, Marcus K, et al. Identification and characterization of two distinct PPP1R2 isoforms in human spermatozoa. BMC Cell Biol. 2013;14:15 pubmed publisher
    ..of sperm PPP1R2 and PPP1R2P3 lays the basis for future studies on their roles in acrosome reaction, sperm motility and hyperactivation...
  8. Aitken R, De Iuliis G, Finnie J, Hedges A, McLachlan R. Analysis of the relationships between oxidative stress, DNA damage and sperm vitality in a patient population: development of diagnostic criteria. Hum Reprod. 2010;25:2415-26 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the development of novel methods and optimized thresholds for diagnosing oxidative DNA damage in human spermatozoa should assist in the clinical management of this pathology. ..
  9. Fiedler S, Dudiki T, Vijayaraghavan S, Carr D. Loss of R2D2 proteins ROPN1 and ROPN1L causes defects in murine sperm motility, phosphorylation, and fibrous sheath integrity. Biol Reprod. 2013;88:41 pubmed publisher
    ..RLKO mice had slightly reduced sperm motility and increased levels of ROPN1. RKO mice had moderately impaired motility and increased levels of ROPN1L...

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Hurtado de Llera A, Martin Hidalgo D, Gil M, Garcia Marin L, Bragado M. AMP-activated kinase AMPK is expressed in boar spermatozoa and regulates motility. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38840 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our study suggests that AMPK regulates a relevant function of spermatozoa, motility, which is essential for their ultimate role of fertilization...
  2. Amaral A, Paiva C, Baptista M, Sousa A, Ramalho Santos J. Exogenous glucose improves long-standing human sperm motility, viability, and mitochondrial function. Fertil Steril. 2011;96:848-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This does not seem to be directly due to sperm mitochondrial activity. ..
  3. Olson S, Fauci L, Suarez S. Mathematical modeling of calcium signaling during sperm hyperactivation. Mol Hum Reprod. 2011;17:500-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Models may also be used to understand how Ca(2+) patterns produce flagellar bending patterns of sperm in fluids of low and high viscosity and elasticity. ..
  4. Petersen C, Vagnini L, Mauri A, Massaro F, Cavagna M, Baruffi R, et al. Relationship between DNA damage and sperm head birefringence. Reprod Biomed Online. 2011;22:583-9 pubmed publisher
    ..6%) was not significantly different from the ones with SHBF-P (666/1009; 66.0%). In conclusion, the data support a positive relationship between spermatozoa with total SHBF in their head and increased DNA fragmentation...
  5. Yuan J, Yang D, Liang Y, Gao W, Ren Z, Zeng W, et al. Alkaloids from areca (betel) nuts and their effects on human sperm motility in vitro. J Food Sci. 2012;77:T70-8 pubmed publisher
    ..volunteers were treated in vitro with different concentrations of the 3 alkaloids to evaluate the effects on sperm motility (SM). Highly motile spermatozoa were selected from the samples and divided into 5 equal fractions...
  6. Abbasihormozi S, Shahverdi A, Kouhkan A, Cheraghi J, Akhlaghi A, Kheimeh A. Relationship of leptin administration with production of reactive oxygen species, sperm DNA fragmentation, sperm parameters and hormone profile in the adult rat. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2013;287:1241-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The function of leptin in male reproduction is unclear; however, it is known to affect sex hormones, sperm motility and its parameters...
  7. Guerrero A, Wood C, Nishigaki T, Carneiro J, Darszon A. Tuning sperm chemotaxis. Biochem Soc Trans. 2010;38:1270-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The article considers this new evidence and summarizes the known underlying cellular mechanisms and behavioural strategies that sperm use to locate and fertilize the oocyte...
  8. Cooper T. The epididymis, cytoplasmic droplets and male fertility. Asian J Androl. 2011;13:130-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This may reflect their short midpiece, approximating head length, permitting a swollen droplet to extend along the entire midpiece; this not only obviates droplet migration and flagellar angulation but also hampers droplet loss. ..
  9. O Brien E, Krapf D, Cabada M, Visconti P, Arranz S. Transmembrane adenylyl cyclase regulates amphibian sperm motility through protein kinase A activation. Dev Biol. 2011;350:80-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Sperm motility is essential for achieving fertilization. In animals with external fertilization as amphibians, spermatozoa are stored in a quiescent state in the testis...
  10. Bellentani F, Fernandes G, Perobelli J, Pacini E, Kiguti L, Pupo A, et al. Acceleration of sperm transit time and reduction of sperm reserves in the epididymis of rats exposed to sibutramine. J Androl. 2011;32:718-24 pubmed publisher
    ..001), but the daily sperm production was not altered. Moreover, morphology and sperm motility, histopathology of the testes and epididymis, sexual behavior, fertility, and serum hormone levels were not ..
  11. Ortega C, Verheyen G, Raick D, Camus M, Devroey P, Tournaye H. Absolute asthenozoospermia and ICSI: what are the options?. Hum Reprod Update. 2011;17:684-92 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it still remains unclear which is the best technique to improve the pregnancy outcomes in these couples. ..
  12. Fossato da Silva D, Teixeira C, Scarano W, Favareto A, Fernandez C, Grotto D, et al. Effects of methylmercury on male reproductive functions in Wistar rats. Reprod Toxicol. 2011;31:431-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Adult male Wistar rats received 0, 0.5, 1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg/body weight/day orally, daily MeHg for 14 days. Sperm motility, the relative sperm count and transit time in the caput/corpus epididymis, were all reduced at all doses...
  13. Moubasher A, El Din A, Ali M, El sherif W, Gaber H. Catalase improves motility, vitality and DNA integrity of cryopreserved human spermatozoa. Andrologia. 2013;45:135-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to investigate effects of cryopreservation and addition of catalase on sperm motility, vitality and DNA integrity in fresh and swim-up spermatozoa. Semen samples were collected from 50 fertile men...
  14. Braga D, Halpern G, Figueira R, Setti A, Iaconelli A, Borges E. Food intake and social habits in male patients and its relationship to intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes. Fertil Steril. 2012;97:53-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The sperm motility was also negatively influenced by BMI, alcohol consumption, and smoking habit, whereas it was positively ..
  15. Brahem S, Mehdi M, Elghezal H, Saad A. The effects of male aging on semen quality, sperm DNA fragmentation and chromosomal abnormalities in an infertile population. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2011;28:425-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased age in infertile men is associated with an increase in sperm concentration and diploidy, as well as a decline in semen volume and sperm vitality. However motility, morphology and DNA fragmentation are not affected by male age. ..
  16. Escoffier J, Pierre V, Jemel I, Munch L, Boudhraa Z, Ray P, et al. Group X secreted phospholipase A? specifically decreases sperm motility in mice. J Cell Physiol. 2011;226:2601-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Because several reports indicate a link between cellular lipids and sperm motility, we have investigated the effect of mouse group IIA, IID, IIE, V, and X sPLA(2) s on sperm motility...
  17. Sagare Patil V, Galvankar M, Satiya M, Bhandari B, Gupta S, Modi D. Differential concentration and time dependent effects of progesterone on kinase activity, hyperactivation and acrosome reaction in human spermatozoa. Int J Androl. 2012;35:633-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed that low concentrations of progesterone (10 and 100 nm) induce sperm motility and activate tyrosine kinase; higher concentrations (1-10 ?m) are required to induce extracellular signal ..
  18. Butts I, Johnson K, Wilson C, Pitcher T. Ovarian fluid enhances sperm velocity based on relatedness in lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush. Theriogenology. 2012;78:2105-2109.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, ovarian fluid enhanced sperm performance of related male fish and might act as part of a recognition system to select sperm of a specific genotype...
  19. Endo Y, Fujii Y, Shintani K, Seo M, Motoyama H, Funahashi H. Simple vitrification for small numbers of human spermatozoa. Reprod Biomed Online. 2012;24:301-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The container with spermatozoa were cooled in liquid nitrogen vapour and then stored in a cryotank. Sperm motility parameters improved significantly (P < 0...
  20. Alasmari W, Costello S, Correia J, Oxenham S, Morris J, Fernandes L, et al. Ca2+ signals generated by CatSper and Ca2+ stores regulate different behaviors in human sperm. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:6248-58 pubmed publisher
    Ca(2+)]i signaling regulates sperm motility, enabling switching between functionally different behaviors that the sperm must employ as it ascends the female tract and fertilizes the oocyte...
  21. Goodson S, Zhang Z, TSURUTA J, Wang W, O Brien D. Classification of mouse sperm motility patterns using an automated multiclass support vector machines model. Biol Reprod. 2011;84:1207-15 pubmed publisher
    Vigorous sperm motility, including the transition from progressive to hyperactivated motility that occurs in the female reproductive tract, is required for normal fertilization in mammals...
  22. Ciereszko A, Rybnik P, Horbanczuk J, Dietrich G, Deas A, Słowińska M, et al. Biochemical characterization and sperm motility parameters of ostrich (Struthio camelus) semen. Anim Reprod Sci. 2010;122:222-8 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study was to obtain baseline values for biochemical parameters of ostrich seminal plasma and sperm motility parameters measured by CASA. Biochemical characteristics of ostrich semen included a high protein concentration (29...
  23. Oger P, Yazbeck C, Gervais A, Dorphin B, Gout C, Jacquesson L, et al. Adverse effects of hepatitis B virus on sperm motility and fertilization ability during IVF. Reprod Biomed Online. 2011;23:207-12 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Sperm motility before selection was significantly reduced in the HBV group (36.3 ± 11.6% versus 45.3 ± 14.4%,P = 0.003)...
  24. Fardilha M, Esteves S, Korrodi Gregório L, Vintém A, Domingues S, Rebelo S, et al. Identification of the human testis protein phosphatase 1 interactome. Biochem Pharmacol. 2011;82:1403-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The importance of the testis/sperm-enriched variant, PP1?2, in sperm motility and spermatogenesis has previously been shown...
  25. Bedard N, Yang Y, Gregory M, Cyr D, Suzuki J, Yu X, et al. Mice lacking the USP2 deubiquitinating enzyme have severe male subfertility associated with defects in fertilization and sperm motility. Biol Reprod. 2011;85:594-604 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate for the first time, using mouse transgenic approaches, a role for the ubiquitin system in fertilization. ..
  26. Tan S, Chan W, Wai M, Hui L, Hui V, James A, et al. Ketamine effects on the urogenital system--changes in the urinary bladder and sperm motility. Microsc Res Tech. 2011;74:1192-8 pubmed publisher
    ..was used as the dose for the study in the toxicity of long-term ketamine administration on urinary bladder and sperm motility. The treatment group were subdivided into two (n = 10 each group); one received daily ketamine treatment i.p...
  27. Buffone M, Ijiri T, Cao W, Merdiushev T, Aghajanian H, Gerton G. Heads or tails? Structural events and molecular mechanisms that promote mammalian sperm acrosomal exocytosis and motility. Mol Reprod Dev. 2012;79:4-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Comprehending these processes will have a considerable impact on the management of fertility problems, the development of contraceptive methods, and, potentially, elucidation of analogous processes in other cell systems...
  28. Sood S, Malecki I, Tawang A, Martin G. Response of spermatozoa from the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) to rapid cooling, hyperosmotic conditions and dimethylacetamide (DMA). Anim Reprod Sci. 2011;129:89-95 pubmed publisher
    ..As for the osmotic effects, the percentage of membrane intact sperm decreased with 2400mOsm/L and sperm motility decreased with 1200-2400mOsm/L, but sperm morphology was similar at all osmolarities...
  29. Saez Lancellotti T, Boarelli P, Monclus M, Cabrillana M, Clementi M, Espínola L, et al. Hypercholesterolemia impaired sperm functionality in rabbits. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13457 pubmed publisher
    ..Semen examination revealed a significant reduction in semen volume and sperm motility in hypercholesterolemic rabbits (HCR)...
  30. Lishko P, Kirichok Y, Ren D, Navarro B, Chung J, Clapham D. The control of male fertility by spermatozoan ion channels. Annu Rev Physiol. 2012;74:453-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The uniqueness of sperm ion channels makes them ideal pharmaceutical targets for contraception. In this review we discuss how ion channels regulate sperm physiology. ..
  31. Zhu Q, Meads C, Lu M, Wu J, Zhou W, Gao E. Turning point of age for semen quality: a population-based study in Chinese men. Fertil Steril. 2011;96:572-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Increasing age mainly influences sperm motility, vitality, and normal morphology, but these parameters have turning points at different ages...
  32. Mitra A, Chakraborty B, Mukhopadhay D, Pal M, Mukherjee S, Banerjee S, et al. Effect of smoking on semen quality, FSH, testosterone level, and CAG repeat length in androgen receptor gene of infertile men in an Indian city. Syst Biol Reprod Med. 2012;58:255-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on conventional WHO criteria, lower sperm motility (P?<?0.001) and increased sperm morphological defects (P?<?0.0001) were associated with smoking habits...
  33. Barbonetti A, Cinque B, Vassallo M, Mineo S, Francavilla S, Cifone M, et al. Effect of vaginal probiotic lactobacilli on in vitro-induced sperm lipid peroxidation and its impact on sperm motility and viability. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:2485-8 pubmed publisher
    ..prevented sperm lipid peroxidation that was induced in vitro by a ferrous ion promoter, thus preserving sperm motility and viability...
  34. Gibb Z, Butler T, Morris L, Maxwell W, Grupen C. Quercetin improves the postthaw characteristics of cryopreserved sex-sorted and nonsorted stallion sperm. Theriogenology. 2013;79:1001-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, quercetin significantly improved the motility and zona binding ability of cryopreserved stallion sperm, and reduced DNA fragmentation in sex-sorted, cryopreserved stallion sperm...
  35. Noda T, Sakase M, Fukushima M, Harayama H. Novel approach for the detection of the vestiges of testicular mRNA splicing errors in mature spermatozoa of Japanese Black bulls. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57296 pubmed publisher
    ..We have a hypothesis that the splicing error-caused derivation of aberrant sperm motility-related proteins may be one of its causal factors...
  36. Cao D, Li Y, Yang R, Wang Y, Zhou Y, Diao H, et al. Lipopolysaccharide-induced epididymitis disrupts epididymal beta-defensin expression and inhibits sperm motility in rats. Biol Reprod. 2010;83:1064-70 pubmed publisher
    ..LPS treatment also significantly decreased both sperm binding to SPAG11E and sperm motility, and supplementation of the spermatozoa with recombinant SPAG11E in vitro remarkably increased both SPAG11E ..
  37. Esteves S, Miyaoka R, Agarwal A. Sperm retrieval techniques for assisted reproduction. Int Braz J Urol. 2011;37:570-83 pubmed
    ..Lastly, we summarize the results from the current literature of sperm retrieval, as well as the clinical outcome of ICSI in the clinical scenario of obstructive and nonobstructive azoospermia. ..
  38. Matzuk M, McKeown M, Filippakopoulos P, Li Q, Ma L, Agno J, et al. Small-molecule inhibition of BRDT for male contraception. Cell. 2012;150:673-84 pubmed
    ..These data establish a new contraceptive that can cross the blood:testis boundary and inhibit bromodomain activity during spermatogenesis, providing a lead compound targeting the male germ cell for contraception. ..
  39. Garcia P, Barbieri M, Perobelli J, Consonni S, Mesquita S, Kempinas W, et al. Morphometric-stereological and functional epididymal alterations and a decrease in fertility in rats treated with finasteride and after a 30-day post-treatment recovery period. Fertil Steril. 2012;97:1444-51 pubmed publisher
    ..A 30-day post-treatment recovery period was insufficient to restore normal sperm motility, sperm transit time, and some fertility parameters.
  40. Armon L, Eisenbach M. Behavioral mechanism during human sperm chemotaxis: involvement of hyperactivation. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28359 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of these results a model for the behavior of spermatozoa responding to a spatial chemoattractant gradient is proposed. ..
  41. Chang H, Suarez S. Two distinct Ca(2+) signaling pathways modulate sperm flagellar beating patterns in mice. Biol Reprod. 2011;85:296-305 pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that hyperactivation, which is associated with capacitation, can be modulated by release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores to reverse the direction of the dominant flagellar bend and, thus, redirect sperm. ..
  42. Kirichok Y, Lishko P. Rediscovering sperm ion channels with the patch-clamp technique. Mol Hum Reprod. 2011;17:478-99 pubmed publisher
    ..This method is critical for identification of the molecular mechanisms that control sperm behavior within the female reproductive tract and make fertilization possible. ..
  43. Paoli D, Gallo M, Rizzo F, Baldi E, Francavilla S, Lenzi A, et al. Mitochondrial membrane potential profile and its correlation with increasing sperm motility. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:2315-9 pubmed publisher
    ..analysis of mitochondrial membrane potential (??) and to correlate the energy status with variations in sperm motility. Experimental study. Seminology Laboratory, University of Rome, Italy...
  44. Aitken R, Gibb Z, Mitchell L, Lambourne S, Connaughton H, De Iuliis G. Sperm motility is lost in vitro as a consequence of mitochondrial free radical production and the generation of electrophilic aldehydes but can be significantly rescued by the presence of nucleophilic thiols. Biol Reprod. 2012;87:110 pubmed publisher
    ..The practical implications of these findings were indicated by the effective preservation of equine spermatozoa for 8 days at ambient temperature when the culture medium was supplemented with penicillamine...
  45. Kiso W, Brown J, Siewerdt F, Schmitt D, Olson D, Crichton E, et al. Liquid semen storage in elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana): species differences and storage optimization. J Androl. 2011;32:420-31 pubmed publisher
    ..However, although MOD, BIL, and INR were most effective at lower temperatures, HEP and TES maintained sperm motility at all storage temperatures...
  46. Piomboni P, Focarelli R, Stendardi A, Ferramosca A, Zara V. The role of mitochondria in energy production for human sperm motility. Int J Androl. 2012;35:109-24 pubmed publisher
    ..production of chemical energy in the form of ATP which can be used, in the case of spermatozoa, for sustaining sperm motility. The latter, on the other hand, represents one of the major determinants of male fertility...
  47. Banihani S, Sharma R, Bayachou M, Sabanegh E, Agarwal A. Human sperm DNA oxidation, motility and viability in the presence of L-carnitine during in vitro incubation and centrifugation. Andrologia. 2012;44 Suppl 1:505-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated the effect of LC on human sperm motility, viability and DNA oxidation after incubation and centrifugation, following the sperm preparation protocols of ..
  48. Barbonetti A, Vassallo M, Di Rosa A, Leombruni Y, Felzani G, Gandini L, et al. Involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in the adverse effect exerted by seminal plasma from men with spinal cord injury on sperm motility. Andrology. 2013;1:456-63 pubmed publisher
    ..severe asthenozoospermia in men with spinal cord injury includes an adverse impact of seminal plasma (SP) on sperm motility. In this study we investigated the effect exerted by SP from men with SCI on donor sperm mitochondrial ..
  49. Zhu L, Inaba K. Lipid rafts function in Ca2+ signaling responsible for activation of sperm motility and chemotaxis in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Mol Reprod Dev. 2011;78:920-9 pubmed publisher
    ..implicating the role of lipid rafts in capacitation of mammalian sperm, the function of these structures in sperm motility activation and chemotaxis remains unknown...
  50. Kirkman Brown J, Smith D. Sperm motility: is viscosity fundamental to progress?. Mol Hum Reprod. 2011;17:539-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The physiological effects of viscosity are also crucial to consider when designing and extrapolating data from in vitro experiments to the in vivo situation. ..
  51. Guerrero A, Carneiro J, Pimentel A, Wood C, Corkidi G, Darszon A. Strategies for locating the female gamete: the importance of measuring sperm trajectories in three spatial dimensions. Mol Hum Reprod. 2011;17:511-23 pubmed publisher
  52. Yoshida M, Yoshida K. Sperm chemotaxis and regulation of flagellar movement by Ca2+. Mol Hum Reprod. 2011;17:457-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we reviewed sperm chemotaxis focusing on the mechanisms that regulate sperm flagellar beating during the chemotactic response. ..
  53. Elgeti J, Kaupp U, Gompper G. Hydrodynamics of sperm cells near surfaces. Biophys J. 2010;99:1018-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the model suggests a mechanism by which sperm navigate in a chemical gradient via a change of their shape...