Summary: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.

Top Publications

  1. Cui G, Jun S, Jin X, Pham M, Vogel S, Lovinger D, et al. Concurrent activation of striatal direct and indirect pathways during action initiation. Nature. 2013;494:238-42 pubmed publisher
    ..projection neurons (SPNs) in the striatum--the so-called direct and indirect pathways--have opposing effects on movement: activity of direct-pathway SPNs is thought to facilitate movement, whereas activity of indirect-pathway SPNs is ..
  2. Fini C, Brass M, Committeri G. Social scaling of extrapersonal space: target objects are judged as closer when the reference frame is a human agent with available movement potentialities. Cognition. 2015;134:50-6 pubmed publisher
    ..also the extrapersonal space (the space outside reaching distance) seems to be perceived in relation to our movement capabilities: the more effort it takes to cover a distance, the greater we perceive the distance to be (Proffitt, ..
  3. Wright D, Holmes P, Di Russo F, Loporto M, Smith D. Reduced motor cortex activity during movement preparation following a period of motor skill practice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e51886 pubmed publisher
    Experts in a skill produce movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) of smaller amplitude and later onset than novices. This may indicate that, following long-term training, experts require less effort to plan motor skill performance...
  4. Holtkamp W, Cunha C, Peske F, Konevega A, Wintermeyer W, Rodnina M. GTP hydrolysis by EF-G synchronizes tRNA movement on small and large ribosomal subunits. EMBO J. 2014;33:1073-85 pubmed publisher
    Elongation factor G (EF-G) promotes the movement of two tRNAs and the mRNA through the ribosome in each cycle of peptide elongation...
  5. Liberg B, Adler M, Jonsson T, Landen M, Rahm C, Wahlund L, et al. Motor imagery in bipolar depression with slowed movement. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2013;201:885-93 pubmed publisher
    ..imagery and motor execution to elucidate whether brain regions that mediate planning, preparation, and control of movement are activated differently in subjects with bipolar depression (n = 9) compared with healthy controls (n = 12)...
  6. Federolf P, Roos L, Nigg B. Analysis of the multi-segmental postural movement strategies utilized in bipedal, tandem and one-leg stance as quantified by a principal component decomposition of marker coordinates. J Biomech. 2013;46:2626-33 pubmed publisher
    ..of an analysis technique facilitating a direct comparison of the structure of such multi-segment postural movement patterns between subjects; second, comparison of the complexity of postural movements between three stances of ..
  7. Cavallo A, Bucchioni G, Castiello U, Becchio C. Goal or movement? Action representation within the primary motor cortex. Eur J Neurosci. 2013;38:3507-12 pubmed publisher
    ..To test for alternative coding levels (goal vs. movement), three relevant aspects were systematically manipulated: the type of observed movement (precision grip or whole ..
  8. Yamada Y, Colman R, Kemnitz J, Baum S, Anderson R, Weindruch R, et al. Long-term calorie restriction decreases metabolic cost of movement and prevents decrease of physical activity during aging in rhesus monkeys. Exp Gerontol. 2013;48:1226-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that long-term CR decreases basal metabolic rate, but maintains higher physical activity with lower metabolic cost of movements compared with C. ..
  9. Furuya S, Altenmuller E. Finger-specific loss of independent control of movements in musicians with focal dystonia. Neuroscience. 2013;247:152-63 pubmed publisher
    ..This confirmed the effects of focal dystonia on the individuated finger movements. Interestingly, the movement features that contributed to successful classification differed across fingers...

More Information


  1. Tolu S, Vanegas M, Garrido J, Luque N, Ros E. Adaptive and predictive control of a simulated robot arm. Int J Neural Syst. 2013;23:1350010 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluate how this scheme scales for robot-arms of a high number of degrees of freedom (DOFs) using a simulated model of a robot arm of the new generation of light weight robots (LWRs). ..
  2. Didierlaurent D, Ribes S, Caselles O, Jaudet C, Cazalet J, Batatia H, et al. A new respiratory gating device to improve 4D PET/CT. Med Phys. 2013;40:032501 pubmed publisher
    ..Future works will focus on patients where the authors expect a significant improvement of specificity and sensitivity of PET/CT examinations. ..
  3. Ichikawa T, Nakamura T, Yamawaki Y. Defensive abdominal rotation patterns of tenebrionid beetle, Zophobas atratus, pupae. J Insect Sci. 2012;12:133 pubmed publisher
    ..aid of the caudal processes (urogomphi), which served as a fulcrum for transmitting the power of the abdominal rotation to the movement or turning of the whole body. Pattern generation mechanisms for the abdominal rotation were discussed.
  4. Zinger N, Harel R, Gabler S, Israel Z, Prut Y. Functional organization of information flow in the corticospinal pathway. J Neurosci. 2013;33:1190-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the difference in spinal processing of finger versus wrist-related motor commands points to a different motor control strategy of finger versus wrist movements. ..
  5. Hira R, Ohkubo F, Ozawa K, Isomura Y, Kitamura K, Kano M, et al. Spatiotemporal dynamics of functional clusters of neurons in the mouse motor cortex during a voluntary movement. J Neurosci. 2013;33:1377-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Ensemble and individual activities of pull cells within the cluster more accurately predicted lever movement trajectories than activities of pull cells outside the cluster...
  6. Gallivan J, McLean D, Flanagan J, Culham J. Where one hand meets the other: limb-specific and action-dependent movement plans decoded from preparatory signals in single human frontoparietal brain areas. J Neurosci. 2013;33:1991-2008 pubmed publisher
    Planning object-directed hand actions requires successful integration of the movement goal with the acting limb...
  7. Howey Jordan L, Brooks E, Abercrombie D, Jordan L, Brooks A, Williams S, et al. Complex movements, philopatry and expanded depth range of a severely threatened pelagic shark, the oceanic whitetip (Carcharhinus longimanus) in the western North Atlantic. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56588 pubmed publisher
    ..The sharks tracked appear to be most vulnerable to pelagic fishing gear deployed from 0-125 m depths, which they may encounter from June to October after leaving the protected waters of The Bahamas EEZ...
  8. Saimpont A, Malouin F, Tousignant B, Jackson P. Motor imagery and aging. J Mot Behav. 2013;45:21-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the authors emphasize the potential of using mental practice as a safe and easy way to help preserving/improving motor function in the elderly and provide some recommendations for future research in this direction. ..
  9. Shimatani I, Yoda K, Katsumata N, Sato K. Toward the quantification of a conceptual framework for movement ecology using circular statistical modeling. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50309 pubmed publisher
    To analyze an animal's movement trajectory, a basic model is required that satisfies the following conditions: the model must have an ecological basis and the parameters used in the model must have ecological interpretations, a broad ..
  10. Katona L, Lapray D, Viney T, Oulhaj A, Borhegyi Z, Micklem B, et al. Sleep and movement differentiates actions of two types of somatostatin-expressing GABAergic interneuron in rat hippocampus. Neuron. 2014;82:872-86 pubmed publisher
    ..During movement, both cell types fire cooperatively at the troughs of theta oscillations but with different frequencies...
  11. Manohar A, Flint R, KNUDSEN E, Moxon K. Decoding hindlimb movement for a brain machine interface after a complete spinal transection. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52173 pubmed publisher
    ..the restoration of functional gait requires descending modulation of spinal circuits to independently control the movement of each limb...
  12. Pereira S, Silva C, Ferreira S, Silva C, Oliveira N, Santos R, et al. Anticipatory postural adjustments during sitting reach movement in post-stroke subjects. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2014;24:165-71 pubmed publisher
    The study assessed the effect of velocity of arm movement on anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) generation in the contralateral and ipsilateral muscles of individuals with stroke in seating...
  13. Cope J, Rank K, Gilbert S, Rayment I, Hoenger A. Kar3Vik1 uses a minus-end directed powerstroke for movement along microtubules. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53792 pubmed publisher
    ..The stalk rotation shown here for Kar3Vik1 is highly reminiscent of that reported for the homodimeric kinesin-14 Ncd, emphasizing the conservation of a mechanism for minus-end directed motility...
  14. Chiou S, Wang R, Liao K, Yang Y. Homologous muscle contraction during unilateral movement does not show a dominant effect on leg representation of the ipsilateral primary motor cortex. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72231 pubmed publisher demonstrate that activation of the ipsilateral M1 on leg representation could be increased during unilateral movement. However, no homologous muscle-dominant effect was evident in the leg muscles...
  15. De Groot S, Nieuwenhuizen M. Validity and reliability of measuring activities, movement intensity and energy expenditure with the DynaPort MoveMonitor. Med Eng Phys. 2013;35:1499-505 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of assessing activities, movement intensity (MI) and energy expenditure (EE) measured by accelerometry...
  16. Temprado J, Sleimen Malkoun R, Lemaire P, Rey Robert B, Retornaz F, Berton E. Aging of sensorimotor processes: a systematic study in Fitts' task. Exp Brain Res. 2013;228:105-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In each manipulation, movement (MTs), acceleration (ATs) and deceleration times (DTs) of young and older participants were compared across eight ..
  17. Wang W, Collinger J, Degenhart A, Tyler Kabara E, Schwartz A, Moran D, et al. An electrocorticographic brain interface in an individual with tetraplegia. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55344 pubmed publisher
    ..Using only brain activity, the participant achieved robust control of 3D cursor movement. The ECoG grid was explanted 28 days post-implantation with no adverse effect...
  18. Nishimura Y, Perlmutter S, Fetz E. Restoration of upper limb movement via artificial corticospinal and musculospinal connections in a monkey with spinal cord injury. Front Neural Circuits. 2013;7:57 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that artificial neural connections can compensate for interrupted descending pathways and promote volitional control of upper limb movement after damage of descending pathways such as spinal cord injury or stroke.
  19. Dinomais M, Lignon G, Chinier E, Richard I, Ter Minassian A, Tich S. Effect of observation of simple hand movement on brain activations in patients with unilateral cerebral palsy: an fMRI study. Res Dev Disabil. 2013;34:1928-37 pubmed publisher
    ..and compare brain activation in patients with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) during observation of simple hand movement performed by the paretic and nonparetic hand...
  20. Kim M, Yi C, Kwon O, Cho S, Cynn H, Kim Y, et al. Comparison of lumbopelvic rhythm and flexion-relaxation response between 2 different low back pain subtypes. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013;38:1260-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A cross-sectional study to compare the kinematics and muscle activities during trunk flexion and return task in people with and without low back pain (LBP)...
  21. Scullion K, Boychuk J, Yamakawa G, Rodych J, Nakanishi S, Seto A, et al. Serotonin 1A receptors alter expression of movement representations. J Neurosci. 2013;33:4988-99 pubmed publisher
    ..appetite, sleep, and memory and while its release within the spinal cord is particularly important for generating movement, the corresponding role on cortical movement representations (motor maps) is unknown...
  22. Priori R, Aliverti A, Albuquerque A, Quaranta M, Albert P, Calverley P. The effect of posture on asynchronous chest wall movement in COPD. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2013;114:1066-75 pubmed publisher
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients often show asynchronous movement of the lower rib cage during spontaneous quiet breathing and exercise...
  23. Lassak K, Peeters E, Wrobel S, Albers S. The one-component system ArnR: a membrane-bound activator of the crenarchaeal archaellum. Mol Microbiol. 2013;88:125-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, bioinformatic analysis revealed ArnR to be conserved not only in Sulfolobales but also in the crenarchaeal order of Desulfurococcales and thus might represent a more general control mechanism of archaeal motility...