myositis ossificans

Summary

Summary: A disease characterized by bony deposits or the ossification of muscle tissue.

Top Publications

  1. Hegyi L, Gannon F, Glaser D, Shore E, Kaplan F, Shanahan C. Stromal cells of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva lesions express smooth muscle lineage markers and the osteogenic transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa-1: clues to a vascular origin of heterotopic ossification?. J Pathol. 2003;201:141-8 pubmed
  2. Whyte M, Wenkert D, Demertzis J, DiCarlo E, Westenberg E, Mumm S. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva: middle-age onset of heterotopic ossification from a unique missense mutation (c.974G>C, p.G325A) in ACVR1. J Bone Miner Res. 2012;27:729-37 pubmed publisher
    ..If the diagnosis of FOP is unclear, ACVR1 mutation analysis is available at certified laboratories. ..
  3. Nakajima M, Haga N, Takikawa K, Manabe N, Nishimura G, Ikegawa S. The ACVR1 617G>A mutation is also recurrent in three Japanese patients with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. J Hum Genet. 2007;52:473-5 pubmed
    ..We identified the 617G>A mutation in all three patients. Our results suggest that the mutation in the ACVR1 gene is common and recurrent in the global population. ..
  4. Nemoto H, Sumiya N, Ito Y, Kimura N, Akizuki A, Maruyama N. Myositis ossificans traumatica of the masticatory muscles. J Craniofac Surg. 2012;23:e514-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Myositis ossificans traumatica (MOT) is a disease in which muscular ossification develops following trauma. Almost all cases of MOT are found in skeletal muscle...
  5. Saka B, Stropahl G, Gundlach K. Traumatic myositis ossificans (ossifying pseudotumor) of temporal muscle. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002;31:110-1 pubmed
    ..of this paper is to present the clinical, radiographic, and histological aspects of a case of traumatic myositis ossificans of the temporal muscle. This is a rare, benign ossifying pseudotumor of skeletal muscles...
  6. Furuya H, Ikezoe K, Wang L, Ohyagi Y, Motomura K, Fujii N, et al. A unique case of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva with an ACVR1 mutation, G356D, other than the common mutation (R206H). Am J Med Genet A. 2008;146A:459-63 pubmed publisher
    ..5-Mb region spanning ACVR1 and its neighbor genes suggested that 1067G > A is a de novo mutation. These results give a clue to better understanding of FOP as well as of the mild clinical symptoms in the patient. ..
  7. Carvalho D, Navarro M, Martins B, Coelho K, Mello W, Takata R, et al. Mutational screening of ACVR1 gene in Brazilian fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva patients. Clin Genet. 2010;77:171-6 pubmed publisher
    ..983G> A mutation (p.G328E). Our study contributes to the understanding of the predominant FOP phenotype and genotype and suggests that variant FOP phenotypes are associated with specific mutations in ACVR1 gene. ..
  8. Kan L, Lounev V, Pignolo R, Duan L, Liu Y, Stock S, et al. Substance P signaling mediates BMP-dependent heterotopic ossification. J Cell Biochem. 2011;112:2759-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations establish a potent neuro-inflammatory induction and amplification circuit for BMP-dependent HO lesion formation, and identify novel molecular targets for prevention of HO. ..
  9. Mahboubi S, Glaser D, Shore E, Kaplan F. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. Pediatr Radiol. 2001;31:307-14 pubmed
    ..The FOP gene has recently been mapped to human chromosome 4q 27-31. ..

More Information

Publications82

  1. Yu P, Deng D, Lai C, Hong C, Cuny G, Bouxsein M, et al. BMP type I receptor inhibition reduces heterotopic [corrected] ossification. Nat Med. 2008;14:1363-9 pubmed publisher
  2. Gunduz B, Erhan B, Demir Y. Subcutaneous injections as a risk factor of myositis ossificans traumatica in spinal cord injury. Int J Rehabil Res. 2007;30:87-90 pubmed
    b>Myositis ossificans traumatica is a pathological condition characterized by extraskeletal bone formation, induced by major or repeated minor trauma to the muscles...
  3. Lounev V, Ramachandran R, Wosczyna M, Yamamoto M, Maidment A, Shore E, et al. Identification of progenitor cells that contribute to heterotopic skeletogenesis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2009;91:652-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, these data strongly suggest that dysregulation of the BMP signaling pathway and an inflammatory microenvironment are both required for the formation of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva-like lesions. ..
  4. Hamasaki M, Hashizume Y, Yamada Y, Katayama T, Hohjoh H, Fusaki N, et al. Pathogenic mutation of ALK2 inhibits induced pluripotent stem cell reprogramming and maintenance: mechanisms of reprogramming and strategy for drug identification. Stem Cells. 2012;30:2437-49 pubmed publisher
  5. de Gorter D, Jankipersadsing V, Ten Dijke P. Deregulated bone morphogenetic protein receptor signaling underlies fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. Curr Pharm Des. 2012;18:4087-92 pubmed
    ..This discovery has paved the way for further investigations into the molecular basis underlying FOP and has recently pointed towards potential strategies to treat this devastating disease. ..
  6. Schaffer A, Kaplan F, Tracy M, O Brien M, Dormans J, Shore E, et al. Developmental anomalies of the cervical spine in patients with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva are distinctly different from those in patients with Klippel-Feil syndrome: clues from the BMP signaling pathway. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2005;30:1379-85 pubmed
    ..While the noggin gene (NOG) is not mutated in patients who have FOP, these findings extend a growing body of evidence implicating overactivity of the BMP signaling pathway in the molecular pathogenesis of FOP. ..
  7. Kaplan F, Lounev V, Wang H, Pignolo R, Shore E. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva: a blueprint for metamorphosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011;1237:5-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Effective therapies for FOP will need to consider these seminal pathophysiologic interactions. ..
  8. Kaplan F, Glaser D, Shore E, Pignolo R, Xu M, Zhang Y, et al. Hematopoietic stem-cell contribution to ectopic skeletogenesis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007;89:347-57 pubmed
    ..Thus, cells of hematopoietic origin may contribute to the formation of an ectopic skeleton, although they are not sufficient to initiate the process alone. ..
  9. Kaplan F, Chakkalakal S, Shore E. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva: mechanisms and models of skeletal metamorphosis. Dis Model Mech. 2012;5:756-62 pubmed publisher
  10. Levy C, Lash A, Janoff H, Kaplan F. Conductive hearing loss in individuals with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. Am J Audiol. 1999;8:29-33 pubmed
    ..The findings of both studies indicate that individuals with FOP are at risk for hearing loss and that the type of loss is predominantly conductive in nature, similar to that seen in individuals who have otosclerosis...
  11. Kaplan F, Fiori J, DE LA Peña L, Ahn J, Billings P, Shore E. Dysregulation of the BMP-4 signaling pathway in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1068:54-65 pubmed
    ..Signaling pathways that fit these criteria are the BMP signaling pathway and its interacting pathways. A large body of data suggest that the BMP-4 signaling pathway is dysregulated in FOP. ..
  12. Shore E, Kaplan F. Inherited human diseases of heterotopic bone formation. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2010;6:518-27 pubmed publisher
  13. Kaplan F, Xu M, Seemann P, Connor J, Glaser D, Carroll L, et al. Classic and atypical fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) phenotypes are caused by mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptor ACVR1. Hum Mutat. 2009;30:379-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed genotype-phenotype correlation between some ACVR1 mutations and the age of onset of heterotopic ossification or on embryonic skeletal development...
  14. Kaplan J, Kaplan F, Shore E. Restoration of normal BMP signaling levels and osteogenic differentiation in FOP mesenchymal progenitor cells by mutant allele-specific targeting. Gene Ther. 2012;19:786-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide proof-of-principle that ASP-RNAi has potential therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of FOP...
  15. Pignolo R, Shore E, Kaplan F. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva: clinical and genetic aspects. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2011;6:80 pubmed publisher
    ..The median lifespan is approximately 40 years of age. Most patients are wheelchair-bound by the end of the second decade of life and commonly die of complications of thoracic insufficiency syndrome...
  16. Kaplan F, Xu M, Glaser D, Collins F, Connor M, Kitterman J, et al. Early diagnosis of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. Pediatrics. 2008;121:e1295-300 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, the genetic cause of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva was identified, and definitive genetic testing for fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is now available before the appearance of heterotopic ossification...
  17. Godhi S, Singh A, Kukreja P, Singh V. Myositis ossificans circumscripta involving bilateral masticatory muscles. J Craniofac Surg. 2011;22:e11-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Myositis ossificans (MO), as its name implies, is ossification and bone formation within a muscle. Pathogenesis is not all clear, but trauma is universally recognized as a trigger event...
  18. Chakkalakal S, Zhang D, Culbert A, Convente M, Caron R, Wright A, et al. An Acvr1 R206H knock-in mouse has fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. J Bone Miner Res. 2012;27:1746-56 pubmed publisher
    ..This unique knock-in mouse model provides novel insight into the genetic regulation of heterotopic ossification and establishes the first direct in vivo evidence that the R206H mutation in ACVR1 causes FOP...
  19. Kaplan F, Tabas J, Gannon F, Finkel G, Hahn G, Zasloff M. The histopathology of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. An endochondral process. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1993;75:220-30 pubmed
    ..A lesional biopsy is not needed to make the diagnosis; biopsy uniformly exacerbates the condition and should be avoided...
  20. Connor J, Evans D. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. The clinical features and natural history of 34 patients. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1982;64:76-83 pubmed
    ..Progression of disability did not appear to be influenced by any form of medical treatment and therefore management of the patients must concentrate on the avoidance of exacerbating factors...
  21. Carlier R, Safa D, Parva P, Mompoint D, Judet T, Denormandie P, et al. Ankylosing neurogenic myositis ossificans of the hip. An enhanced volumetric CT study. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2005;87:301-5 pubmed
    Neurogenic myositis ossificans is a disabling condition affecting the large joints of patients with severe post-traumatic impairment of the central nervous system...
  22. Brantus J, Meunier P. Effects of intravenous etidronate and oral corticosteroids in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1998;:117-20 pubmed
  23. Glaser D, Economides A, Wang L, Liu X, Kimble R, Fandl J, et al. In vivo somatic cell gene transfer of an engineered Noggin mutein prevents BMP4-induced heterotopic ossification. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2003;85-A:2332-42 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we hypothesized that engineering more effective inhibitors of this BMP-signaling process may lead to the development of therapies for such conditions...
  24. Kaplan F, Zasloff M, Kitterman J, Shore E, Hong C, Rocke D. Early mortality and cardiorespiratory failure in patients with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2010;92:686-91 pubmed publisher
    ..However, little is known about the lifespan or causes of mortality in these patients. We undertook this study to determine the lifespan and causes of mortality in individuals who had fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva...
  25. Van Dinther M, Visser N, de Gorter D, Doorn J, Goumans M, de Boer J, et al. ALK2 R206H mutation linked to fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva confers constitutive activity to the BMP type I receptor and sensitizes mesenchymal cells to BMP-induced osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. J Bone Miner Res. 2010;25:1208-15 pubmed publisher
    ..We have generated an animal model that can be used as a stepping stone for preclinical studies aimed at inhibiting the heterotopic ossification characteristic of FOP...
  26. Petrie K, Lee W, Bullock A, Pointon J, Smith R, Russell R, et al. Novel mutations in ACVR1 result in atypical features in two fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva patients. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5005 pubmed publisher
    ..The observation of disparate missense mutations mapped to the GS and kinase domains of the protein supports the disease model of mild kinase activation and provides a potential rationale for phenotypic variation. ..
  27. Ohte S, Shin M, Sasanuma H, Yoneyama K, Akita M, Ikebuchi K, et al. A novel mutation of ALK2, L196P, found in the most benign case of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva activates BMP-specific intracellular signaling equivalent to a typical mutation, R206H. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;407:213-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that ALK2(L196P) is an activated BMP receptor equivalent to ALK2(R206H) and that ALK2(L196P) activity may be suppressed in vivo by a novel molecular mechanism in patients with this mutation...
  28. Bocciardi R, Bordo D, Di Duca M, Di Rocco M, Ravazzolo R. Mutational analysis of the ACVR1 gene in Italian patients affected with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva: confirmations and advancements. Eur J Hum Genet. 2009;17:311-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The novel amino-acid substitution is predicted to influence either the conformation/stability of the GS region or the binding affinity with FKBP12, resulting in a less stringent inhibitory control on the ACVR1 kinase activity...
  29. Aoki T, Naito H, Ota Y, Shiiki K. Myositis ossificans traumatica of the masticatory muscles: review of the literature and report of a case. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002;60:1083-8 pubmed
  30. Kaplan F, Le Merrer M, Glaser D, Pignolo R, Goldsby R, Kitterman J, et al. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2008;22:191-205 pubmed publisher
    ..Effective therapies for FOP, and possibly for other common conditions of HO, may potentially be based on future interventions that block ACVR1/ALK2 signalling...
  31. Shafritz A, Shore E, Gannon F, Zasloff M, Taub R, Muenke M, et al. Overexpression of an osteogenic morphogen in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. N Engl J Med. 1996;335:555-61 pubmed
  32. Mevio E, Rizzi L, Bernasconi G. Myositis ossificans traumatica of the temporal muscle: a case report. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2001;28:345-7 pubmed
    b>Myositis ossificans traumatica (MOT) is a pathological condition characterized by extraskeletal formation of bony tissue, induced by violent or repeated trauma...
  33. Deirmengian G, Hebela N, O CONNELL M, Glaser D, Shore E, Kaplan F. Proximal tibial osteochondromas in patients with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008;90:366-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of proximal tibial osteochondromas in individuals who have fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva...
  34. Billings P, Fiori J, Bentwood J, O Connell M, Jiao X, Nussbaum B, et al. Dysregulated BMP signaling and enhanced osteogenic differentiation of connective tissue progenitor cells from patients with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP). J Bone Miner Res. 2008;23:305-13 pubmed
    ..We isolated such cells from discarded primary teeth of patients with FOP and controls and discovered dysregulation of BMP signaling and rapid osteoblast differentiation in FOP cells compared with control cells...
  35. Findlay I, Lakkireddi P, Gangone R, Marsh G. A case of myositis ossificans in the upper cervical spine of a young child. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010;35:E1525-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Case report...
  36. Kaplan F, Glaser D, Pignolo R, Shore E. A new era for fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva: a druggable target for the second skeleton. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2007;7:705-12 pubmed
    ..Effective therapies for FOP, and possibly for a vast array of more common conditions of heterotopic ossification, will be based on blocking activin-like kinase-2, a critical node in the BMP signaling pathway...
  37. Kan L, Kitterman J, Procissi D, Chakkalakal S, Peng C, McGuire T, et al. CNS demyelination in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. J Neurol. 2012;259:2644-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that dysregulated BMP signaling disturbs normal homeostasis of target tissues, including CNS where focal demyelination may manifest as the neurologic symptoms frequently observed in FOP...
  38. Groppe J, Wu J, Shore E, Kaplan F. In vitro analyses of the dysregulated R206H ALK2 kinase-FKBP12 interaction associated with heterotopic ossification in FOP. Cells Tissues Organs. 2011;194:291-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, substitution with histidine leads to partial loss of inhibition of the mutant type I receptor through diminished binding of FKBP12, which may act as a gradient reader in morphogenetic contexts...
  39. Lasry F, Touki A, Abkari A, Khalifa H. A rare cause of painful cervical swelling: myositis ossificans progressiva in childhood. Report of a case. Joint Bone Spine. 2005;72:335-7 pubmed
    b>Myositis ossificans progressiva (MOP) is a rare condition of which we report a case in a 13-year-old girl with involvement of the cervical paraspinal and periscapular muscles. No ectopic ossifications were visible on plain radiographs...
  40. Tumolo M, Moscatelli A, Silvestri G. Anaesthetic management of a child with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. Br J Anaesth. 2006;97:701-3 pubmed
    ..We emphasize the importance of an appropriate anaesthetic management of these patients, as inadequate care may lead to exacerbation of the disease with permanent sequelae...
  41. Lin G, Chang H, Liu C, Huang P, Wang H, Cheng Y. De novo 617G-A nucleotide mutation in the ACVR1 gene in a Taiwanese patient with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. J Hum Genet. 2006;51:1083-6 pubmed
    ..Pedigree analysis suggests that a de novo mutation in the ACVR1 gene is responsible for the disease in this family. This is the first report of the results of a mutation analysis in a sporadic case of FOP in a Taiwanese patient...
  42. Kitterman J, Kantanie S, Rocke D, Kaplan F. Iatrogenic harm caused by diagnostic errors in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. Pediatrics. 2005;116:e654-61 pubmed
    ..On the basis of conversations with numerous individuals with FOP, we suspected that diagnostic errors with FOP are common and often associated with inappropriate and harmful diagnostic and therapeutic procedures...
  43. Ahn J, Serrano de la Pena L, Shore E, Kaplan F. Paresis of a bone morphogenetic protein-antagonist response in a genetic disorder of heterotopic skeletogenesis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2003;85-A:667-74 pubmed
    ..Therefore, a defect in the feedback pathway between BMP-4 and one or more of its extracellular antagonists could contribute to the elevated BMP-4 activity characteristic of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva...
  44. Takahashi M, Katagiri T, Furuya H, Hohjoh H. Disease-causing allele-specific silencing against the ALK2 mutants, R206H and G356D, in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. Gene Ther. 2012;19:781-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the siRNAs presented here may become novel therapeutic agents for FOP, and their induced ASP-RNAi may pave the way for the achievement of radical treatment of FOP and/or for the relief of its severe symptoms...
  45. Groppe J, Shore E, Kaplan F. Functional modeling of the ACVR1 (R206H) mutation in FOP. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2007;462:87-92 pubmed
  46. Alaani A, Hogg R, Warfield A, Olliff J, Jennings C. Air bag injury as a cause of inflammatory myofibroblastic pseudotumour of the subglottic larynx progressing to myositis ossificans. Acta Otolaryngol. 2005;125:674-7 pubmed
    ..This mechanism has not been previously reported. Furthermore, the lesion progressed uniquely to show myositis ossificans-like maturation over time. The patient was ultimately treated by means of complete local excision.
  47. Le V, Wharton K. Hyperactive BMP signaling induced by ALK2(R206H) requires type II receptor function in a Drosophila model for classic fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:200-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanism(s) regulating the expressivity of hyperactive ALK2(R206H) signaling throughout a patient's life is not well understood...
  48. Ben Hamida K, Hajri R, Kedadi H, Bouhaouala H, Salah M, Mestiri A, et al. Myositis ossificans circumscripta of the knee improved by alendronate. Joint Bone Spine. 2004;71:144-6 pubmed
    b>Myositis ossificans circumscripta (MOC) is a rare benign disorder characterized by heterotopic ossification of soft tissues. We report a case in a 21-year-old male who presented with knee pain after strenuous physical activity...
  49. Song G, Kim H, Woo K, Baek J, Kim G, Choi J, et al. Molecular consequences of the ACVR1(R206H) mutation of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:22542-53 pubmed publisher
  50. Zamolyi R, Souza P, Nascimento A, Unni K. Intraabdominal myositis ossificans: a report of 9 new cases. Int J Surg Pathol. 2006;14:37-41 pubmed
    Intraabdominal myositis ossificans (IMO) is a rare benign disorder characterized by reactive bone formation in intraabdominal soft tissue that should be distinguished from a malignant condition...
  51. Micheli A, Trapani S, Brizzi I, Campanacci D, Resti M, de Martino M. Myositis ossificans circumscripta: a paediatric case and review of the literature. Eur J Pediatr. 2009;168:523-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Myositis ossificans circumscripta (MOC), characterised by non-neoplastic heterotopic bone formation in soft tissue and skeletal muscle, is rare in children...
  52. DE LA Peña L, Billings P, Fiori J, Ahn J, Kaplan F, Shore E. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), a disorder of ectopic osteogenesis, misregulates cell surface expression and trafficking of BMPRIA. J Bone Miner Res. 2005;20:1168-76 pubmed
  53. Fukuda T, Kanomata K, Nojima J, Kokabu S, Akita M, Ikebuchi K, et al. A unique mutation of ALK2, G356D, found in a patient with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is a moderately activated BMP type I receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;377:905-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The quantitative difference between ALK2(G356D) and ALK2(R206H) activities may have caused the phenotypic differences in these patients...
  54. Fukuda T, Kohda M, Kanomata K, Nojima J, Nakamura A, Kamizono J, et al. Constitutively activated ALK2 and increased SMAD1/5 cooperatively induce bone morphogenetic protein signaling in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:7149-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Gene transfer of Smad7 or inhibition of type I receptors with dorsomorphin may represent strategies for blocking the activity induced by ALK2(R206H) in FOP...
  55. Shen Q, Little S, Xu M, Haupt J, Ast C, Katagiri T, et al. The fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva R206H ACVR1 mutation activates BMP-independent chondrogenesis and zebrafish embryo ventralization. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:3462-72 pubmed publisher
  56. Kim D, Lazow S, Har El G, Berger J. Myositis ossificans traumatica of masticatory musculature: A case report and literature review. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002;60:1072-6 pubmed
  57. Shore E, Xu M, Feldman G, Fenstermacher D, Cho T, Choi I, et al. A recurrent mutation in the BMP type I receptor ACVR1 causes inherited and sporadic fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. Nat Genet. 2006;38:525-7 pubmed
    ..Protein modeling predicts destabilization of the GS domain, consistent with constitutive activation of ACVR1 as the underlying cause of the ectopic chondrogenesis, osteogenesis and joint fusions seen in FOP...
  58. Mokhtari M, Kumar P, Rezazadeh S. Confusing cytological findings in myositis ossificans. Acta Cytol. 2012;56:565-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Myositis ossificans (MO) is a rare non-neoplastic heterotopic ossification of soft tissue...
  59. Yamamoto R, Matsushita M, Kitoh H, Masuda A, Ito M, Katagiri T, et al. Clinically applicable antianginal agents suppress osteoblastic transformation of myogenic cells and heterotopic ossifications in mice. J Bone Miner Metab. 2013;31:26-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Fendiline, perhexiline, and their possible derivatives are potentially applicable to clinical practice to prevent devastating heterotopic ossification in FOP...
  60. Miller A, Davis B, Beckley O. Bilateral and recurrent myositis ossificans in an athlete: a case report and review of treatment options. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2006;87:286-90 pubmed
    An unusual case of recurrent myositis ossificans (MO) bilaterally in the hamstring muscles of a 47-year-old athlete secondary to trauma is presented with a review of the literature of current treatment options...
  61. Saussez S, Blaivie C, Lemort M, Chantrain G. Non-traumatic myositis ossificans in the paraspinal muscles. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2006;263:331-5 pubmed
    b>Myositis ossificans circumscripta (MOC) is a benign condition of heterotopic bone formation that remains difficult to distinguish from soft-tissue and bone malignancies...
  62. Kim J, Yoon Y, Baek W, Han J, Chu Y, Kim H. Myositis ossificans of the chest wall simulating malignant neoplasm. Ann Thorac Surg. 2000;70:1718-20 pubmed
    b>Myositis ossificans originating from the chest wall is extremely rare. We report a case of myositis ossificans occurring in a young woman with progressive painful swelling in the chest wall...
  63. Konishi E, Kusuzaki K, Murata H, Tsuchihashi Y, Beabout J, Unni K. Extraskeletal osteosarcoma arising in myositis ossificans. Skeletal Radiol. 2001;30:39-43 pubmed
    ..Radiologically, the bony mass had features characteristic of mature myositis ossificans, showing "eggshell" ossification...
  64. Chadha M, Agarwal A. Myositis ossificans traumatica of the hand. Can J Surg. 2007;50:E21-2 pubmed
  65. Wiggins R, Thurber D, Abramovitch K, Bouquot J, Vigneswaran N. Myositis ossificans circumscripta of the buccinator muscle: first report of a rare complication of mandibular third molar extraction. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;66:1959-63 pubmed publisher
  66. Ergun T, Lakadamyali H, Lakadamyali H, Gokay E. Myositis ossificans in the right inferior thoracic wall as an unusual cause of lower thoracic-upper abdominal pain: report of a case. Surg Today. 2008;38:962-4 pubmed publisher
    We report a case of thoracic wall myositis ossificans (MO) located anterior to the ninth rib, causing right lower thoracic-upper abdominal pain. The diagnosis was based on the findings of ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT)...
  67. Leithner A, Weinhaeusel A, Zeitlhofer P, Koch H, Radl R, Windhager R, et al. Evidence of a polyclonal nature of myositis ossificans. Virchows Arch. 2005;446:438-41 pubmed
    b>Myositis ossificans is a localized, self-limiting, reparative lesion that is composed of reactive hypercellular fibrous tissue and bone...
  68. McCarthy E, Sundaram M. Heterotopic ossification: a review. Skeletal Radiol. 2005;34:609-19 pubmed
    ..We review the genetic, neurogenic, post-traumatic, post-surgical and "reactive" causes of heterotopic ossification and discuss some current concepts of its pathogenesis...
  69. Yazici M, Etensel B, Gürsoy M, Aydogdu A, Erkus M. Nontraumatic myositis ossificans with an unusual location: case report. J Pediatr Surg. 2002;37:1621-2 pubmed
    b>Myositis ossificans is a pathologic entity rarely met, but still it must be kept in mind in differential diagnosis of a tender soft tissue swelling...
  70. Rajapakse B, Kiddle G. Calcifying haematoma mimicking a soft tissue sarcoma and myositis ossificans. ANZ J Surg. 2006;76:1027-9 pubmed
    ..The likely differential diagnosis of myositis ossificans and soft tissue sarcoma was worked up...
  71. Chaikuad A, Alfano I, Kerr G, Sanvitale C, Boergermann J, Triffitt J, et al. Structure of the bone morphogenetic protein receptor ALK2 and implications for fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:36990-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The presented ALK2 structure offers a valuable template for the further design of specific inhibitors of BMP signaling. ..
  72. Ratbi I, Bocciardi R, Regragui A, Ravazzolo R, Sefiani A. Rarely occurring mutation of ACVR1 gene in Moroccan patient with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. Clin Rheumatol. 2010;29:119-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, FOP has been associated with a specific mutation of ACVR1, the gene coding for a bone morphogenetic protein type I receptor. We report the case of a Moroccan patient with FOP carrying a rarely occurring mutation of ACVR1 gene. ..
  73. Gregson C, Hollingworth P, Williams M, Petrie K, Bullock A, Brown M, et al. A novel ACVR1 mutation in the glycine/serine-rich domain found in the most benign case of a fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva variant reported to date. Bone. 2011;48:654-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The mutant receptor is predicted to be hypersensitive to ligand stimulation rather than being constitutively active, consistent with the mild clinical phenotype. This case extends our understanding of the 'FOP-variant' syndrome. ..