Summary: Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.

Top Publications

  1. Yamasaki Y, Yamada H, Ohkubo M, Yamasaki M, Azuma K, Ogawa H, et al. Longterm survival and associated risk factors in patients with adult-onset idiopathic inflammatory myopathies and amyopathic dermatomyositis: experience in a single institute in Japan. J Rheumatol. 2011;38:1636-43 pubmed publisher
    ..To analyze clinical characteristics, survival, causes of death, and risk factors associated with mortality in patients with adult-onset idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) in Japan...
  2. Aggarwal R, Oddis C. Paraneoplastic myalgias and myositis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2011;37:607-21 pubmed publisher
    ..risk of cancer associated with PM is mildly increased Most cancers develop within one year of the onset of myositis, although the risk remains high up to 5 years after diagnosis...
  3. Soejima M, Kang E, Gu X, Katsumata Y, Clemens P, Ascherman D. Role of innate immunity in a murine model of histidyl-transfer RNA synthetase (Jo-1)-mediated myositis. Arthritis Rheum. 2011;63:479-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was therefore to examine the ability of HisRS to direct innate immune responses in a murine model of myositis.
  4. Zaid A, Rulli N, Rolph M, Suhrbier A, Mahalingam S. Disease exacerbation by etanercept in a mouse model of alphaviral arthritis and myositis. Arthritis Rheum. 2011;63:488-91 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was designed to test the effect of treating RRV-induced arthritis using the anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) drug etanercept in a mouse model of rheumatic disease...
  5. Coley W, Rayavarapu S, Pandey G, Sabina R, van der Meulen J, Ampong B, et al. The molecular basis of skeletal muscle weakness in a mouse model of inflammatory myopathy. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64:3750-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, it has been suggested that an acquired deficiency of AMP deaminase 1 (AMPD1) may be responsible for muscle weakness in myositis.
  6. Katzap E, Barilla Labarca M, Marder G. Antisynthetase syndrome. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2011;13:175-81 pubmed publisher
    ..AS is characterized by varying degrees of interstitial lung disease, myositis, arthropathy, fever, Raynaud's phenomenon, and mechanic's hands, and the morbidity and mortality of the disease ..
  7. Nakajima A, Yoshino K, Soejima M, Kawaguchi Y, Satoh T, Kuwana M, et al. High frequencies and co-existing of myositis-specific autoantibodies in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies overlapped to rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatol Int. 2012;32:2057-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical and laboratory data, including autoantibody test results, were collected from patient medical records. Myositis-specific antibodies (MSAs) were analyzed by immunoprecipitation...
  8. Kumar K, Guirgis M, Zieroth S, Lo E, Menkis A, Arora R, et al. Influenza myocarditis and myositis: case presentation and review of the literature. Can J Cardiol. 2011;27:514-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite common pathogens, concomitant myocarditis and myositis remains a rare event...
  9. Eyssette Guerreau S, Boize P, Thibault M, Sarda H. [Neonatal parechovirus infection, fever, irritability and myositis]. Arch Pediatr. 2013;20:772-4 pubmed publisher
    ..HPeV may cause severe disease in the neonatal period and patients presenting with such signs should be evaluated for HPeV. It also should be considered in sudden infant death syndrome. ..

More Information


  1. Rider L, Shah M, Mamyrova G, Huber A, Rice M, Targoff I, et al. The myositis autoantibody phenotypes of the juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Medicine (Baltimore). 2013;92:223-43 pubmed publisher
    ..subgroup phenotypes of JIIM, we compared demographics, clinical features, laboratory measures, and outcomes among myositis-specific autoantibody (MSA) subgroups, as well as with published data on adult idiopathic inflammatory myopathy ..
  2. Chinoy H, Li C, Platt H, Fertig N, Varsani H, Gunawardena H, et al. Genetic association study of NF-κB genes in UK Caucasian adult and juvenile onset idiopathic inflammatory myopathy. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2012;51:794-9 pubmed publisher
    ..After adjustment of the 8.1 HLA haplotype, NF-κB genes therefore do not independently confer susceptibility in IIM. ..
  3. Estublier C, Stankovic Stojanovic K, Bergerot J, Broussolle C, Seve P. Myositis in a patient with familial Mediterranean fever and spondyloarthritis successfully treated with anakinra. Joint Bone Spine. 2013;80:645-9 pubmed publisher
    ..He is homozygous for the M694I mutation in the MEFV gene. He subsequently developed myositis of the right quadriceps muscle confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging, electromyography and histology...
  4. Choudhary M, Metcalfe M, Arrambide K, Bern C, Visvesvara G, Pieniazek N, et al. Tubulinosema sp. microsporidian myositis in immunosuppressed patient. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:1727-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We report an infection by Tubulinosema sp. in an immunosuppressed patient...
  5. Young N, Sharma R, Friedman A, Kaffenberger B, Bolon B, Jarjour W. Aberrant muscle antigen exposure in mice is sufficient to cause myositis in a Treg cell-deficient milieu. Arthritis Rheum. 2013;65:3259-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Myositis is associated with muscle-targeted inflammation and is observed in some Treg cell-deficient mouse models...
  6. Higgs B, Liu Z, White B, Zhu W, White W, Morehouse C, et al. Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, myositis, rheumatoid arthritis and scleroderma share activation of a common type I interferon pathway. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011;70:2029-36 pubmed publisher
  7. Gunn B, Morrison T, Whitmore A, Blevins L, Hueston L, Fraser R, et al. Mannose binding lectin is required for alphavirus-induced arthritis/myositis. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002586 pubmed publisher
    ..River virus (RRV) are emerging pathogens capable of causing large-scale epidemics of virus-induced arthritis and myositis. The pathology of RRV-induced disease in both humans and mice is associated with induction of the host ..
  8. Perdivara I, Peddada S, Miller F, Tomer K, Deterding L. Mass spectrometric determination of IgG subclass-specific glycosylation profiles in siblings discordant for myositis syndromes. J Proteome Res. 2011;10:2969-78 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine whether a similar pattern is characteristic for the autoimmune disorder myositis, we analyzed the antibody subclass specific glycosylation in patients with myositis, their asymptomatic siblings, ..
  9. Betteridge Z, Gunawardena H, McHugh N. Novel autoantibodies and clinical phenotypes in adult and juvenile myositis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011;13:209 pubmed publisher
    ..These myositis-specific autoantibodies have been increasingly demonstrated to correlate with distinct clinical phenotypes within ..
  10. Solomon J, Swigris J, Brown K. Myositis-related interstitial lung disease and antisynthetase syndrome. J Bras Pneumol. 2011;37:100-9 pubmed
    In patients with myositis, the lung is commonly involved, and the presence of anti-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (anti-ARS) antibodies marks the presence or predicts the development of interstitial lung disease (ILD)...
  11. Benveniste O, Romero N. Myositis or dystrophy? Traps and pitfalls. Presse Med. 2011;40:e249-55 pubmed publisher
    Some hereditary myopathies can mimic acquired myositis especially when they first present in adulthood with a limb-girdle distribution of weakness...
  12. Zahr Z, Baer A. Malignancy in myositis. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2011;13:208-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Factors predictive of malignancy in myositis patients include more severe skin and muscle disease and the absence of overlap connective tissue disease ..
  13. Crescioli C, Sottili M, Bonini P, Cosmi L, Chiarugi P, Romagnani P, et al. Inflammatory response in human skeletal muscle cells: CXCL10 as a potential therapeutic target. Eur J Cell Biol. 2012;91:139-49 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we sustain that pharmacological targeting of CXCL10 within muscular cells might contribute to keep in control pro-Th1 polarization of the immune/inflammatory response...
  14. Alger H, Rayavarapu S, Nagaraju K. Measurement of activation of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response in autoimmune myositis. Methods Enzymol. 2011;489:207-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe common techniques such as western blotting, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and determination of mRNA levels for the gene of interest to monitor the ER stress in skeletal muscle tissues...
  15. Niu K, Zhang Y, Ro J. Effects of gonadal hormones on the peripheral cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) system under a myositis condition in rats. Pain. 2012;153:2283-91 pubmed publisher
    In this study, we assessed the effects of peripherally administered cannabinoids in an orofacial myositis model, and the role of sex hormones in cannabinoid receptor (CBR) expression in trigeminal ganglia (TG)...
  16. Kang E, Nakashima R, Mimori T, Kim J, Lee Y, Lee E, et al. Myositis autoantibodies in Korean patients with inflammatory myositis: anti-140-kDa polypeptide antibody is primarily associated with rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease independent of clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2010;11:223 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the association between myositis autoantibodies and clinical subsets of inflammatory myositis in Korean patients.
  17. Jones M, Armien A, Rothermel B, Pessier A. Granulomatous myositis associated with a novel alveolate pathogen in an adult southern leopard frog (Lithobates sphenocephalus). Dis Aquat Organ. 2012;102:163-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional morphologic and molecular phylogenetic research is needed to resolve the taxonomic status of this organism...
  18. Herrero L, Sheng K, Jian P, Taylor A, Her Z, Herring B, et al. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor receptor CD74 mediates alphavirus-induced arthritis and myositis in murine models of alphavirus infection. Arthritis Rheum. 2013;65:2724-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study was undertaken to characterize the role of CD74, a cell surface receptor of MIF, in both RRV- and CHIKV-induced alphavirus arthritides...
  19. Morrison T, Oko L, Montgomery S, Whitmore A, Lotstein A, Gunn B, et al. A mouse model of chikungunya virus-induced musculoskeletal inflammatory disease: evidence of arthritis, tenosynovitis, myositis, and persistence. Am J Pathol. 2011;178:32-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Histologic analysis of hind limb sections revealed severe necrotizing myositis, mixed inflammatory cell arthritis, chronic active tenosynovitis, and multifocal vasculitis...
  20. Spang C, Scott A, Danielson P, Lorentzon R, Forsgren S. VGluT2 and NMDAR1 expression in cells in the inflammatory infiltrates in experimentally induced myositis: evidence of local glutamate signaling suggests autocrine/paracrine effects in an overuse injury model. Inflammation. 2012;35:39-48 pubmed publisher
    It is not known whether a glutamate signaling system is involved in muscle inflammation (myositis)...
  21. Nistala K, Wedderburn L. Update in juvenile myositis. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2013;25:742-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This update on childhood idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) reviews recent progress in the field of translational science and clinical research over the past 12-18 months...
  22. Solana M, Ferrer M, Novoa M, Song W, Gomez R. Decay-accelerating factor 1 deficiency exacerbates Trypanosoma cruzi-induced murine chronic myositis. Muscle Nerve. 2012;46:582-7 pubmed publisher
    ..cruzi (Tc) has been used to study the role of T-cells in the pathogenesis of human inflammatory idiopathic myositis. Absence of decay-accelerating factor 1 (Daf1) has been shown to enhance murine T-cell responses and autoimmunity.
  23. Rulli N, Rolph M, Srikiatkhachorn A, Anantapreecha S, Guglielmotti A, Mahalingam S. Protection from arthritis and myositis in a mouse model of acute chikungunya virus disease by bindarit, an inhibitor of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 synthesis. J Infect Dis. 2011;204:1026-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a mouse model of CHIKV arthritis and myositis, we show that tumor necrosis factor-?, interferon-?, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) were dramatically ..
  24. Song Y, Stål P, Yu J, Forsgren S. Bilateral increase in expression and concentration of tachykinin in a unilateral rabbit muscle overuse model that leads to myositis. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2013;14:134 pubmed publisher
    ..expression of the substance P (SP)-preferred receptor, the neurokinin-1 receptor, in marked muscle inflammation (myositis)...
  25. Herrero L, Nelson M, Srikiatkhachorn A, Gu R, Anantapreecha S, Fingerle Rowson G, et al. Critical role for macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in Ross River virus-induced arthritis and myositis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:12048-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The prospect being that early treatment with MIF-blocking pharmaceuticals may curtail the debilitating arthritis associated with alphaviral infections...
  26. Higgs B, Zhu W, Richman L, Fiorentino D, Greenberg S, Jallal B, et al. Identification of activated cytokine pathways in the blood of systemic lupus erythematosus, myositis, rheumatoid arthritis, and scleroderma patients. Int J Rheum Dis. 2012;15:25-35 pubmed publisher
  27. Alger H, Raben N, Pistilli E, Francia D, Rawat R, Getnet D, et al. The role of TRAIL in mediating autophagy in myositis skeletal muscle: a potential nonimmune mechanism of muscle damage. Arthritis Rheum. 2011;63:3448-57 pubmed publisher
    ..cells are relatively resistant to classic apoptosis, and the factors initiating cell death and damage in myositis are not well defined. We hypothesized that nonimmune autophagic cell death may play a role in muscle fiber damage...
  28. Resman F, Svensjo T, Unal C, Cronqvist J, Brorson H, Odenholt I, et al. Necrotizing myositis and septic shock caused by Haemophilus influenzae type f in a previously healthy man diagnosed with an IgG3 and a mannose-binding lectin deficiency. Scand J Infect Dis. 2011;43:972-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We present here a dramatic case of Hif necrotizing myositis and septic shock...
  29. Carstens P, Schmidt J. Diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment of myositis: recent advances. Clin Exp Immunol. 2014;175:349-58 pubmed publisher
    Dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), necrotizing myopathy (NM) and inclusion body myositis (IBM) are four distinct subtypes of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies - in short myositis...
  30. Mimori T, Nakashima R, Hosono Y. Interstitial lung disease in myositis: clinical subsets, biomarkers, and treatment. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2012;14:264-74 pubmed publisher
    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the most frequent organ involvement (found in nearly half) of myositis patients, but it reveals various clinical courses and therapeutic responsiveness according to clinical and serological subsets...
  31. Tanizawa K, Handa T, Nakashima R, Kubo T, Hosono Y, Aihara K, et al. The prognostic value of HRCT in myositis-associated interstitial lung disease. Respir Med. 2013;107:745-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Polymyositis and dermatomyositis-associated interstitial lung disease (PM/DM-ILD) can have variable courses. We evaluated the prognostic value of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in PM/DM-ILD...
  32. Shah M, Mamyrova G, Targoff I, Huber A, Malley J, Rice M, et al. The clinical phenotypes of the juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Medicine (Baltimore). 2013;92:25-41 pubmed publisher
    ..been well studied, the other major clinical subgroups of JIIM, including juvenile polymyositis (JPM) and juvenile myositis overlapping with another autoimmune or connective tissue disease (JCTM), have not been well characterized, and ..
  33. Zhu W, Streicher K, Shen N, Higgs B, Morehouse C, Greenlees L, et al. Genomic signatures characterize leukocyte infiltration in myositis muscles. BMC Med Genomics. 2012;5:53 pubmed publisher
    Leukocyte infiltration plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of myositis, and is highly associated with disease severity...
  34. Tarricone E, Ghirardello A, Rampudda M, Bassi N, Punzi L, Doria A. Anti-SAE antibodies in autoimmune myositis: identification by unlabelled protein immunoprecipitation in an Italian patient cohort. J Immunol Methods. 2012;384:128-34 pubmed publisher
    b>Myositis specific autoantibodies (MSAs) are useful in the diagnosis of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies and in the definition of disease subsets...
  35. Lee H, Rocnik E, Fu Q, Kwon B, Zeng L, Walsh K, et al. Foxo/atrogin induction in human and experimental myositis. Neurobiol Dis. 2012;46:463-75 pubmed
    ..It is unknown if Atrogin upregulation also occurs in acquired human myositis. Intracellular ?-amyloid (A?i), phosphorylated neurofilaments, scattered infiltrates and atrophy involving ..
  36. Marie I, Hatron P, Dominique S, Cherin P, Mouthon L, Menard J, et al. Short-term and long-term outcome of anti-Jo1-positive patients with anti-Ro52 antibody. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2012;41:890-9 pubmed publisher
  37. Mall S, Buchholz U, Tibussek D, Jurke A, an der Heiden M, Diedrich S, et al. A large outbreak of influenza B-associated benign acute childhood myositis in Germany, 2007/2008. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30:e142-6 pubmed publisher
    Benign acute childhood myositis (BACM) is a rare syndrome associated with various viral infections. Bilateral calve pain may lead to inability to walk...
  38. Cappelletti C, Baggi F, Zolezzi F, Biancolini D, Beretta O, Severa M, et al. Type I interferon and Toll-like receptor expression characterizes inflammatory myopathies. Neurology. 2011;76:2079-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent evidence suggests a key role for type I interferon (IFN)-mediated innate immunity in dermatomyositis, which we explored in JDM, dermatomyositis, and PM by gene expression profiling, and other methods...
  39. Vangeel L, Houf K, Geldhof P, Nollet H, Vercruysse J, Ducatelle R, et al. Intramuscular inoculation of cattle with Sarcocystis antigen results in focal eosinophilic myositis. Vet Parasitol. 2012;183:224-30 pubmed publisher
    Bovine eosinophilic myositis (BEM) is a subclinical myopathy characterized by multifocal white to grey-green discolorations in skeletal muscles, heart, tongue and oesophagus...
  40. Zong M, Bruton J, Grundtman C, Yang H, Li J, Alexanderson H, et al. TLR4 as receptor for HMGB1 induced muscle dysfunction in myositis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2013;72:1390-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) acts to accelerate muscle fatigue development...
  41. Keller C, Fokken C, Turville S, Lünemann A, Schmidt J, MUNZ C, et al. TNF-alpha induces macroautophagy and regulates MHC class II expression in human skeletal muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:3970-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Muscle biopsies from patients with sporadic inclusion body myositis, a well defined myopathy with chronic inflammation, showed that over 20% of fibers that contained autophagosomes ..
  42. Paliwal V, Garg R, Juyal R, Husain N, Verma R, Sharma P, et al. Acute dengue virus myositis: a report of seven patients of varying clinical severity including two cases with severe fulminant myositis. J Neurol Sci. 2011;300:14-8 pubmed publisher
    Acute dengue myositis is characterized by fever and myalgia (with or without muscle weakness).
  43. García Casares E, Mateo Soria L, García Melchor E, Riera Alonso E, Olivé Marqués A, Holgado Pérez S, et al. Necrotizing fasciitis and myositis caused by streptococcal flesh-eating bacteria. J Clin Rheumatol. 2010;16:382-4 pubmed publisher
    Three types of group A streptococcal infections are particularly feared: necrotizing fasciitis, myositis, and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS)...
  44. Sathasivam S. Statin induced myotoxicity. Eur J Intern Med. 2012;23:317-24 pubmed publisher
    ..spectrum of statin induced myotoxicity includes asymptomatic rise in creatine kinase concentration, myalgia, myositis and rhabdomyolysis...
  45. Coley W, Rayavarapu S, Nagaraju K. Role of non-immune mechanisms of muscle damage in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Arthritis Res Ther. 2012;14:209 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that therapeutic strategies in IIMs should be directed at both immune and non-immune mechanisms of muscle damage...
  46. Loell I, Lundberg I. Can muscle regeneration fail in chronic inflammation: a weakness in inflammatory myopathies?. J Intern Med. 2011;269:243-57 pubmed publisher
    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs), collectively termed myositis, include three major subgroups: polymyositis, dermatomyositis and inclusion body myositis...
  47. Selva O Callaghan A, Trallero Araguas E, Grau Junyent J, Labrador Horrillo M. Malignancy and myositis: novel autoantibodies and new insights. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2010;22:627-32 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will address recent advances in our understanding of the relationship between cancer and myositis and describe new data regarding the best approach for cancer screening in myositis patients...
  48. Christopher Stine L, Casciola Rosen L, Hong G, Chung T, Corse A, MAMMEN A. A novel autoantibody recognizing 200-kd and 100-kd proteins is associated with an immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62:2757-66 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that these patients have an immune-mediated myopathy that is frequently associated with prior statin use and should be treated with immunosuppressive therapy. ..
  49. Briani C, Doria A, Sarzi Puttini P, Dalakas M. Update on idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Autoimmunity. 2006;39:161-70 pubmed
    ..features, three major diseases can be identified: dermatomyositis (DM); polymyositis (PM); and inclusion body myositis (IBM)...
  50. Chung Y, Alexanderson H, Pipitone N, Morrison C, Dastmalchi M, Ståhl Hallengren C, et al. Creatine supplements in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies who are clinically weak after conventional pharmacologic treatment: Six-month, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;57:694-702 pubmed
    ..Oral creatine supplements combined with home exercises improve functional performance without significant adverse effects in patients with polymyositis or dermatomyositis. They appear safe, effective, and inexpensive. ..
  51. Furlan A, Botsios C, Ruffatti A, Todesco S, Punzi L. Antisynthetase syndrome with refractory polyarthritis and fever successfully treated with the IL-1 receptor antagonist, anakinra: A case report. Joint Bone Spine. 2008;75:366-7 pubmed
  52. Betteridge Z, Gunawardena H, Chinoy H, North J, Ollier W, Cooper R, et al. Clinical and human leucocyte antigen class II haplotype associations of autoantibodies to small ubiquitin-like modifier enzyme, a dermatomyositis-specific autoantigen target, in UK Caucasian adult-onset myositis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2009;68:1621-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to establish the frequency of anti-SAE autoantibodies in a UK myositis cohort and investigate clinicoimmunogenetic associations...
  53. Yoshifuji H, Fujii T, Kobayashi S, Imura Y, Fujita Y, Kawabata D, et al. Anti-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase antibodies in clinical course prediction of interstitial lung disease complicated with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Autoimmunity. 2006;39:233-41 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, screening of anti-ARS may be useful to predict late-onset myopathy in ILD-preceding patients and to predict the clinical course of ILD in PM/DM patients. ..
  54. Hengstman G, Vree Egberts W, Seelig H, Lundberg I, Moutsopoulos H, Doria A, et al. Clinical characteristics of patients with myositis and autoantibodies to different fragments of the Mi-2 beta antigen. Ann Rheum Dis. 2006;65:242-5 pubmed
    To assess the clinical implications of autoantibodies directed against different parts of the Mi-2 beta autoantigen in patients with myositis.
  55. Lundberg I, Grundtman C. Developments in the scientific and clinical understanding of inflammatory myopathies. Arthritis Res Ther. 2008;10:220 pubmed publisher
    ..decade, novel information has accumulated supporting a role of both the innate and adaptive immune systems in myositis and suggesting that different molecular pathways predominate in different subsets of myositis...
  56. Baumeister S, Todorovic S, Milic Rasic V, Dekomien G, Lochmuller H, Walter M. Eosinophilic myositis as presenting symptom in gamma-sarcoglycanopathy. Neuromuscul Disord. 2009;19:167-71 pubmed publisher
    ..She was diagnosed with eosinophilic myositis after muscle biopsy...
  57. De Paepe B, Creus K, De Bleecker J. Role of cytokines and chemokines in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2009;21:610-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on the most recent data and the new insight they provide for the disease mechanisms of dermatomyositis, polymyositis and sporadic inclusion body myositis.
  58. Buss B, Shinde V, Safranek T, Uyeki T. Pediatric influenza-associated myositis - Nebraska, 2001-2007. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2009;3:277-85 pubmed publisher
    Influenza-associated myositis (IAM), characterized by severe lower-extremity myalgia and reluctance to walk, is a complication of influenza among children. We investigated IAM in Nebraska during six influenza seasons, 2001-2007.
  59. Shaheen D, Kim C. Myositis associated with the decline of thyroid hormone levels in thyrotoxicosis: a syndrome?. Thyroid. 2009;19:1413-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A confounding factor in these cases was that these patients were on antithyroid drugs that may also have direct effects on the muscle, irrespective of the rate of decline in thyroid hormone levels...
  60. Morrison T, Whitmore A, Shabman R, Lidbury B, Mahalingam S, Heise M. Characterization of Ross River virus tropism and virus-induced inflammation in a mouse model of viral arthritis and myositis. J Virol. 2006;80:737-49 pubmed
    ..These results establish the mouse model of RRV disease as a useful system for the identification of viral and host factors that contribute to alphavirus-induced arthritis and myositis.