intercostal muscles


Summary: Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Hudson A, Butler J, Gandevia S, De Troyer A. Interplay between the inspiratory and postural functions of the human parasternal intercostal muscles. J Neurophysiol. 2010;103:1622-9 pubmed publisher
    The parasternal intercostal muscles are obligatory inspiratory muscles...
  2. Berdah S, De Troyer A. Contribution of spindle reflexes to post-inspiratory activity in the canine external intercostal muscles. J Physiol. 2001;534:873-80 pubmed
    1. The external intercostal muscles have greater post-inspiratory activity than the parasternal intercostal muscles and are more abundantly supplied with muscle spindles...
  3. Meo S, Azeem M, Ghori M, Subhan M. Lung function and surface electromyography of intercostal muscles in cement mill workers. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2002;15:279-87 pubmed
    ..Therefore, in the present study spirometry and surface electromyography (SEMG) of intercostal muscles were used for indicating pulmonary impairment...
  4. De Troyer A. Interaction between the canine diaphragm and intercostal muscles in lung expansion. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2005;98:795-803 pubmed
    ..It is concluded, therefore, that the canine diaphragm and intercostal muscles act synergistically during lung expansion and that this synergism is primarily due to the fact that the ..
  5. Imaizumi Scherrer T, Faust D, Benichou J, Hellio R, Weiss M. Accumulation in fetal muscle and localization to the neuromuscular junction of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A regulatory and catalytic subunits RI alpha and C alpha. J Cell Biol. 1996;134:1241-54 pubmed
    ..In the adult, the C alpha hybridization signal of muscle is weak and homogeneous...
  6. De Troyer A, Kirkwood P, Wilson T. Respiratory action of the intercostal muscles. Physiol Rev. 2005;85:717-56 pubmed
    ..As a result, the external intercostals and the parasternal intercostals have an inspiratory function during breathing, whereas the internal interosseous intercostals and the triangularis sterni have an expiratory function...
  7. Unlu E, Temizoz O, Cagli B. Acquired spontaneous intercostal abdominal hernia: case report and a comprehensive review of the world literature. Australas Radiol. 2007;51:163-7 pubmed
    ..This study presents a review of the published literature that deals with this uncommon phenomenon, along with a discussion of our patient's clinical presentation and imaging findings...
  8. Barreiro E, Nowinski A, Gea J, Sliwinski P. Oxidative stress in the external intercostal muscles of patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. Thorax. 2007;62:1095-101 pubmed
    The external intercostal muscles are chronically exposed to increased inspiratory loading and to continuous hypoxia-reoxygenation cycles in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS)...
  9. Güerri R, Gayete A, Balcells E, Ramirez Sarmiento A, Vollmer I, Garcia Aymerich J, et al. Mass of intercostal muscles associates with risk of multiple exacerbations in COPD. Respir Med. 2010;104:378-88 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that a decrease in respiratory muscle mass is associated with increased risk of multiple hospital admissions due to acute exacerbations of the disease...

More Information

Publications105 found, 100 shown here

  1. DiMarco A, Kowalski K. Distribution of electrical activation to the external intercostal muscles during high frequency spinal cord stimulation in dogs. J Physiol. 2011;589:1383-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The spatial distribution of activation to the external intercostal muscles by this method is unknown...
  2. Yokoba M, Hawes H, Kieser T, Katagiri M, Easton P. Parasternal intercostal and diaphragm function during sleep. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2016;121:59-65 pubmed publisher
    Action of the uppermost medial internal intercostal muscles-the parasternals-during rapid eye movement (REM) is uncertain; no direct recordings exist of shortening of these muscles during sleep...
  3. Nonaka M, Kadokura M, Takaba T. Benign solitary fibrous tumor of the parietal pleura which invaded the intercostal muscle. Lung Cancer. 2001;31:325-9 pubmed
    ..The tumor originated from the parietal pleura at the level of the first three intercostal muscles and was excised completely in continuity with these muscles, including a margin of normal muscle...
  4. De Troyer A, Leduc D. Effect of diaphragmatic contraction on the action of the canine parasternal intercostals. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2006;101:169-75 pubmed
    The inspiratory intercostal muscles enhance the force generated by the diaphragm during lung expansion. However, whether the diaphragm also alters the force developed by the inspiratory intercostals is unknown...
  5. Allama A. Intercostal muscle flap for decreasing pain after thoracotomy: a prospective randomized trial. Ann Thorac Surg. 2010;89:195-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Intercostals muscle flap and intracostal sutures are rapid, safe, and effective procedures in decreasing early pain after thoracotomy with subsequent earlier return to normal daily activities and lesser use of analgesics. ..
  6. Darcy C, Smit J, Audolfsson T, Acosta R. Surgical technique: The intercostal space approach to the internal mammary vessels in 463 microvascular breast reconstructions. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2011;64:58-62 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no serious morbidity associated with the intercostal space approach, the internal mammary vessels were reliably and safely exposed in all these cases and the flap success rate was 95.8%. ..
  7. Depalma M, Pease W, Johnson E, Kadyan V. A novel technique for recording from the serratus anterior. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005;86:17-20 pubmed
    ..Stimulating the long thoracic nerve in the axilla will provide a reliable technique to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of long thoracic neuropathy. ..
  8. Ritz T, Meuret A, Bhaskara L, Petersen S. Respiratory muscle tension as symptom generator in individuals with high anxiety sensitivity. Psychosom Med. 2013;75:187-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Respiratory muscle tension may contribute to the respiratory sensations experienced by panic-prone individuals. Theories and treatments for panic disorder should consider this potential source of symptoms. ..
  9. Albi Feldzer A, Mouret Fourme E E, Hamouda S, Motamed C, Dubois P, Jouanneau L, et al. A double-blind randomized trial of wound and intercostal space infiltration with ropivacaine during breast cancer surgery: effects on chronic postoperative pain. Anesthesiology. 2013;118:318-26 pubmed publisher
    ..This multicenter, prospective study shows that ropivacaine wound infiltration after breast cancer surgery decreased immediate postoperative pain but did not decrease chronic pain at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. ..
  10. Friedenberg S, Hermann R. The breathing hand: obstetric brachial plexopathy reinnervation from thoracic roots?. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75:158-60 pubmed, the significance of respiratory synkinesis should not be overlooked as its presence indicates injury at a root or proximal trunk level and may come from either nerves destined for the diaphragm or for the intercostal muscles.
  11. Ghotbi R, Sotiriou A, Mlinaric M. [Incarcerated spontaneous intercostal hernia of the lung: a case report]. MMW Fortschr Med. 2005;147:37-8 pubmed
  12. Shamo on H, Hawamdah A, Haddadin R, Jmeian S. Detection of pneumonia among children under six years by clinical evaluation. East Mediterr Health J. 2004;10:482-7 pubmed
    ..We found that presence of tachypnoea and lower chest wall indrawing can detect most cases of pneumonia. If all clinical signs are negative, chest X-ray findings are unlikely to be positive. ..
  13. Schellekens W, van Hees H, Kox M, Linkels M, Acuña G, Dekhuijzen P, et al. Hypercapnia attenuates ventilator-induced diaphragm atrophy and modulates dysfunction. Crit Care. 2014;18:R28 pubmed publisher
    ..Incubation of MV?+?H diaphragm muscle fibers with the antioxidant dithiothreitol restored force generation of diaphragm fibers. Hypercapnia partly protects the diaphragm against adverse effects of mechanical ventilation. ..
  14. Ohno K, Hutchinson D, Milone M, Brengman J, Bouzat C, Sine S, et al. Congenital myasthenic syndrome caused by prolonged acetylcholine receptor channel openings due to a mutation in the M2 domain of the epsilon subunit. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:758-62 pubmed
    ..This observation raises the possibility that mutations involving subunits of other ligand-gated channels may also exist and be the basis of various other neurologic or psychiatric disorders. ..
  15. Hollaus P, Huber M, Lax F, Wurnig P, Bohm G, Pridun N. Closure of bronchopleural fistula after pneumonectomy with a pedicled intercostal muscle flap. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 1999;16:181-6 pubmed
    ..At postmortem examination the bronchial stump was closed. The use of the pedicled intercostal muscular flap is an efficient method for the closure of bronchopleural fistula after pneumonectomy. ..
  16. Ciccone A, Ibrahim M, D Andrilli A, Vismara L. Ossification of the intercostal muscle around the bronchial anastomosis does not jeopardize airway patency. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2006;29:602-3 pubmed
  17. Chiodo A, Goodmurphy C, Haig A. Cadaver evaluation of EMG needle insertion techniques used to target muscles of the thorax. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006;31:E241-3 pubmed
    ..However, in the cadaver, some risks were noted in association with placements in the intercostal muscles. The target muscle was reliably sampled, but the rib or vertebral level was difficult to landmark in the ..
  18. Towa R, Miller R, Frizzell L, Zachary J, O Brien W. Attenuation coefficient and propagation speed estimates of rat and pig intercostal tissue as a function of temperature. IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control. 2002;49:1411-20 pubmed
  19. De Troyer A, Wilson T. Effect of acute inflation on the mechanics of the inspiratory muscles. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009;107:315-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Lung inflation similarly impairs the pressure-generating capacity of the inspiratory intercostal muscles, both the parasternal intercostals and the external intercostals...
  20. Kawai H, Ito M. Intercostal artery pseudoaneurysm after thoracoscopic lung resection. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2009;57:550-2 pubmed publisher
    ..The pseudoaneurysm was diagnosed by computed tomography and successfully treated with aneurysmectomy with proximal artery ligation, removing the hematoma. She improved and was discharged 1 month later. ..
  21. Yacovone M, Kartan R, Bautista M. Intercostal artery laceration following thoracentesis. Respir Care. 2010;55:1495-8 pubmed
    ..Post-thoracentesis radiograph revealed a substantial increase in pleural fluid, and emergency chest tube insertion identified the hemothorax. He underwent right thoracotomy for repair of the intercostal artery laceration. ..
  22. De Troyer A. Respiratory effect of the lower rib displacement produced by the diaphragm. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2012;112:529-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In the first, all the inspiratory intercostal muscles were severed, so that the diaphragm was the only muscle active during inspiration, and the normal ..
  23. Wilson T, Angelillo M, Legrand A, De Troyer A. Muscle kinematics for minimal work of breathing. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1999;87:554-60 pubmed
    ..The minimal-work hypothesis was tested by measurement of the passive and active shortening of the internal intercostal muscles in the parasternal region of two interspaces in five supine anesthetized dogs...
  24. Yan L, Zhong S, Xu D. [Applied anatomy of the sensate latissimus dorsal muscular flap with the lateral posterior branch of the intercostal nerve]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2001;15:86-8 pubmed
    ..It is possible to design a sensate latissimus dorsal muscular flap with the 6th to 8th lateral posterior branch of the intercostal nerve. ..
  25. Pillai J, Pellet Y, Panagopoulos G, Sadek M, Abjigitova D, Weiss D, et al. Somatosensory-evoked potential-guided intercostal artery reimplantation in thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm surgery. Innovations (Phila). 2013;8:302-6 pubmed publisher
    ..004). No difference was observed in 30-day mortality between the SSEP and the non-SSEP group (3.9% vs. 7.6%, P = 0.48). The use of SSEP monitoring led to a significant decrease in the need for IAR without increasing the paraplegia rate. ..
  26. Zátopková L, Hejna P, Palmiere C, Teresiński G, Janik M. Hypothermia provokes hemorrhaging in various core muscle groups: how many of them could we have missed?. Int J Legal Med. 2017;131:1423-1428 pubmed publisher
    ..muscles (18 cases; 35%), and in other core muscular groups such as the diaphragm, cervical, pectoral, and intercostal muscles (11 cases; 22%)...
  27. De Troyer A. Relationship between neural drive and mechanical effect in the respiratory system. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2002;508:507-14 pubmed
    The actions of the canine external and internal interosseous intercostal muscles on the lung were assessed by applying the Maxwell reciprocity theorem...
  28. Da Rocha R, Vengjer A, Blanco A, de Carvalho P, Mongon M, Fernandes G. Size of the collateral intercostal artery in adults: anatomical considerations in relation to thoracocentesis and thoracoscopy. Surg Radiol Anat. 2002;24:23-6 pubmed
    ..In the modified technique, the puncture should be made in the middle of the intercostal space, thereby reducing the possibility of laceration of the collateral intercostal artery. ..
  29. Friedman M, DeSalle R. Mitochondrial DNA extraction and sequencing of formalin-fixed archival snake tissue. Mitochondrial DNA. 2008;19:433-7 pubmed
    ..We reiterate previous caution about minimizing amplicon size and maximizing controls for contamination when working with formalin-preserved reptile tissues. ..
  30. Helm E, Rahman N, Talakoub O, Fox D, Gleeson F. Course and variation of the intercostal artery by CT scan. Chest. 2013;143:634-639 pubmed publisher
    ..60; P < .001). The intercostal artery is exposed within the intercostal space in the first 6 cm lateral to the spine. The variability of its vertical position is greater in older patients and in more cephalad rib spaces. ..
  31. Worsnop C, Kay A, Kim Y, Trinder J, Pierce R. Effect of age on sleep onset-related changes in respiratory pump and upper airway muscle function. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2000;88:1831-9 pubmed
    ..15). The rise in GG at theta-to-alpha transitions was also greater in the older than in the younger men, and there was a trend for TP to be higher...
  32. Malikov S, Rosset E, Paraskevas N, Magnan P, Poirier M, Bartoli J, et al. Extraanatomical revascularization of the artery of Adamkiewicz: anatomical study. Ann Vasc Surg. 2002;16:723-9 pubmed
    ..This technique could be used to prevent spinal cord complications after treatment of descending thoracic or thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms. ..
  33. Buttagat V, Eungpinichpong W, Kaber D, Chatchawan U, Arayawichanon P. Acute effects of traditional Thai massage on electroencephalogram in patients with scapulocostal syndrome. Complement Ther Med. 2012;20:167-74 pubmed publisher
    ..051), indicating lower states of arousal with the TTM treatment. It is suggested that TTM provides acute neural effects that increase relaxation and decrease anxiety and pain intensity in patients with SCS. ..
  34. Reilly C, Jolley C, Ward K, Macbean V, Moxham J, Rafferty G. Neural respiratory drive measured during inspiratory threshold loading and acute hypercapnia in healthy individuals. Exp Physiol. 2013;98:1190-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the study was to examine and compare the recruitment pattern of the diaphragm and parasternal intercostal muscles when the respiratory system was loaded using two methods...
  35. De Troyer A, Gorman R, Gandevia S. Distribution of inspiratory drive to the external intercostal muscles in humans. J Physiol. 2003;546:943-54 pubmed
    The external intercostal muscles in humans show marked regional differences in respiratory effect, and this implies that their action on the lung during breathing is primarily determined by the spatial distribution of neural drive among ..
  36. Li H, Song Y, Dai S, Chen Q, Zhu L, Jing S. [An applied anatomy study on bronchial artery and posterior intercostal artery]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2003;34:711-2, 715 pubmed
    ..33 mm. Base on the above anatomic data, we deem it a reliable and appropriate way to infuse drugs into the third posterior intercostal artery at the midaxillary line for treating the advanced or intermediate-stage right lung cancers. ..
  37. DiMarco A, Takaoka Y, Kowalski K. Combined intercostal and diaphragm pacing to provide artificial ventilation in patients with tetraplegia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005;86:1200-7 pubmed
    ..on the ventral surface of the upper-thoracic spinal cord via a hemilaminectomy to activate the inspiratory intercostal muscles. A phrenic nerve electrode was implanted unilaterally via the thoracic approach...
  38. Mudera V, Morgan M, Cheema U, Nazhat S, Brown R. Ultra-rapid engineered collagen constructs tested in an in vivo nursery site. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2007;1:192-8 pubmed
    ..Post-implanted constructs were recovered and tested for host vascularization, inflammatory response and mechanical integrity. ..
  39. Ulku R, Onat S, Avci A, Ozmen C. Resection of intercostal hemangioma with involved chest wall and ribs: in an 11-year-old girl. Tex Heart Inst J. 2010;37:486-9 pubmed
    ..complete resection of the tumor, together with the right 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th ribs and their intercostal muscles. Reconstruction of the chest wall was performed with methyl methacrylate and Marlex mesh...
  40. de Weerd L, Kjæve J, Gurgia L, Weum S. A large abdominal intercostal hernia in a patient with vascular type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: a surgical challenge. Hernia. 2012;16:117-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The tissue friability and associated risks for arterial ruptures and visceral perforations in these patients make hernia repair challenging. The hernia was successfully treated using a novel approach. ..
  41. DiMarco A, Romaniuk J, Kowalski K, Supinski G. Mechanical contribution of expiratory muscles to pressure generation during spinal cord stimulation. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1999;87:1433-9 pubmed
    ..ablation of the external and internal obliques, transversus abdominis (TA), rectus abdominis, and internal intercostal muscles. Paw was monitored after tracheal occlusion...
  42. Chen R, Anastakis D, Haywood C, Mikulis D, Manktelow R. Plasticity of the human motor system following muscle reconstruction: a magnetic stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Clin Neurophysiol. 2003;114:2434-46 pubmed
    ..Brain reorganization may involve multiple processes mediated by different mechanisms and continues to evolve long after the initial injury. Central nervous system plasticity following neuromuscular injury may have functional relevance. ..
  43. Kwek B, Wain J, Aquino S. The radiologic appearance of intercostal muscle flap. Ann Thorac Surg. 2004;78:432-5 pubmed
    ..The ICMF manifests on CT as a thin, linear calcified stripe or parallel stripes with central fat or soft tissue density. Airway stenosis due to ICMF is likely quite rare. We did not detect any airway stenosis. ..
  44. Abbo O, Canizares F, Garrido I, Grolleau J, Chavoin J. [About a fatal infectious myositis: case report]. Ann Chir Plast Esthet. 2008;53:531-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The tomodensitometry showed typical lesions which induced an accurate management, but could not avoid the death of the patient because of major wounds and a poor general background. ..
  45. Gigliotti F, Binazzi B, Scano G. Does training of respiratory muscles affect exercise performance in healthy subjects?. Respir Med. 2006;100:1117-20 pubmed
  46. Nowinski A, Bieleń P, Jonczak L, Sliwiński P. [Influence of treatment with continuous positive airway pressure on respiratory muscle function and physical fitness in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea and overlap syndrome]. Pneumonol Alergol Pol. 2007;75:46-56 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CPAP treatment on respiratory muscle strength and exercise tolerance in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and overlap syndrome (OS)...
  47. Lent V. [Muscle and nerve sparing intercostal incision]. Aktuelle Urol. 2007;38:195-6 pubmed
  48. Toda K, Taniguchi K, Kainuma S, Yokota T. Novel technique for reimplantation of intercostal arteries using tailored patch graft. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2008;34:458-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that this novel technique is a simple method to obtain secure hemostasis under direct vision, which may contribute to reduce the risk of paraplegia during thoracoabdominal aneurysm repair...
  49. de Blas G, Burgos J, Regidor I, Barrios C, Solá R, García Urquiza S, et al. Recording diffusion responses from contralateral intercostal muscles after stimulus-triggered electromyography: refining a tool for the assessment of thoracic pedicle screw placement in an experimental porcine model. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009;34:E391-6 pubmed publisher
    A new stimulus-triggered electromyography (EMG) test for detecting stimulus diffusion to contralateral intercostal muscles during thoracic pedicle screw placement was assessed in a porcine model.
  50. De Troyer A. The action of the canine diaphragm on the lower ribs depends on activation. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2011;111:1266-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In the second experiment, all the inspiratory intercostal muscles were severed in 7 spontaneously breathing animals, so that the diaphragm was the only muscle active during ..
  51. DiMarco A, Kowalski K. Spinal pathways mediating phrenic activation during high frequency spinal cord stimulation. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2013;186:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that during upper thoracic HF-SCS, the phrenic motoneuron pools are activated via spinal pathways located in the lateral funiculus but UCI are not involved...
  52. Kara M, Dikmen E, Dizbay Sak S, Kavukcu S. Intercostal arteriovenous hemangioma. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2000;18:622-4 pubmed
    ..This tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the chest wall tumors. Complete surgical excision offers the best treatment...
  53. DiMarco A, Connors A, Kowalski K. Gas exchange during separate diaphragm and intercostal muscle breathing. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2004;96:2120-4 pubmed
    ..However, despite marked differences in the pattern of inspiratory muscle contraction, the distribution of ventilation remains well matched to pulmonary perfusion resulting in preservation of normal gas exchange...
  54. Tian J, Chen G, Xiao F, Ma J, Cai R. [Changes of energy metabolism in canine respiratory muscles after phrenic nerve transection]. Di Yi Jun Yi Da Xue Xue Bao. 2004;24:922-5 pubmed
    ..To examine the changes in energy metabolism in the respiratory muscles of canines with unilateral phrenic nerve transection using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
  55. Iizuka M. Rostrocaudal distribution of spinal respiratory motor activity in an in vitro neonatal rat preparation. Neurosci Res. 2004;50:263-9 pubmed
    ..Expiratory activity was evoked by decreasing perfusate pH from 7.4 to 7.1. All internal intercostal muscles (IIMs) in the first to eleventh intercostal spaces showed expiratory bursts...
  56. Lin Y, Cheng Y, Chang H, Lee S, Chen J. Education and imaging. Gastrointestinal: transdiaphragmatic intercostal hernia. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;22:2038 pubmed
  57. Deffieux X, Hubeaux K, Porcher R, Ismael S, Raibaut P, Amarenco G. External intercostal muscles and external anal sphincter electromyographic activity during coughing. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2008;19:521-4 pubmed
    ..Simultaneously, recordings of electromyographic activity of external intercostal muscles (EIC EMGi) and external anal sphincter (EAS EMGi) during coughing have been performed...
  58. Abeykoon O, Boyle A. Intercostal aneurysm causing massive haemothorax. Emerg Med J. 2007;24:781 pubmed
  59. Mell M, Wynn M, Reeder S, Tefera G, Hoch J, Acher C. A new intercostal artery management strategy for thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair. J Surg Res. 2009;154:99-104 pubmed publisher
  60. Hallock G. The island anterior intercostal artery perforator flap as another option for the difficult epigastric abdominal wound. Ann Plast Surg. 2009;63:414-7 pubmed publisher
  61. Sakuma N, Kamei T, Okamura H, Ishihara T, Matayoshi Y. Morphologic changes in intercostal muscle tissue associated with a viper (Agkistrodon halys blomhoffi) bite. Ultrastruct Pathol. 1996;20:249-54 pubmed
    ..On the 20th day, respiratory failure persisted, although she had recovered from renal failure. Intercostal muscles were obtained by biopsy on the 40th day after the bite...
  62. Amer K, Mahesh B, Ascione R. Pedicled intercostal muscle flap: a simple technique of closing pancreatico-pleural fistula from a thoracic approach. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2002;22:831-2 pubmed
    ..This simple technique was successful in closing the fistula and helping control the sepsis...
  63. Gandevia S, Hudson A, Gorman R, Butler J, De Troyer A. Spatial distribution of inspiratory drive to the parasternal intercostal muscles in humans. J Physiol. 2006;573:263-75 pubmed
    The human parasternal intercostal muscles are obligatory inspiratory muscles with a diminishing mechanical advantage from cranial to caudal interspaces...
  64. Gea J, Galdiz J, Comtois N, Zhu E, Fiz J, Salazkin I, et al. [Diaphragmatic response is influenced by previous muscle activity]. Arch Bronconeumol. 2008;44:671-8 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the maximum pressure produced by the diaphragm after different series of spontaneous near-to-maximal isometric contractions...
  65. Kim H, Seon H, Choi S, Jang N. Ruptured aneurysm of intercostal arteriovenous malformation associated with neurofibromatosis type 1: a case report. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2011;34 Suppl 2:S74-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report the first case of a ruptured aneurysm of intercostal AVM associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 in a 32-year-old woman who experienced hypovolemic shock caused by massive hemothorax...
  66. Bayram A, Ozcan M, Kaya F, Gebitekin C. Rib approximation without intercostal nerve compression reduces post-thoracotomy pain: a prospective randomized study. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2011;39:570-4 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the most important considerations in the care of thoracic surgery patients is the control of pain, which leads to increased morbidity and relevant mortality...
  67. Hudson A, Butler J, Gandevia S, De Troyer A. Role of the diaphragm in trunk rotation in humans. J Neurophysiol. 2011;106:1622-8 pubmed publisher
    ..EMG activity was simultaneously recorded from the parasternal intercostal muscles on the right side...
  68. Kulik A, Kondrat eva L. [Combined effects of hypoxia and hypercapnia on the functional state of the respiratory center]. Biull Eksp Biol Med. 1975;79:39-43 pubmed
    ..was made of pulse activity of bulbar respiratory neurons, electrical activity of the diaphragm and of the intercostal muscles; pO2, pCO2, pH, arterial blood oxygen saturation were determined in combined action of hypoxia and ..
  69. Bernard N, Matecki S, Py G, Lopez S, Mercier J, Capdevila X. Effects of prolonged mechanical ventilation on respiratory muscle ultrastructure and mitochondrial respiration in rabbits. Intensive Care Med. 2003;29:111-8 pubmed
    ..To investigate in rabbits whether prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) leads to ultrastructural changes in respiratory muscles and alters diaphragm mitochondrial respiration...
  70. Evans D. Contribution of somitic cells to the avian ribs. Dev Biol. 2003;256:114-26 pubmed
    ..Results also indicate that the precursor cells of the ribs and intercostal muscles are intimately associated within the somite, a relationship that may be essential for proper rib ..
  71. Sfyridis P, Kapetanakis E, Baltayiannis N, Bolanos N, Anagnostopoulos D, Markogiannakis A, et al. Bronchial stump buttressing with an intercostal muscle flap in diabetic patients. Ann Thorac Surg. 2007;84:967-71 pubmed
    ..Diabetic patients exhibit a high propensity for postpneumonectomy complications, particularly BPF. This study evaluated the use of an intercostal muscle flap to reinforce the bronchus in high-risk diabetic patients after pneumonectomy...
  72. Sander B, Dieck T, Homrighausen F, Tschan C, Steffens J, Raymondos K. Electromagnetic ventilation: first evaluation of a new method for artificial ventilation in humans. Muscle Nerve. 2010;42:305-10 pubmed publisher
    ..5 +/- 5.0 L/min; 1200 V, 14.0 +/- 4.9 L/min). This first evaluation of electromagnetic ventilation demonstrates that it can be used to ventilate humans sufficiently. This method may be developed to a new mode of ventilation...
  73. Murphy P, Kumar A, Reilly C, Jolley C, Walterspacher S, Fedele F, et al. Neural respiratory drive as a physiological biomarker to monitor change during acute exacerbations of COPD. Thorax. 2011;66:602-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It was hypothesised that lack of a fall in neural respiratory drive would identify patients at risk of treatment failure and early hospital readmission...
  74. Ogawa R, Hyakusoku H, Murakami M, Aoki R, Tanuma K, Pennington D. An anatomical and clinical study of the dorsal intercostal cutaneous perforators, and application to free microvascular augmented subdermal vascular network (ma-SVN) flaps. Br J Plast Surg. 2002;55:396-401 pubmed
    ..The clinical application of microvascular augmented SVN flaps, both pedicled and free, is presented...
  75. Ke H, Lee S, Tzao C, Chang H, Liao G, Cheng Y. Spontaneous massive haemothorax caused by rupture of an intercostal vein. Emerg Med J. 2006;23:e49 pubmed
    ..The total blood loss was about 4000 ml. The patient recovered uneventfully, and her condition at follow up visits to the outpatient department was satisfactory...
  76. Kiehn M, Heckman W, Osaki S, Kohmoto T. Intercostal muscle flap reconstruction and primary sternal closure for mediastinal abscess. Ann Thorac Surg. 2008;86:304-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Three days after the initial débridement and vacuum-assisted closure treatment, successful reconstruction was performed using an intercostal muscle flap and primary sternal closure, without recurrent infection...
  77. Maniwa T, Saito Y, Saito T, Kaneda H, Imamura H. Ossification does not cause any complication when a bronchial stump is reinforced with an intercostal muscle flap. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2009;35:435-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous reports have suggested that such ossification requires a functional periosteum and good vascularization. We examined the background of ICM flap ossification and its relationship with complications and pain after surgery...
  78. Cowie B, McGlade D, Ivanusic J, Barrington M. Ultrasound-guided thoracic paravertebral blockade: a cadaveric study. Anesth Analg. 2010;110:1735-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared a single- versus dual-injection technique for ultrasound-guided paravertebral blockade in a cadaver model, evaluating the spread of contrast dye and location of a catheter...
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    ..We repaired the herniation by approximating the ribs with heavy stitches. The mechanism of intercostal muscle disruption, and the etiology and treatment of lung herniations, are discussed...
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    ..Pretreatment with pyridostigmine bromide (PB) of human intercostal muscle fibers exposed to the irreversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor soman was investigated...
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    ..In patients with persistent pain after breast implant placement, plastic surgeons must be aware of this treatable cause of pain...
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    ..This study demonstrates that MIP-2 and MCP-1 are stimulated in serum and tissue of T. spiralis infected mice and 4-DPD-treated animals significantly inhibited them...
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    ..To describe an operative method for the repair of electric burn wound in the upper limbs with lateral intercostal perforator-based pedicled flap, and to observe its clinical effect...
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    ..Intramuscular hook electrodes, model microstimulators (M-Micro) developed in our laboratory, and commercial radiofrequency microstimulators (RFM) (Alfred Mann Foundation, Valencia, CA), were employed in this investigation...
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    ..Our results suggest that the hinge plate is effective in preventing an intercostal muscle strip at the hinge points and may play a crucial role in expanding the minimally-invasive technique to adult pectus excavatum...
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    ..An open posterior or posterolateral approach to the thoracic spine is required for intradural tumors to allow the dura to be closed adequately...