upper esophageal sphincter

Summary

Summary: The structure at the pharyngoesophageal junction consisting chiefly of the CRICOPHARYNGEUS MUSCLE. It normally occludes the lumen of the ESOPHAGUS, except during SWALLOWING.

Top Publications

  1. Zaninotto G, Marchese Ragona R, Briani C, Costantini M, Rizzetto C, Portale G, et al. The role of botulinum toxin injection and upper esophageal sphincter myotomy in treating oropharyngeal dysphagia. J Gastrointest Surg. 2004;8:997-1006 pubmed
    ..Surgical myotomy of the upper esophageal sphincter was performed when dysphagia persisted after two BoTox injections...
  2. Moerman M. Cricopharyngeal Botox injection: indications and technique. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;14:431-6 pubmed
    ..Botulinum injection is a widespread technique for treating oropharyngeal dysphagia although there are no standards or guidelines. Based on the literature review we try to make some recommendations...
  3. Watanabe Y, Sakihara T, Mukuda T, Ando M. Antagonistic effects of vasotocin and isotocin on the upper esophageal sphincter muscle of the eel acclimated to seawater. J Comp Physiol B. 2007;177:867-73 pubmed
    ..are fish analogues of mammalian oxytocin and vasopressin respectively, were examined in the isolated upper esophageal sphincter (UES) muscle. IT relaxed and VT constricted the UES muscle in a concentration-dependent manner...
  4. Tokashiki R, Funato N, Suzuki M. Globus sensation and increased upper esophageal sphincter pressure with distal esophageal acid perfusion. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;267:737-41 pubmed publisher
    ..determine whether acid perfusion into the distal esophagus causes a globus sensation and an increase in upper esophageal sphincter (UES) pressure. UES pressures were measured using a sleeve-type sensor in 20 healthy volunteers. A 0...
  5. Murry T, Wasserman T, Carrau R, Castillo B. Injection of botulinum toxin A for the treatment of dysfunction of the upper esophageal sphincter. Am J Otolaryngol. 2005;26:157-62 pubmed
    The objective was to evaluate changes in swallow safety and dietary status after the transcutaneous injection of botulinum toxin A into the upper esophageal sphincter in a series of outpatients with dysphagia.
  6. Kos M, David E, Aalders I, Smit C, Mahieu H. Long-term results of laryngeal suspension and upper esophageal sphincter myotomy as treatment for life-threatening aspiration. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2008;117:574-80 pubmed
    We evaluated the long-term results of laryngeal suspension and upper esophageal sphincter (UES) myotomy in patients with life-threatening aspiration.
  7. Butler S, Stuart A, Castell D, Russell G, Koch K, Kemp S. Effects of age, gender, bolus condition, viscosity, and volume on pharyngeal and upper esophageal sphincter pressure and temporal measurements during swallowing. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2009;52:240-53 pubmed publisher
    ..10 mL); age (i.e., young vs. older adults); and gender on pharyngeal (i.e., upper and lower) and upper esophageal sphincter (UES) pressures, durations, and onsets (i.e...
  8. Kuribayashi S, Massey B, Hafeezullah M, Perera L, Hussaini S, Tatro L, et al. Upper esophageal sphincter and gastroesophageal junction pressure changes act to prevent gastroesophageal and esophagopharyngeal reflux during apneic episodes in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Chest. 2010;137:769-76 pubmed publisher
    ..However, pressure changes in the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) pressure during OSA events have not been measured...
  9. Babaei A, Bhargava V, Mittal R. Upper esophageal sphincter during transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation: effects of reflux content and posture. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;298:G601-7 pubmed publisher
    Although some studies show that the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) contracts during transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (TLESR), others show that it relaxes...

More Information

Publications102 found, 100 shown here

  1. Kawamura O, Easterling C, Rittmann T, Hofmann C, Shaker R. Optimal stimulus intensity and reliability of air stimulation technique for elicitation of laryngo-upper esophageal sphincter contractile reflex. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2005;114:223-8 pubmed
    To determine the optimal air stimulus intensity and duration for elicitation of the laryngo-upper esophageal sphincter (UES) contractile reflex, we studied 37 healthy volunteers 20 to 81 years of age...
  2. Bajaj J, Bajaj S, Dua K, Jaradeh S, Rittmann T, Hofmann C, et al. Influence of sleep stages on esophago-upper esophageal sphincter contractile reflex and secondary esophageal peristalsis. Gastroenterology. 2006;130:17-25 pubmed
    Airways are most vulnerable to aspiration during sleep. Esophago-upper esophageal sphincter (UES) contractile reflex (EUCR) and secondary peristalsis (2P) have been proposed to protect the airway by reflexively contracting the UES and ..
  3. Jadcherla S, Gupta A, Stoner E, Fernandez S, Shaker R. Pharyngeal swallowing: defining pharyngeal and upper esophageal sphincter relationships in human neonates. J Pediatr. 2007;151:597-603 pubmed
    ..the sensorimotor characteristics of the reflexes evoked on stimulation with air and water infusions differ by studying the effect of pharyngeal stimulation on pharyngeal-upper esophageal sphincter (UES) interactions in healthy neonates.
  4. Kwiatek M, Mirza F, Kahrilas P, Pandolfino J. Hyperdynamic upper esophageal sphincter pressure: a manometric observation in patients reporting globus sensation. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009;104:289-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to quantify the timing and magnitude of respiratory variation in upper esophageal sphincter (UES) pressure with high-resolution manometry (HRM) in patients with globus sensation, normal controls, ..
  5. Hirai T, Matsumoto H, Iki K, Hirabayashi Y, Kawabe Y, Ikeda M, et al. Lower esophageal sphincter- and vagus-preserving proximal partial gastrectomy for early cancer of the gastric cardia. Surg Today. 2006;36:874-8 pubmed
    ..One patient had some localized erosion near the anastomosis. This simple and safe technique does not result in post-gastrectomy syndrome or microgastria, and the risk of leaving cancer cells is minimal. ..
  6. Pinna B, Herbella F, De Biase N, Vaiano T, Patti M. High-Resolution Manometry Evaluation of Pressures at the Pharyngo-upper Esophageal Area in Patients with Oropharyngeal Dysphagia Due to Vagal Paralysis. Dysphagia. 2017;32:657-662 pubmed publisher
    The motility of the pharynx, upper esophageal sphincter (UES), and proximal esophagus in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia is still not entirely understood...
  7. Davis D, Nowicki M, Giles H. Cricopharyngeal achalasia responsive to balloon dilation in an infant. South Med J. 2005;98:472-4 pubmed
    ..The infant responded to balloon dilation of the upper esophageal sphincter, with resolution of symptoms and return to presymptomatic growth parameters...
  8. Mullan G, Lee M, Clarke P. Botulinum neurotoxin for management of intractable central leakage through a voice prosthesis in surgical voice restoration. J Laryngol Otol. 2006;120:789-92 pubmed
    ..The effect was to eliminate the leakage, and the patient did not require further injections over the following 22 months. ..
  9. Jadcherla S, Gupta A, Stoner E, Fernandez S, Caniano D, Rudolph C. Neuromotor markers of esophageal motility in feeding intolerant infants with gastroschisis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2008;47:158-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, the characteristics of swallowing, upper esophageal sphincter (UES), esophageal body, and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) were evaluated during basal state and upon ..
  10. Boeckxstaens G, Beaumont H, Mertens V, Denison H, Ruth M, Adler J, et al. Effects of lesogaberan on reflux and lower esophageal sphincter function in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Gastroenterology. 2010;139:409-17 pubmed publisher
  11. Umihanić Å, Brkić F, Umihanić Å, Hodźić S. Foreign body impaction in esophagus: experiences at Ear-Nose-Throat Clinic in Tuzla, 2003-2013. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg. 2015;25:214-8 pubmed publisher
    ..6%). Foreign bodies impacted in the upper esophageal sphincter in 87.5% of children and in 66.7% of adults...
  12. Kromin A, Dvoenko E, Zenina O. Reflection of the State of Hunger in Impulse Activity of Nose Wing Muscles and Upper Esophageal Sphincter during Search behavior in Rabbits. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2016;161:327-33 pubmed publisher
    Reflection of the state of hunger in impulse activity of nose wing muscles and upper esophageal sphincter muscles was studied in chronic experiments on rabbits subjected to 24-h food deprivation in the absence of locomotion and during ..
  13. Bitnar P, Stovicek J, Andel R, Arlt J, Arltová M, Smejkal M, et al. Leg raise increases pressure in lower and upper esophageal sphincter among patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2016;20:518-24 pubmed publisher
    ..this study was to determine the relation between posturally increased intra-abdominal pressure and lower/upper esophageal sphincter pressure changes in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease...
  14. Passaretti S, Mazzoleni G, Vailati C, Testoni P. Oropharyngeal acid reflux and motility abnormalities of the proximal esophagus. World J Gastroenterol. 2016;22:8991-8998 pubmed
    ..Significant differences were found in the median upper esophageal sphincter resting pressure (median 71 mmHg vs 126 mmHg, P = 0...
  15. Lee W, Chun C, Seo H, Lee S, Oh B. STAMPS: development and verification of swallowing kinematic analysis software. Biomed Eng Online. 2017;16:120 pubmed publisher
    ..maxilla, and cervical vertebral bodies), cartilages (epiglottis and arytenoid), soft tissues (larynx and upper esophageal sphincter), and food bolus...
  16. Hu Z, Wang Z, Wu J, Tian S, Zhang Y, Zhan X, et al. [Relationship between the severity of reflux esophagitis and the esophageal motility features on high resolution manometry]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2017;97:3306-3311 pubmed publisher
    ..Nonparametric test was used to analyze the differences in HRM parameters, such as upper esophageal sphincter (UES) pressure, lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure, LES length, LES-CD (crural diaphragm) ..
  17. Akbayir N, Sokmen H, Calis A, Bolukbas C, Erdem L, Alkim C, et al. Heterotopic gastric mucosa in the cervical esophagus: could this play a role in the pathogenesis of laryngopharyngeal reflux in a subgroup of patients with posterior laryngitis?. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2005;40:1149-56 pubmed
    ..esophagus, instead of gastric acid, may be responsible for laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR), passing the upper esophageal sphincter. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HGMP in the proximal esophagus in patients ..
  18. Duke R, Conley S. Botulinum toxin as treatment for a unique case of subcutaneous emphysema. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2007;71:353-6 pubmed
    ..The subcutaneous emphysema gradually improved and the patient was discharged home. His subcutaneous emphysema has not returned after four total botulinum toxin injections every 3 months...
  19. Wei X, Yu F, Dai M, Xie C, Wan G, Wang Y, et al. Change in Excitability of Cortical Projection After Modified Catheter Balloon Dilatation Therapy in Brainstem Stroke Patients with Dysphagia: A Prospective Controlled Study. Dysphagia. 2017;32:645-656 pubmed publisher
    ..Thirty patients with upper esophageal sphincter (UES) dysfunction due to unilateral brainstem stroke were recruited into two groups...
  20. Zepeda Gomez S, Montano Loza A, Valdovinos F, Schmulson M, Valdovinos M. Endoscopic balloon catheter dilation for treatment of primary cricopharyngeal dysfunction. Dig Dis Sci. 2004;49:1612-4 pubmed
  21. Wang A, Kadkade R, Kahrilas P, Hirano I. Effectiveness of esophageal dilation for symptomatic cricopharyngeal bar. Gastrointest Endosc. 2005;61:148-52 pubmed
    ..CP bar is an important cause of dysphagia in elderly patients. Esophageal dilation of a CP bar can produce long-term relief of dysphagia. ..
  22. Logemann J. The role of exercise programs for dysphagia patients. Dysphagia. 2005;20:139-40 pubmed
  23. Doeltgen S, Witte U, Gumbley F, Huckabee M. Evaluation of manometric measures during tongue-hold swallows. Am J Speech Lang Pathol. 2009;18:65-73 pubmed publisher
    ..8 years, gender equally distributed) were recorded at 3 locations: oropharynx, hypopharynx, and upper esophageal sphincter (UES), during normal control and tongue-hold swallows...
  24. de Leon A, Thörn S, Ottosson J, Wattwil M. Body positions and esophageal sphincter pressures in obese patients during anesthesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2010;54:458-63 pubmed publisher
    The lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) play a central role in preventing regurgitation and aspiration...
  25. Argolo N, Sampaio M, Pinho P, Melo A, Nóbrega A. Videofluoroscopic Predictors of Penetration-Aspiration in Parkinson's Disease Patients. Dysphagia. 2015;30:751-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Using logistic marginal regression, we found that residue in the vallecula, residue in the upper esophageal sphincter and piecemeal deglutition were associated with penetration-aspiration (odds ratio (OR) = 4.09, 2...
  26. Sze W, Yoon W, Escoffier N, Rickard Liow S. Evaluating the Training Effects of Two Swallowing Rehabilitation Therapies Using Surface Electromyography--Chin Tuck Against Resistance (CTAR) Exercise and the Shaker Exercise. Dysphagia. 2016;31:195-205 pubmed publisher
    ..were developed to strengthen the suprahyoid muscles, whose contractions facilitate the opening of the upper esophageal sphincter, thereby improving bolus transfer...
  27. Kim Y, McCullough G, Asp C. Temporal measurements of pharyngeal swallowing in normal populations. Dysphagia. 2005;20:290-6 pubmed
    ..No gender differences were observed. These data on normal subjects will be used for comparisons with stroke patients in future research. ..
  28. Pandolfino J, Ghosh S, Zhang Q, Han A, Kahrilas P. Upper sphincter function during transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation (tLOSR); it is mainly about microburps. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2007;19:203-10 pubmed
    ..Whether or not GORD patients with extra-oesophageal symptoms exhibit an exaggeration of the UOS relaxation response during reflux is yet to be determined...
  29. Takashima M. [Upper esophageal sphincter bolus flow laterality after unilateral neck dissection]. Kokubyo Gakkai Zasshi. 2010;77:1-6 pubmed
    The unilateral bolus passage through the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) is often observed in swallow evaluations of patients following neck dissection...
  30. Rofes L, Arreola V, Romea M, Palomera E, Almirall J, Cabre M, et al. Pathophysiology of oropharyngeal dysphagia in the frail elderly. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2010;22:851-8, e230 pubmed publisher
    ..157 +/- 0.013 s) upper esophageal sphincter opening (0.200 +/- 0.011 s), and maximal vertical hyoid motion (0.310 +/- 0...
  31. Gumbley F, Huckabee M, Doeltgen S, Witte U, Moran C. Effects of bolus volume on pharyngeal contact pressure during normal swallowing. Dysphagia. 2008;23:280-5 pubmed publisher
    ..cross-sectional study investigated the effect of bolus volume on contact pressure within the pharynx and upper esophageal sphincter (UES)...
  32. Babaei A, Venu M, Naini S, Gonzaga J, Lang I, Massey B, et al. Impaired upper esophageal sphincter reflexes in patients with supraesophageal reflux disease. Gastroenterology. 2015;149:1381-91 pubmed publisher
    Normal responses of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) and esophageal body to liquid reflux events prevent esophagopharyngeal reflux and its complications, however, abnormal responses have not been characterized...
  33. Omari T, Jones C, HAMMER M, Cock C, Dinning P, Wiklendt L, et al. Predicting the activation states of the muscles governing upper esophageal sphincter relaxation and opening. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016;310:G359-66 pubmed publisher
    The swallowing muscles that influence upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening are centrally controlled and modulated by sensory information...
  34. Moazzez R, Anggiansah A, Bartlett D. The association of acidic reflux above the upper oesophageal sphincter with palatal tooth wear. Caries Res. 2005;39:475-8 pubmed
    ..In this group of patients presenting with symptoms of reflux, gastric acid passed through the upper oesophageal sphincter and increased the potential for erosion. ..
  35. Smukalla S, Dimitrova I, Feintuch J, Khan A. Dysphagia in the Elderly. Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol. 2017;15:382-396 pubmed publisher
    ..the treatment of specific causes of oropharyngeal dysphagia, including endoscopic balloon dilations for upper esophageal sphincter (UES) dysfunction, show promise and are expected to enhance with further research...
  36. Ding H, Duan Z, Yang D, Zhang Z, Wang L, Sun X, et al. High-resolution manometry in patients with and without globus pharyngeus and/or symptoms of laryngopharyngeal reflux. BMC Gastroenterol. 2017;17:109 pubmed publisher
    ..a) The average resting and residual pressures of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) in the G-NR group was higher than in the NG-NR and NG-R groups (P?<?0.05)...
  37. Bardan E, Kern M, Arndorfer R, Hofmann C, Shaker R. Effect of aging on bolus kinematics during the pharyngeal phase of swallowing. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006;290:G458-65 pubmed
    ..Image analysis showed that velocity varied as the pellet passed through the hypopharynx, pharynx, and upper esophageal sphincter. In young subjects, pellet kinematics were characterized by two zones of pellet acceleration: one over ..
  38. Halum S, Shemirani N, Merati A, Jaradeh S, Toohill R. Electromyography findings of the cricopharyngeus in association with ipsilateral pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2006;115:312-6 pubmed
    ..This outcome does not support theories indicating that the recurrent laryngeal nerve innervates the CP muscle in all cases. ..
  39. Steele C, Huckabee M. The influence of orolingual pressure on the timing of pharyngeal pressure events. Dysphagia. 2007;22:30-6 pubmed
  40. van den Engel Hoek L, de Swart B, Erasmus C, de Groot I. Is head balance a major determinant for swallowing problems in patients with spinal muscular atrophy type 2?. J Child Neurol. 2008;23:919-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The videofluoroscopic swallow study showed a late upper esophageal sphincter opening with hypopharyngeal residue, more with solid food than with thin liquid...
  41. Visosky A, Parke R, Donovan D. Endoscopic management of Zenker's diverticulum: factors predictive of success or failure. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2008;117:531-7 pubmed
    ..We review our experience with endoscopic management of Zenker's diverticulum. We sought to analyze and determine risk factors for success or failure of endoscopic diverticulum treatment...
  42. Huntley C, Boon M, Spiegel J. Open vs. endoscopic cricopharyngeal myotomy; Is there a difference?. Am J Otolaryngol. 2017;38:405-407 pubmed publisher
    The upper esophageal sphincter (UES) is composed largely of the cricopharyngeus muscle (CP) and acts as the gatekeeper to the esophagus...
  43. Mei L, Jiao H, Sharma T, Dua A, Sanvanson P, Jadcherla S, et al. Comparative effect of the sites of anterior cervical pressure on the geometry of the upper esophageal sphincter high-pressure zone. Laryngoscope. 2017;127:2466-2474 pubmed publisher
    External cricoid pressure is increasingly used to augment the upper esophageal sphincter (UES)...
  44. Ferris L, Rommel N, Doeltgen S, Scholten I, Kritas S, Abu Assi R, et al. Pressure-Flow Analysis for the Assessment of Pediatric Oropharyngeal Dysphagia. J Pediatr. 2016;177:279-285.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..Individual measures of pharyngeal and upper esophageal sphincter (UES) function and a swallow risk index composite score were derived for each swallow, and averaged data ..
  45. Kendall K, Leonard R, McKenzie S. Airway protection: evaluation with videofluoroscopy. Dysphagia. 2004;19:65-70 pubmed
    ..This study evaluates the timing of supraglottic closure relative to the arrival of the bolus at the upper esophageal sphincter in 60 young control subjects and in 63 elderly control subjects without dysphagia...
  46. Hind J, Nicosia M, Gangnon R, Robbins J. The effects of intraoral pressure sensors on normal young and old swallowing patterns. Dysphagia. 2005;20:249-53 pubmed
    ..to the presence of the pressure sensors were slight increases in residue in the oral cavity and upper esophageal sphincter with some bolus consistencies, 8% more frequent trace penetration of the laryngeal vestibule ..
  47. Bardan E, Kern M, Torrico S, Arndorfer R, Massey B, Shaker R. Radial asymmetry of the upper oesophageal sphincter pressure profile: fact or artefact. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2006;18:418-24 pubmed
  48. Morse C, Fernando H, Ferson P, Landreneau R, Luketich J. Preliminary experience by a thoracic service with endoscopic transoral stapling of cervical (Zenker's) diverticulum. J Gastrointest Surg. 2007;11:1091-4 pubmed
    ..0 after OS. The time to oral intake was 1.38 days in the ES group and 1.29 days in the OS group (p = 0.80). We conclude that ES is feasible and can be performed with shorter operative times and comparable short-term results to OS...
  49. Mu L, Sanders I. Neuromuscular specializations within human pharyngeal constrictor muscles. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2007;116:604-17 pubmed
    ..This study tested the hypothesis that adult human PCs are divided into 2 distinct and specialized layers: a slow inner layer (SIL), innervated by the glossopharyngeal (IX) nerve, and a fast outer layer (FOL), innervated by nerve X...
  50. Gokyigit M, Pazarci N, Ercan I, Seker S, Turgut S, Ertekin C. Identification of distinct swallowing patterns for different bolus volumes. Clin Neurophysiol. 2009;120:1750-4 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the time interval between glottic closure and the opening of upper esophageal sphincter during swallowing, by means of the coupling of electromyographical (EMG) recordings on the thyroarytenoid (TA) and the cricopharyngeus (..
  51. Prades J, Timoshenko A, Asanau A, Gavid M, Benakki H, Dubois M, et al. [The cricopharyngeal muscle and the laryngeal nerves: contribution to the functional anatomy of swallowing]. Morphologie. 2009;93:35-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of our study has been to describe the cricopharyngeal muscle and its nerve supply from the recurrent laryngeal nerve and from the superior laryngeal nerve...
  52. Hirai H, Omura K, Harada H, Tohara H. Sequential evaluation of swallowing function in patients with unilateral neck dissection. Head Neck. 2010;32:896-904 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it is unknown whether neck dissection can cause dysphagia. The aim of this study was to evaluate swallowing function after neck dissection...
  53. Ertekin C, Secil Y, Yuceyar N, Aydogdu I. Oropharyngeal dysphagia in polymyositis/dermatomyositis. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2004;107:32-7 pubmed
    ..The EMG of cricopharyngeal muscle of the upper esophageal sphincter was also recorded in 10 patients...
  54. Yip H, Leonard R, Kendall K. Cricopharyngeal myotomy normalizes the opening size of the upper esophageal sphincter in cricopharyngeal dysfunction. Laryngoscope. 2006;116:93-6 pubmed
    ..However, little objective data exists to show that there is improvement in the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) after CP myotomy. This study assesses the impact of CP myotomy on UES opening.
  55. Lee S, Park H, Chang J, Conklin J. Generation of nitric oxide in the opossum lower esophageal sphincter during physiological experimentation. Yonsei Med J. 2006;47:223-9 pubmed
    ..iNOS and nitrotyrosine were detectable and increased over time in the LES muscle of both the control and LPS-treated groups. Antioxidant enzymes may play a role in regulating NO-mediated neuromuscular functions in the LES...
  56. Bhasin D, Rana S, Chandail V, Nanda M, Nadkarni N, Masoodi I, et al. Endoscopic examination of the upper esophagus by withdrawal of endoscope over guide wire. Trop Gastroenterol. 2006;27:172-4 pubmed
  57. Bhayani M, MacCracken E, Frim D, Baroody F. Prolonged cricopharyngeal muscle spasm after resection of the cervical vagus nerve in a 15-year-old. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2008;44:71-4 pubmed
    ..We present a case in which these two complications resulted in significant dysphagia and aspiration, which improved with expectant management...
  58. Bajbouj M, Becker V, Eckel F, Miehlke S, Pech O, Prinz C, et al. Argon plasma coagulation of cervical heterotopic gastric mucosa as an alternative treatment for globus sensations. Gastroenterology. 2009;137:440-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the efficacy of this therapy in a randomized, controlled multicenter trial...
  59. Seidl R, Nahrstaedt H, Schauer T. [Electric stimulation in dysphagia therapy--a review]. Laryngorhinootologie. 2009;88:768-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In the article we introduce the anatomical and physiological premises for the method. In a critical analysis the present state of art is represented, the clinical results are checked and the chances for the future are examined...
  60. Nielsen R, Husby S, Kruse Andersen S. Premature closure of the upper esophageal sphincter as a cause of severe deglutition disorder in infancy. J Pediatr Surg. 2005;40:721-4 pubmed
    ..Manometry results showed normal resting tone and relaxation but premature closure of the upper esophageal sphincter. The infant was treated with balloon dilatation of the upper esophageal sphincter and expectance...
  61. McLean T, Haller C. Stapled diverticulectomy and myotomy for symptomatic Zenker's diverticulum. Am J Surg. 2006;192:e28-31 pubmed
    ..Few surgeons have extensive experience with the operative management of Zenker's diverticulum (ZD)...
  62. Móricz P, Gerlinger I, Solt J, Somogyvári K, Pytel J. Voice prosthesis insertion after endoscopic balloon-catheter dilatation in case of a stenotic hypopharyngo-oesophageal junction. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2007;264:1441-5 pubmed
    ..Insertion of a voice prosthesis into a previously dilated ischemic jejunal segment is challenging and avoidable due to risks of complications...
  63. Bian R, Choi I, Kim J, Han J, Lee S. Impaired opening of the upper esophageal sphincter in patients with medullary infarctions. Dysphagia. 2009;24:238-45 pubmed publisher
    ..on videofluoroscopic swallowing studies in patients with lateral medullary infarctions were impaired upper esophageal sphincter opening, aspiration from pyriform sinuses' residue caused by pharyngeal weakness, and multiple ..
  64. Blonski W, Vela M, Freeman J, Sharma N, Castell D. The effect of oral buspirone, pyridostigmine, and bethanechol on esophageal function evaluated with combined multichannel esophageal impedance-manometry in healthy volunteers. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2009;43:253-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of oral pyridostygmine (60 mg), buspirone (20 mg), and bethanechol (25 mg) on esophageal function assessed by combined multichannel intraluminal impedance-esophageal manometry...
  65. Masiero S, Padoan E, Bazzi M, Ponzoni A. Dysphagia due to diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis: an analysis of five cases. Rheumatol Int. 2010;30:681-5 pubmed publisher
    ..were mechanical compression of the pharyngeal lumen associated with abnormal epiglottic tilt, incomplete upper esophageal sphincter openings and epiglottic/vallecula stasis...
  66. Belafsky P, Rees C, Allen J, Leonard R. Pharyngeal dilation in cricopharyngeus muscle dysfunction and Zenker diverticulum. Laryngoscope. 2010;120:889-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The association between prolonged obstruction at the level of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) and dilation and diminished contractility of the pharynx is uncertain...
  67. Schönweiler R, Raap M. [The management of dysphagia -- part 2: therapy]. Laryngorhinootologie. 2005;84:55-62; quiz 63-6 pubmed
    ..Weakening of the upper esophageal sphincter with botulinum toxin is reserved for patients with structural stenosis or a relative hyperfunction of ..
  68. Strek P, Lorens K, Modrzejewski M, Składzień J, Szybist N, Belowska J, et al. [Manometric analysis of the oral and pharyngeal phases of the act of swallowing]. Otolaryngol Pol. 2001;55:587-92 pubmed
  69. Lucendo Villarín A, Carrión Alonso G, Navarro Sanchez M, Martín Chávarri S, Gomez Senent S, Castillo Grau P, et al. Eosinophilic esophagitis in adults, an emerging cause of dysphagia. Description of 9 cases. Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2005;97:229-39 pubmed
    ..It is characterized by intense infiltration of eosinophilic leukocytes in the esophageal mucosa, without involvement of other sections of the alimentary canal...
  70. Garner J, Schweinfurth J, May W, Faust J. The transnasal esophagoscopy documentation dilemma. Laryngoscope. 2007;117:1143-5 pubmed
  71. Shemirani N, Halum S, Merati A, Toohill R, Jaradeh S. Cricopharyngeal electromyography: patterns of injury based on etiology. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;137:792-7 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to review a large series of CP-EMG studies, and compare the CP-EMG results with the patients' diagnoses...
  72. Lupaşcu C, Tarcoveanu E, Chifan M, Moldovanu R, Plesa C, Crumpei F, et al. [Zenker's diverticulum--surgical management in a series of six cases]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2004;108:397-402 pubmed
    ..The current principles of surgical management includes a pharyngoesophageal myotomy accompanied by a diverticulectomy or a diverticulopexy. The same principles apply in both open approach and the endoscopic methods...
  73. Hiss S, Huckabee M. Timing of pharyngeal and upper esophageal sphincter pressures as a function of normal and effortful swallowing in young healthy adults. Dysphagia. 2005;20:149-56 pubmed
    ..These findings offer insight as to the potential positive and negative influence of the effortful swallow on pharyngeal timing...
  74. Lipan M, Reidenberg J, Laitman J. Anatomy of reflux: a growing health problem affecting structures of the head and neck. Anat Rec B New Anat. 2006;289:261-70 pubmed
    ..incursion of reflux: the gastroesophageal junction, esophageal motor function and acid clearance, the upper esophageal sphincter, and pharyngeal and laryngeal mucosal resistance...
  75. Wang Q, Xu S, Tu L, Liu Y, Zhang M. Anatomic continuity of longitudinal pharyngeal and esophageal muscles. Laryngoscope. 2007;117:282-7 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the superior attachments of the longitudinal esophageal muscle...
  76. Mu L, Su H, Wang J, Sanders I. Myosin heavy chain-based fiber types in the adult human cricopharyngeus muscle. Muscle Nerve. 2007;35:637-48 pubmed
    ..Determination of MHC expression patterns of the CP muscle fibers is critical for evaluating the contractile properties of the sphincter...
  77. Davis M, Merati A, Jaradeh S, Blumin J. Myosin heavy chain composition and fiber size of the cricopharyngeus muscle in patients with achalasia and normal subjects. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2007;116:643-6 pubmed
    ..These parameters have not been described in CA. It is hypothesized that there is a difference between the MHC isoform composition of the CPM in patients with the clinical diagnosis of CA and that in normal subjects...
  78. Johnson D, Gray S, Smith M, Kelly S. Vocal fold paralysis and progressive cricopharyngeal stenosis reversed by cricopharyngeal myotomy. J Pediatr Surg. 2004;39:1715-8 pubmed
    ..The potential reversibility of both vocal paralysis and esophageal stenosis by surgical cricopharyngeal myotomy is of significant clinical importance...
  79. Crema E, Oliveira R, Werneck A, Pastore R, Martins Junior A, Silva A. [Manometric evaluation of upper esophageal sphincter in patients with indeterminate form of Chagas' disease]. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2006;39:156-8 pubmed
    The objective was to study the disorders of upper esophageal sphincter in 37 patients with indeterminate clinical form of Chagas' disease. Eighty (48.6%) patients with synchronic waves were found...
  80. Lindén M, Högosta S, Norlander T. Monitoring of pharyngeal and upper esophageal sphincter activity with an arterial dilation balloon catheter. Dysphagia. 2007;22:81-8 pubmed
    In patients with dysphagia and radiologic signs of dysfunction of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES), manometry is helpful in giving a better understanding of muscular activity during swallowing...
  81. Szczesniak M, Fuentealba S, Burnett A, Cook I. Differential relaxation and contractile responses of the human upper esophageal sphincter mediated by interplay of mucosal and deep mechanoreceptor activation. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008;294:G982-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of acid-sensitive esophageal mucosal chemoreceptors upregulates the UES contractile response, suggestive of a protective mechanism...
  82. Schreiber S, Garten D, Sudhoff H. Pathophysiological mechanisms of extraesophageal reflux in otolaryngeal disorders. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;266:17-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Transient upper esophageal sphincter relaxations are discussed as the pathophysiological mechanism, as the resting tone of the upper ..
  83. Eastwood P, Katagiri S, Shepherd K, Hillman D. Modulation of upper and lower esophageal sphincter tone during sleep. Sleep Med. 2007;8:135-43 pubmed
    The pressures generated within the upper esophageal sphincter (P(UES)) and lower esophageal sphincter (P(LES)) reflect the integrity of these barriers to gastroesophageal and pharyngoesophageal reflux, respectively...
  84. Daniels S, Schroeder M, DeGeorge P, Corey D, Rosenbek J. Effects of verbal cue on bolus flow during swallowing. Am J Speech Lang Pathol. 2007;16:140-7 pubmed
    ..To examine the effects of verbal cuing to initiate swallowing on bolus flow measures in healthy adults...
  85. Takasaki K, Umeki H, Enatsu K, Tanaka F, Sakihama N, Kumagami H, et al. Investigation of pharyngeal swallowing function using high-resolution manometry. Laryngoscope. 2008;118:1729-32 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel high-resolution manometry system, and to establish normal values of swallowing pressures along the velopharynx and upper esophagus...
  86. de Leon A, Thorn S, Wattwil M. High-resolution solid-state manometry of the upper and lower esophageal sphincters during anesthesia induction: a comparison between obese and non-obese patients. Anesth Analg. 2010;111:149-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The lower esophageal sphincter and the upper esophageal sphincter play a central role in preventing regurgitation and aspiration...
  87. Basseri B, Conklin J, Pimentel M, Tabrizi R, Phillips E, Simsir S, et al. Esophageal motor dysfunction and gastroesophageal reflux are prevalent in lung transplant candidates. Ann Thorac Surg. 2010;90:1630-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated LTx candidates for esophageal motor abnormalities and gastroesophageal reflux...
  88. Mittal R, Liu J, Puckett J, Bhalla V, Bhargava V, Tipnis N, et al. Sensory and motor function of the esophagus: lessons from ultrasound imaging. Gastroenterology. 2005;128:487-97 pubmed
    ..The principles of high-frequency intraluminal ultrasound described here are also applicable to study of the motor and sensory function of the other regions of the gastrointestinal tract...
  89. Laguna D, Gonzalez F. Calcification of the posterior cricoid lamina simulating a foreign body in the aerodigestive tract (2005:11b). Eur Radiol. 2006;16:515-7 pubmed
    ..There is also a discussion about the role of radiology in the detection of foreign bodies in the aerodigestive tract...
  90. Gawrieh S, Carroll T, Hogan W, Soergel K, Shaker R. Swallow syncope in association with Schatzki ring and hypertensive esophageal peristalsis: report of three cases and review of the literature. Dysphagia. 2005;20:273-7 pubmed
    ..Swallow syncope usually follows a benign course from a cardiac standpoint. Placement of a demand cardiac pacemaker can prevent recurrence of presyncopal and syncopal attacks and their untoward consequences...
  91. Gupta D, Agarwal A, Nath S, Goswami D, Saraswat V, Singh P. Inflation with air via a facepiece for facilitating insertion of a nasogastric tube: a prospective, randomised, double-blind study. Anaesthesia. 2007;62:127-30 pubmed
    ..001). In four patients receiving inflation, a fibreoptic endoscope was passed as far as the upper oesophageal sphincter; this revealed opening of the upper oesophageal sphincter during inflation...
  92. Salem M, Bruninga K, Dodlapatii J, Joseph N. Metoclopramide does not attenuate cricoid pressure-induced relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter in awake volunteers. Anesthesiology. 2008;109:806-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors examined the influence of metoclopramide on cricoid pressure-induced relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) in awake human volunteers...