pharyngeal muscles


Summary: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.

Top Publications

  1. Sundman E, Ansved T, Margolin G, Kuylenstierna R, Eriksson L. Fiber-type composition and fiber size of the human cricopharyngeal muscle and the pharyngeal constrictor muscle. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2004;48:423-9 pubmed
  2. Kelly R, Jerome Majewska L, Papaioannou V. The del22q11.2 candidate gene Tbx1 regulates branchiomeric myogenesis. Hum Mol Genet. 2004;13:2829-40 pubmed
    ..While no abnormalities in branchiomeric myogenesis were detected in Tbx1(+/-) mice, reduced TBX1 levels may contribute to pharyngeal hypotonia in del22q11.2 patients...
  3. Schoofs A, Niederegger S, Spiess R. From behavior to fictive feeding: anatomy, innervation and activation pattern of pharyngeal muscles of Calliphora vicina 3rd instar larvae. J Insect Physiol. 2009;55:218-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The corresponding pharyngeal muscles are protractors, mouth hook elevators and depressors, the labial retractor and cibarial dilator muscles...
  4. Singh S, Mistry S, Jefferson S, Davies K, Rothwell J, Williams S, et al. A magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of brain glutamate in a model of plasticity in human pharyngeal motor cortex. Gastroenterology. 2009;136:417-24 pubmed publisher
  5. Zim S, Schelper R, Kellman R, Tatum S, Ploutz Snyder R, Shprintzen R. Thickness and histologic and histochemical properties of the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle in velocardiofacial syndrome. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2003;5:503-10 pubmed
    ..Pharyngeal hypotonia, one of the most common findings in VCFS, contributes to hypernasal speech, which occurs in approximately 75% of individuals with VCFS...
  6. Mörck C, Rauthan M, Wagberg F, Pilon M. pha-2 encodes the C. elegans ortholog of the homeodomain protein HEX and is required for the formation of the pharyngeal isthmus. Dev Biol. 2004;272:403-18 pubmed
    ..The present report is the first to examine the expression and function of an invertebrate Hex homolog, that is, the C. elegans pha-2 gene...
  7. Taniguchi H, Tsukada T, Ootaki S, Yamada Y, Inoue M. Correspondence between food consistency and suprahyoid muscle activity, tongue pressure, and bolus transit times during the oropharyngeal phase of swallowing. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008;105:791-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, pharyngeal bolus transit is not dependent on the hardness of food but on its viscosity...
  8. Stolfi A, Gainous T, Young J, Mori A, Levine M, Christiaen L. Early chordate origins of the vertebrate second heart field. Science. 2010;329:565-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the last common ancestor of tunicates and vertebrates possessed multipotent cardiopharyngeal muscle precursors, and that their reallocation might have contributed to the emergence of the SHF...
  9. Gidaro T, Negroni E, Perie S, Mirabella M, Laine J, Lacau St Guily J, et al. Atrophy, fibrosis, and increased PAX7-positive cells in pharyngeal muscles of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy patients. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2013;72:234-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Primary muscular targets of OPMD are the eyelid elevator and pharyngeal muscles, including the cricopharyngeal muscle (CPM), the progressive involution of which leads to ptosis and ..

More Information

Publications104 found, 100 shown here

  1. Jayasekeran V, Pendleton N, Holland G, Payton A, Jefferson S, Michou E, et al. Val66Met in brain-derived neurotrophic factor affects stimulus-induced plasticity in the human pharyngeal motor cortex. Gastroenterology. 2011;141:827-836.e1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined whether this SNP influenced outcomes of different forms of neurostimulation applied to the pharyngeal motor cortex...
  2. Michou E, Mistry S, Jefferson S, Singh S, Rothwell J, Hamdy S. Targeting unlesioned pharyngeal motor cortex improves swallowing in healthy individuals and after dysphagic stroke. Gastroenterology. 2012;142:29-38 pubmed publisher
  3. Horner R. Motor control of the pharyngeal musculature and implications for the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep. 1996;19:827-53 pubmed
  4. Malhotra A, Trinder J, Fogel R, Stanchina M, Patel S, Schory K, et al. Postural effects on pharyngeal protective reflex mechanisms. Sleep. 2004;27:1105-12 pubmed
    ..We speculate that this mechanism works to prevent pharyngeal occlusion when the upper airway is most vulnerable to collapse eg, during supine sleep. ..
  5. Warner A, Qadota H, Benian G, Vogl A, Moerman D. The Caenorhabditis elegans paxillin orthologue, PXL-1, is required for pharyngeal muscle contraction and for viability. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:2551-63 pubmed publisher
    ..allele of pxl-1, ok1483, shows that loss of paxillin leads to early larval arrested animals with paralyzed pharyngeal muscles and eventual lethality, presumably due to an inability to feed...
  6. Tarnowska C, Teresińska E, Matyja G, Wasilewska M. [Morphology and function of the pharyngoesophageal segment]. Otolaryngol Pol. 2002;56:537-42 pubmed
    ..The significance of the knowledge of the pes innervation in clinical practice is important for prognosis in mastering of supplementary, esophageal and shunt phonation. ..
  7. Yahagi R, Okuda Akabane K, Fukami H, Matsumoto N, Kitada Y. Facilitation of voluntary swallowing by chemical stimulation of the posterior tongue and pharyngeal region in humans. Neurosci Lett. 2008;448:139-42 pubmed publisher
  8. Holmgaard R, Jakobsen L. Cervical spondylodiscitis--a rare complication of palatopharyngeal flap surgery. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2008;45:674-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the spondylodiscitis may have occurred as a result of a local infection in and around the surgical wound in the posterior pharyngeal wall. ..
  9. Alfonsi E, Merlo I, Ponzio M, Montomoli C, Tassorelli C, Biancardi C, et al. An electrophysiological approach to the diagnosis of neurogenic dysphagia: implications for botulinum toxin treatment. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2010;81:54-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This electrophysiological method can recognise swallowing abnormalities which may affect the outcome of the therapeutic approach to dysphagia with BTX treatment. ..
  10. Tian X, Zhao J, Lv M. [Diagnosis and treatment of the primary cricopharyngeal achalasia]. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2010;24:403-5 pubmed
    ..Surgical treatment is the best option. Partial resection of cricopharyngeal muscle and upper esophageal ring-shaped muscle is superior to simple cricopharyngeal myotomy. ..
  11. Gomes F, Secaf M, Kubo T, Dantas R. Oral and pharyngeal transit of a paste bolus in Chagas' disease. Dysphagia. 2008;23:82-7 pubmed
    ..80 s, n = 6). We conclude that when swallowing a paste bolus, patients with Chagas' disease may have an increased amount of oral residue and a longer pharyngeal clearance duration than asymptomatic volunteers. ..
  12. Chone C, Seixas V, Andreollo N, Quagliato E, Barcelos I, Spina A, et al. Computerized manometry use to evaluate spasm in pharyngoesophageal segment in patients with poor tracheoesophageal speech before and after treatment with botulinum toxin. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;75:182-7 pubmed
    ..We observed a reduction in PES pressure after BT injection, seen through CM in all the patients, with spasms improvement seen through videofluoroscopy. ..
  13. Hwang K, Kim D, Hwang S. Microscopic relation of palatopharyngeus with levator veli palatini and superior constrictor. J Craniofac Surg. 2009;20:1591-3 pubmed publisher
    ..There were close attachment between the PP and SC.A detailed understanding of the microscopic relationship between the levator veli palatini, PP, and SC muscle is desirable for performing pharyngeal flap surgeries. ..
  14. Helton W, Unnikrishnan R, Gal T. Cervical esophageal perforation and cricopharyngeal dysfunction. Ear Nose Throat J. 2011;90:E8-E10 pubmed
    ..We present a rare and fatal case of spontaneous perforation of the cervical esophagus in a 68-year-old woman. We believe this rupture was related to a proximal outlet obstruction secondary to cricopharyngeal muscle dysfunction. ..
  15. Barnes M, Ho A, Malhotra P, Koltai P, Messner A. The use of botulinum toxin for pediatric cricopharyngeal achalasia. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2011;75:1210-4 pubmed
    ..Botulinum toxin appears to be a safe and effective option in the management of primary cricopharyngeal achalasia in children, and may prevent the need for myotomy. ..
  16. Patnaik U, Nilakantan A, Shrivastava T. Anatomical variations of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve in relation to the inferior constrictor muscle: cadaveric dissection study. J Laryngol Otol. 2012;126:907-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, there is no justification for attempting to identify the nerve in all cases. ..
  17. Chun R, Sitton M, Tipnis N, Arvedson J, Rao A, Dranove J, et al. Endoscopic cricopharyngeal myotomy for management of cricopharyngeal achalasia (CA) in an 18-month-old child. Laryngoscope. 2013;123:797-800 pubmed publisher
    ..Pediatric CPA treatment options consist of dilation, botox, and transcervical CPM. To our knowledge, this is the youngest patient treated with endoscopic CPM. Intraoperative video and photographs are presented. ..
  18. Shaker R, Sanvanson P, Balasubramanian G, Kern M, Wuerl A, Hyngstrom A. Effects of laryngeal restriction on pharyngeal peristalsis and biomechanics: Clinical implications. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016;310:G1036-43 pubmed publisher
    To date, rehabilitative exercises aimed at strengthening the pharyngeal muscles have not been developed due to the inability to successfully overload and fatigue these muscles during their contraction, a necessary requirement for strength ..
  19. Kollara L, Schenck G, Jaskolka M, Perry J. Examining a New Method to Studying Velopharyngeal Structures in a Child With 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2017;60:892-896 pubmed publisher
    ..2 DS. The imaging protocol described in this study presents an effective means to counteract difficulties in imaging young children. ..
  20. Ryan C, Bradley T. Pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2005;99:2440-50 pubmed
    ..Further elucidation of specific pathogenic mechanisms in individuals with OSA may facilitate the development of new therapies that can be tailored to individual patient needs according to the underlying mechanism(s) of their disease. ..
  21. Baillard C. [Incidence and complications of post operative residual paralysis]. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2009;28 Suppl 2:S41-5 pubmed publisher
    ..associated with a decrease in chemoreceptor sensitivity to hypoxia and with a functional impairment of the pharyngeal muscles. These residual effects of neuromuscular blocking agents promote insufficient ventilatory response to ..
  22. Bhide S, Kazi R, Newbold K, Harrington K, Nutting C. The role of intensity-modulated radiotherapy in head and neck cancer. Indian J Cancer. 2010;47:267-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The future of IMRT in head and neck cancers lies in exploring the use of biological imaging for dose-escalation using targeted dose painting. ..
  23. Feng X, Todd T, Lintzenich C, Ding J, Carr J, Ge Y, et al. Aging-related geniohyoid muscle atrophy is related to aspiration status in healthy older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2013;68:853-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that GH muscle atrophy may be a component of decreased swallowing safety and aspiration in older adults and warrants further investigation. ..
  24. Costa M, Koch H. Lateral laryngopharyngeal diverticulum: anatomical and videofluoroscopic study. Eur Radiol. 2005;15:1319-25 pubmed
    ..This formation is probably a sign of a pharyngeal transference difficulty associated with a deficient tissue resistance in the weak anatomical point of the high portion of the piriform recess. ..
  25. Valbuza J, de Oliveira M, Conti C, Prado L, de Carvalho L, do Prado G. Methods for increasing upper airway muscle tonus in treating obstructive sleep apnea: systematic review. Sleep Breath. 2010;14:299-305 pubmed publisher
    ..Well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the efficacy of such methods. ..
  26. Murakami T, Yoshihara A, Kikuchi S, Yasuda M, Hoshi A, Ugawa Y. [A patient with Fisher syndrome and pharyngeal-cervical-brachial variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome having a complication of SIADH]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2013;53:299-303 pubmed
    ..We suppose that the combined therapy of IVIg and steroid would be effective in patients with complicated symptoms and multiple antibodies. ..
  27. Belafsky P, Plowman E, Mehdizadeh O, Cates D, Domer A, Yen K. The upper esophageal sphincter is not round: a pilot study evaluating a novel, physiology-based approach to upper esophageal sphincter dilation. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2013;122:217-21 pubmed
    ..Future investigation is necessary to confirm the safety of this technique in a larger cohort and to use objective measures of efficacy to compare the technique to conventional dilation with a single dilator. ..
  28. Strollo P, Soose R, Maurer J, de Vries N, Cornelius J, Froymovich O, et al. Upper-airway stimulation for obstructive sleep apnea. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:139-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Funded by Inspire Medical Systems; STAR number, NCT01161420.). ..
  29. Uludag M, Aygun N, Isgor A. The functional role of the pharyngeal plexus in vocal cord innervation in humans. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2017;274:1121-1128 pubmed publisher
    ..the pharyngeal plexus in humans is that it relies on both motor branches for innervation of the majority of pharyngeal muscles and sensory branches for the pharyngeal wall sensation...
  30. Dittmar M, Spruss T, Schuierer G, Horn M. External carotid artery territory ischemia impairs outcome in the endovascular filament model of middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Stroke. 2003;34:2252-7 pubmed
    ..In this procedure, cutting of the external carotid artery (ECA) is a prerequisite for thread insertion. However, the implications of ECA transsection have not yet been described...
  31. Gumery P, Roux Buisson H, Meignen S, Comyn F, Dematteis M, Wuyam B, et al. An adaptive detector of genioglossus EMG reflex using Berkner transform for time latency measurement in OSA pathophysiological studies. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2005;52:1382-9 pubmed
    ..These physiological findings may partly explain why the upper airway protective reflex occurring when a negative pressure is applied to the upper airway is ineffective in OSA patients, leading to pharyngeal collapse. ..
  32. Papaioannou S, Holden Dye L, Walker R. The actions of Caenorhabditis elegans neuropeptide-like peptides (NLPs) on body wall muscle of Ascaris suum and pharyngeal muscle of C. elegans. Acta Biol Hung. 2008;59 Suppl:189-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Since genes encoding NLPs (nlp genes) are expressed in C. elegans pharyngeal neurons it is likely these peptides play a role in feeding behaviour. ..
  33. Woo H, Park S, Jung M, Yoo E, Park J. The effects of cranio-cervical flexion on activation of swallowing-related muscles. J Oral Rehabil. 2012;39:805-11 pubmed publisher
    ..When CCF is applied, the stability of the deep flexor muscles must be secured first after which superficially located muscles may better assist swallowing with less effort. ..
  34. Hamaker R, Blom E. Botulinum neurotoxin for pharyngeal constrictor muscle spasm in tracheoesophageal voice restoration. Laryngoscope. 2003;113:1479-82 pubmed
    ..The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Botulinum neurotoxin (Botox) for elimination of pharyngeal constrictor muscle spasm in tracheoesophageal voice restoration...
  35. Hodges S, Anderson A, Connor N. Remodeling of neuromuscular junctions in aged rat genioglossus muscle. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2004;113:175-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that NMJ remodeling is found in aged GG muscles and may underlie the progressive neuromuscular changes observed in the elderly. ..
  36. Cheng N, Zhao M, Qi K, Deng H, Fang Z, Song R. A modified procedure for velopharyngeal sphincteroplasty in primary cleft palate repair and secondary velopharyngeal incompetence treatment and its preliminary results. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2006;59:817-25 pubmed
    ..Further study of the procedure is needed. The theoretical basis, operative highlights, velopharyngeal function, advantages and disadvantages of the modified procedure were discussed. ..
  37. Skelly J, Bradford A, Jones J, O Halloran K. Superoxide scavengers improve rat pharyngeal dilator muscle performance. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2010;42:725-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that antioxidant treatment may be beneficial as a therapy in obstructive sleep apnea. ..
  38. Li Y, Ye J, Li T, Lin N. [Evaluation of retropalatal mechanical loads in patients with obstructive sleep apnea]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2009;44:819-24 pubmed
    ..044). Patients with sleep apnea have more collapsible passive upper airway than controls. Retropalatal and retroglossal airway are the most collapsible segments and positive pressures are needed to compensate for the mechanical loads. ..
  39. Srinivasan I, Strantzas S, Crawford M. Phasic genioglossus and palatoglossus muscle activity during recovery from sevoflurane anesthesia: a prospective observational study in children. Anesthesiology. 2013;119:562-8 pubmed publisher
    ..0002). Genioglossus and palatoglossus activity increases during recovery from sevoflurane anesthesia in a dose-dependent manner over the clinical range of sevoflurane concentrations in children. ..
  40. Fu Z, Zhang F, He Y, Liu Y, Yang H, Jiang X. [The clinical investigation of the potential complications of H-UPPP surgery in removing the partial pharyngeal muscle]. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2013;27:621-5 pubmed
    ..3D-CT, which had completed clinical data inpatients in the anesthesia underwent of the partial pharyngeal muscles in the postoperative, divided into a control group of 26 cases, operating the H-UPPP surgery which did not ..
  41. Suiter D, Leder S, Ruark J. Effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on submental muscle activity. Dysphagia. 2006;21:56-60 pubmed
  42. Krmpotic Nemanic J, Vinter I, Ehrenfreund T, Marusic A. Postnatal changes in the styloid process, vagina processus styloidei, and stylomastoid foramen in relation to the function of muscles originating from the styloid process. Surg Radiol Anat. 2009;31:343-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Relationship between altered muscle function and the morphology of the styloid process are important for understanding the clinical syndromes related to the styloid process, such as Eagle's syndrome. ..
  43. Schwartz R, Bahadori R, Myseros J. Loud clicking sounds associated with rapid soft palate muscle contractions. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2012;28:158-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This type is characteristically associated with clicking tinnitus, heard by the affected person as well as those in close proximity. The clicking noise is not continuous, ceases during sleep, and is not lifelong. ..
  44. Feng M, Demiroz C, Vineberg K, Eisbruch A, Balter J. Normal tissue anatomy for oropharyngeal cancer: contouring variability and its impact on optimization. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;84:e245-9 pubmed publisher
    ..9-Gy mean difference between optimizations, suggesting relative insensitivity of dose distributions for IMRT of oropharynx cancer to the extent of OARs. ..
  45. Grace K, Hughes S, Horner R. Identification of the mechanism mediating genioglossus muscle suppression in REM sleep. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013;187:311-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism is the major cause of REM sleep inhibition at a pharyngeal motor pool critical for effective breathing. ..
  46. Van Daele D, McCulloch T, Palmer P, Langmore S. Timing of glottic closure during swallowing: a combined electromyographic and endoscopic analysis. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2005;114:478-87 pubmed
    ..We performed a case series to enhance our understanding of the coupling between neuromuscular events and glottic closure...
  47. Shimokawa T, Yi S, Izumi A, Ru F, Akita K, Sato T, et al. An anatomical study of the levator veli palatini and superior constrictor with special reference to their nerve supply. Surg Radiol Anat. 2004;26:100-5 pubmed
    ..Regarding the innervation of the superior constrictor, some variations were observed, and we consider it likely that there is a close relationship between these variations and the type of innervation of the LVP...
  48. Oliven A, Tov N, Geitini L, Steinfeld U, Oliven R, Schwartz A, et al. Effect of genioglossus contraction on pharyngeal lumen and airflow in sleep apnoea patients. Eur Respir J. 2007;30:748-58 pubmed
    ..The response to genioglossus stimulation depends upon the magnitude of tongue protrusion achieved rather than on inherent characteristics of the patient and their airway...
  49. Ray P, Schnabel R, Okkema P. Behavioral and synaptic defects in C. elegans lacking the NK-2 homeobox gene ceh-28. Dev Neurobiol. 2008;68:421-33 pubmed
    ..We suggest that CEH-28 inhibits synaptogenesis, and that ceh-28 mutant behavioral defects result from excessive or ectopic stimulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the isthmus muscles...
  50. Saigusa H, Yamaguchi S, Nakamura T, Komachi T, Kadosono O, Ito H, et al. Surgical improvement of speech disorder caused by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2012;228:371-6 pubmed
    ..With this technique, improved intelligibility and quality of speech can be maintained for longer duration for the patients with slowly progressing ALS...
  51. Restivo D, Casabona A, Nicotra A, Zappia M, Elia M, Romano M, et al. ALS dysphagia pathophysiology: differential botulinum toxin response. Neurology. 2013;80:616-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Establishing whether different pathophysiologic mechanisms underlie different responses to BoTox-A treatment may have important implications for patient management...
  52. Courson A, Landry A, Lott D, Hinni M. Open staple diverticulectomy for a large recurrent Zenker's diverticulum: still a valid procedure. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2013;122:729-33 pubmed
    ..We review treatment of a large diverticulum and discuss considerations that should be made in deciding on the type of surgical treatment...
  53. Eckert D, McEvoy R, George K, Thomson K, Catcheside P. Genioglossus reflex inhibition to upper-airway negative-pressure stimuli during wakefulness and sleep in healthy males. J Physiol. 2007;581:1193-205 pubmed
    ..These data indicate there are both excitatory and inhibitory components to the genioglossus negative-pressure reflex which are differentially affected by state...
  54. Holcombe S, Derksen F, Robinson N. Electromyographic activity of the palatinus and palatopharyngeus muscles in exercising horses. Equine Vet J. 2007;39:451-5 pubmed
  55. Wardrop P, Ravichandran S, Hair M, Robertson S, Sword D. Do wind and brass players snore less? A cross-sectional study of snoring and daytime fatigue in professional orchestral musicians. Clin Otolaryngol. 2011;36:134-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine whether playing a wind or brass musical instrument is associated with reduced snoring or daytime fatigue...
  56. Mistry S, Michou E, Rothwell J, Hamdy S. Remote effects of intermittent theta burst stimulation of the human pharyngeal motor system. Eur J Neurosci. 2012;36:2493-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that iTBS can induce remote changes in corticobulbar excitability. While further studies will clarify the extent of these changes, iTBS holds promise as a potential treatment for dysphagia after unilateral brain damage...
  57. Virtanen T, Jolkkonen J, Sivenius J. Re: External carotid artery territory ischemia impairs outcome in the endovascular filament model of middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Stroke. 2004;35:e9-10; author reply e9-10 pubmed
  58. Pfeifer R. Cricopharyngeal achalasia in a dog. Can Vet J. 2003;44:993-5 pubmed
    ..A diagnosis of cricopharyngeal achalasia was made. After cricopharyngeal and thyropharyngeal myectomy, the dog was able to eat soft food without difficulty...
  59. Holden Dye L, Walker R. Actions of glutamate and ivermectin on the pharyngeal muscle of Ascaridia galli: a comparative study with Caenorhabditis elegans. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:395-402 pubmed
    ..elegans. This study demonstrates clear differences between the properties of the pharyngeal muscle of the two species and shows that care must be taken when extrapolating data from free-living to parasitic species of nematode...
  60. Kimoff R. Upperairway myopathy is important in the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med. 2007;3:567-9 pubmed
  61. van den Engel Hoek L, de Swart B, Erasmus C, de Groot I. Is head balance a major determinant for swallowing problems in patients with spinal muscular atrophy type 2?. J Child Neurol. 2008;23:919-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This case supported the idea that dysphagia in spinal muscular atrophy type 2 is caused by both a bulbar component as well as a treatable posture component...
  62. Popovtzer A, Cao Y, Feng F, Eisbruch A. Anatomical changes in the pharyngeal constrictors after chemo-irradiation of head and neck cancer and their dose-effect relationships: MRI-based study. Radiother Oncol. 2009;93:510-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The PCs were compared to the sternocleidomastoid muscles (SCMs), which receive high doses but do not relate to swallowing...
  63. Caudell J, Burnett O, Schaner P, Bonner J, Duan J. Comparison of methods to reduce dose to swallowing-related structures in head and neck cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;77:462-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Organ avoidance becomes difficult when the primary tumor or involved nodes are present at the level of the larynx...
  64. Case D, Baron T. Flexible endoscopic management of Zenker diverticulum: the Mayo Clinic experience. Mayo Clin Proc. 2010;85:719-22 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe the outcome of patients undergoing flexible endoscopic therapy for symptomatic Zenker diverticulum...
  65. Niacaris T, Avery L. Serotonin regulates repolarization of the C. elegans pharyngeal muscle. J Exp Biol. 2003;206:223-31 pubmed
    ..Reciprocal regulation of pharyngeal behavior by serotonin and octopamine provides a mechanism for adapting to the presence and absence of food, respectively...
  66. Garvey S, Senderek J, Beckmann J, Seboun E, Jackson C, Hauser M. Myotilin is not the causative gene for vocal cord and pharyngeal weakness with distal myopathy (VCPDM). Ann Hum Genet. 2006;70:414-6 pubmed
    ..We also report several useful SNPs and STRs for the analysis of myotilin in muscle diseases of suspected, yet unknown genetic origin. We conclude that MYOT mutations likely are not a cause of VCPDM...
  67. Keck T, Rozsasi A, Grün P. Surgical treatment of hypopharyngeal diverticulum (Zenker's diverticulum). Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;267:587-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Conventional endoscopic diverticulotomy is not safer than ELD or transcollar open technique...
  68. Restivo D, Marchese Ragona R, Patti F, Solaro C, Maimone D, Zappala G, et al. Botulinum toxin improves dysphagia associated with multiple sclerosis. Eur J Neurol. 2011;18:486-90 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the efficacy of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) for severe oro-pharyngeal dysphagia associated with multiple sclerosis (MS)...
  69. Perry J, Sutton B, Kuehn D, Gamage J. Using MRI for assessing velopharyngeal structures and function. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2014;51:476-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the development of a static and dynamic magnetic resonance imaging protocol for evaluation of velopharyngeal structures and function...
  70. Drendel M, Carmel E, Kerimis P, Wolf M, Finkelstein Y. Cricopharyngeal achalasia in children: surgical and medical treatment. Isr Med Assoc J. 2013;15:430-3 pubmed
    ..Recognition and early diagnosis of this condition may minimize morbidity in children...
  71. Ogasa T, Ray A, Michlin C, Farkas G, Grant B, Magalang U. Systemic administration of serotonin 2A/2C agonist improves upper airway stability in Zucker rats. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004;170:804-10 pubmed
  72. Levendag P, Teguh D, Voet P, van Der Est H, Noever I, de Kruijf W, et al. Dysphagia disorders in patients with cancer of the oropharynx are significantly affected by the radiation therapy dose to the superior and middle constrictor muscle: a dose-effect relationship. Radiother Oncol. 2007;85:64-73 pubmed
    ..To assess the relationship between the radiation therapy (RT) dose received by the muscular components of the swallowing (sw) apparatus and - dysphagia related - quality of life (QoL) in oropharyngeal cancer...
  73. Natt R, McCormick M, Clayton J, Ryall C. Percutaneous chemical myotomy using botulium neurtoxin A under local anaesthesia in the treatment of cricopharyngeal dysphagia following laryngectomy. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2010;37:500-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of the use of percutaneous injection of botulinum neurotoxin A under local anaesthesia in the management of cricophayngeus dysphagia in post-laryngectomy patients...
  74. Brandes I, Stettner G, Mörschel M, Kubin L, Dutschmann M. REM sleep-like episodes of motoneuronal depression and respiratory rate increase are triggered by pontine carbachol microinjections in in situ perfused rat brainstem preparation. Exp Physiol. 2011;96:548-55 pubmed publisher
    ..In persons with compromised upper airway anatomy, sleep-related hypotonia of the tongue and other pharyngeal muscles causes increased upper airway resistance, or total upper airway obstructions, thus disrupting both sleep and ..
  75. Lee J, Yoon N, Choi S, Moon J, Chung M, Son Y, et al. Extent of local invasion and safe resection in cT1-2 tonsil cancer. J Surg Oncol. 2013;107:469-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we aim to determine the extent of local invasion in terms of mucosal spread and deep infiltration in stage T1-2 tonsil cancer...
  76. Nakamura Y, Hatakeyama A, Kitada Y, Tsujimura T, Taniguchi H, Inoue M. Effects of pharyngeal water stimulation on swallowing behaviors in healthy humans. Exp Brain Res. 2013;230:197-205 pubmed publisher
    ..It is suggested that weak liquid stimulation changed sensory inputs into the swallowing center and synchronously modulated the swallowing interval and time interval between the onset and peak of the EMG burst...
  77. Veasey S. Molecular and physiologic basis of obstructive sleep apnea. Clin Chest Med. 2003;24:179-93 pubmed
    ..An improved understanding of the mechanisms through which OSAHS progresses may lead to alternative therapies and aid in the identification of persons at risk for disease progression...
  78. Tarnowska C, Stańczyk D, Jaworowska E, Paradowska B, Firlit K. [Factors influencing pharynx' and pharyngoesophageal sphincter's morphology and their function after total laryngectomy]. Otolaryngol Pol. 2003;57:699-708 pubmed
    ..It was stressed that videolaryngoscopy is entirely sufficient for the approximate assessment of the rest pressure in the pes area and prognosis of the esophageal speech development process...
  79. Wiedemann K, Graser A, Lang R, Rader T, Suckfuell M. [Persistent pharyngeocutaneous fistula after transcervical resection of a diverticulum of the hypopharynx]. HNO. 2009;57:1275-9 pubmed
    ..The pharynx was closed with a running suture using the Conley technique. The fistula healed, and there were no further recurrences...
  80. Tian W, Yin H, Redett R, Shi B, Shi J, Zhang R, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of the velopharyngeal mechanism at rest and during speech in Chinese adults and children. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2010;53:1595-615 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the velopharyngeal structures and their maximal motion were compared between adults and children...
  81. Carberry J, Jordan A, White D, Wellman A, Eckert D. Upper Airway Collapsibility (Pcrit) and Pharyngeal Dilator Muscle Activity are Sleep Stage Dependent. Sleep. 2016;39:511-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to determine the effect of sleep stage on Pcrit and upper airway muscle activity in a larger cohort than previously tested...
  82. Messer J, Mohamed A, Hutcheson K, Ding Y, Lewin J, Wang J, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of swallowing-related structures in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients receiving IMRT: Longitudinal dose-response characterization of quantitative signal kinetics. Radiother Oncol. 2016;118:315-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Further efforts will seek to elucidate the relationship between dose-dependent muscle SI changes and functional alteration of swallowing muscles. ..
  83. Abe S, Kaneko H, Nakamura Y, Watanabe Y, Shintani M, Hashimoto M, et al. Experimental device for detecting laryngeal movement during swallowing. Bull Tokyo Dent Coll. 2002;43:199-203 pubmed
    ..oro-pharyngeal stage of swallowing starts from the mylohyoid muscle, followed by movement of the oral and pharyngeal muscles, and reaching the superior esophageal sphincter muscle...
  84. Picciotti P, Della Marca G, Restuccia D, Rigante M, Di Nardo W, Scarano E. Tensor veli palatini electromyography with surface electrode applied transnasally. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2005;25:120-4 pubmed
    ..Introduction of the non-invasive surface electrode is simple and not painful...
  85. Qi J, Liu Y. [Effects of sex hormones on sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPase activity and gene expression in the genioglossal muscle of the aged rats]. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2007;39:60-3 pubmed
    ..To investigate the effects of sex hormones on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-ATPase activity and gene expression in the genioglossal muscle of the aged rats, and to explore the possible mechanism related to the upper airway stability...
  86. Folker J, Murdoch B, Cahill L, Delatycki M, Corben L, Vogel A. Dysarthria in Friedreich's ataxia: a perceptual analysis. Folia Phoniatr Logop. 2010;62:97-103 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings support the notion of subgroups in FRDA dysarthria, representing distinct impairments of the speech mechanism and perhaps reflective of differing evolutions beyond the cerebellum...
  87. Perry J. Variations in velopharyngeal structures between upright and supine positions using upright magnetic resonance imaging. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2011;48:123-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study is to provide a comparison between structures of the velopharyngeal mechanism while in the supine and upright positions during rest and sustained speech productions of four female subjects...
  88. Bosshard V, Masse J, Series F. Prediction of oral appliance efficiency in patients with apnoea using phrenic nerve stimulation while awake. Thorax. 2011;66:220-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Phrenic nerve stimulation is able to induce upper airway obstruction and was therefore used to mimic the target for an efficient treatment with an oral appliance...
  89. Tönz M, Schmid I, Graf M, Mischler Heeb R, Weissen J, Kaiser G. Blinded speech evaluation following pharyngeal flap surgery by speech pathologists and lay people in children with cleft palate. Folia Phoniatr Logop. 2002;54:288-95 pubmed
    ..Speech was evaluated on the basis of tape recordings with regard to resonance, intelligibility, articulation, voice and secondary speech disorders...
  90. Halum S, Merati A, Kulpa J, Danielson S, Jaradeh S, Toohill R. Videofluoroscopic swallow studies in unilateral cricopharyngeal dysfunction. Laryngoscope. 2003;113:981-4 pubmed
  91. Taguchi A, Hyodo M, Yamagata T, Gyo K, Desaki J. Age-related remodeling of the hypopharyngeal constrictor muscle and its subneural apparatuses: a scanning electron microscopical study in rats. Dysphagia. 2004;19:241-7 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the transformation of SNAs and the muscle fibers of the hypopharyngeal constrictor muscle takes place during aging and that their remodeling processes differ in the TP and CP muscles...
  92. Moon J, Kuehn D, Chan G, Zhao L. Induced velopharyngeal fatigue effects in speakers with repaired palatal clefts. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2007;44:251-60 pubmed
    ..To address whether speakers with cleft palate exhibit velopharyngeal mechanism fatigue and are more susceptible to muscle fatigue than are speakers without cleft palate...