pectoralis muscles

Summary

Summary: The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.

Top Publications

  1. Mehta V, Arora J, Yadav Y, Suri R, Rath G. Rectus thoracis bifurcalis: a new variant in the anterior chest wall musculature. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2010;51:799-801 pubmed
    ..The present investigation endeavors to discuss the anatomical, embryological and clinical relevance of a rare accessory muscle of the anterior chest wall...
  2. Chiummariello S, Iera M, Domatsoglou A, Alfano C. The use of pectoralis major myocutaneous flap as "salvage procedure" following intraoral and oropharyngeal cancer excision. G Chir. 2010;31:191-6 pubmed
    ..e. uncontrolled diabetes, cardio-pulmonary failure, renal insufficiency), the use of pectoralis mayor myocutaneous flap may be a preferable option with fewer risks for the patient...
  3. Petracci M, Cavani C. Muscle growth and poultry meat quality issues. Nutrients. 2012;4:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry...
  4. Price E, Bauchinger U, Zajac D, Cerasale D, McFarlan J, Gerson A, et al. Migration- and exercise-induced changes to flight muscle size in migratory birds and association with IGF1 and myostatin mRNA expression. J Exp Biol. 2011;214:2823-31 pubmed publisher
    ..some potential mediators of flight muscle size (myostatin and insulin-like growth factor, IGF1) in pectoralis muscles of wild wintering or migrating white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis), captive white-throated ..
  5. Hsing C, Wong Y, Wang C, Wang C, Jiang R, Chen F, et al. Comparison between free flap and pectoralis major pedicled flap for reconstruction in oral cavity cancer patients--a quality of life analysis. Oral Oncol. 2011;47:522-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Data from this study provide useful information for physicians and patients during their discussion of treatment modalities for oral cancers...
  6. Ethier J, Trites J, Taylor S. Pectoralis major myofascial flap in head and neck reconstruction: indications and outcomes. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009;38:632-41 pubmed
    ..To review the pectoralis major myofascial (PMMF) flap in head and neck reconstruction...
  7. Pinto F, Malena C, Vanni C, Capelli F, Matos L, Kanda J. Pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps for head and neck reconstruction: factors influencing occurrences of complications and the final outcome. Sao Paulo Med J. 2010;128:336-41 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to identify factors that may cause complications and influence the final result from reconstructions using pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps (PMMFs) for head and neck defect repair following cancer resection...
  8. McLean J, Carlson G, Losken A. The pectoralis major myocutaneous flap revisited: a reliable technique for head and neck reconstruction. Ann Plast Surg. 2010;64:570-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients who had radiation therapy had significantly higher complication rates. The PMMF flap remains a very versatile technique with proven reliability for soft tissue coverage of many head and neck defects...
  9. Qureshi S, Chaukar D, Dcruz A. A simple technique of raising the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap along the deltopectoral groove. J Surg Oncol. 2005;89:32-3 pubmed

More Information

Publications80

  1. Dedivitis R, Guimarães A. Pectoralis major musculocutaneous flap in head and neck cancer reconstruction. World J Surg. 2002;26:67-71 pubmed
    ..There was donor site seroma in one patient. The flap was functionally adequate both in the reconstruction of the neopharynx and for repair of great surgical defects. So it is a versatile method with good functional results...
  2. Quinlan J, Molloy M, Hurson B. Pectoralis major tendon ruptures: when to operate. Br J Sports Med. 2002;36:226-8 pubmed
    ..After surgery and a graduated rehabilitation programme, both men were able to return to their sporting activities. These two cases highlight the advantage of operative management in this uncommon condition...
  3. Zvijac J, Schurhoff M, Hechtman K, Uribe J. Pectoralis major tears: correlation of magnetic resonance imaging and treatment strategies. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34:289-94 pubmed
    ..Controversy exists in the diagnosis and treatment of pectoralis major tear patterns...
  4. Mehta S, Sarkar S, Kavarana N, Bhathena H, Mehta A. Complications of the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap in the oral cavity: a prospective evaluation of 220 cases. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1996;98:31-7 pubmed
    ..005)...
  5. Khan U. Use of the rectus sternalis in augmentation mammoplasty: case report and literature search. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2008;32:21-4 pubmed
    ..The rectus sternalis, an nomalous muscle, may interfere with the submuscular pocket dissection when an intraalveolar or submammary approach is used. The use of this muscle to cover the prosthesis in its most medial part is presented...
  6. Harish K, Gopinath K. Sternalis muscle: importance in surgery of the breast. Surg Radiol Anat. 2003;25:311-4 pubmed
    ..The depth at which internal mammary nodes are irradiated may also vary in the presence of the muscle. In addition, it should not be mistaken for recurrence on follow-up...
  7. de Castro Pochini A, Pochini A, Ejnisman B, Andreoli C, Monteiro G, Fleury A, et al. Exact moment of tendon of pectoralis major muscle rupture captured on video. Br J Sports Med. 2007;41:618-9; discussion 619 pubmed
    ..The tendon was reinserted to the humerus 3 weeks later with screws and washers. The athlete returned to competitive activities after 5 months. One year later he lifted 170 kg and won the national championship...
  8. de Bree R, Reith R, Quak J, Uyl de Groot C, van Agthoven M, Leemans C. Free radial forearm flap versus pectoralis major myocutaneous flap reconstruction of oral and oropharyngeal defects: a cost analysis. Clin Otolaryngol. 2007;32:275-82 pubmed
    ..Cost implications of radial forearm flap reconstruction within the context of the overall health care in a particular system need to be investigated particularly before it is labelled as 'costly only'...
  9. Ariyan S. The pectoralis major myocutaneous flap. A versatile flap for reconstruction in the head and neck. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1979;63:73-81 pubmed
    ..This flap has been used successfully to reconstruct large defects in 4 consecutive patients. Our experience with this flap suggests that it may be more versatile than the deltopectoral flap...
  10. Liu R, Gullane P, Brown D, Irish J. Pectoralis major myocutaneous pedicled flap in head and neck reconstruction: retrospective review of indications and results in 244 consecutive cases at the Toronto General Hospital. J Otolaryngol. 2001;30:34-40 pubmed
    ..This series of consecutive PMMPF procedures is the largest reported to date...
  11. Ossoff R, Wurster C, Berktold R, Krespi Y, Sisson G. Complications after pectoralis major myocutaneous flap reconstruction of head and neck defects. Arch Otolaryngol. 1983;109:812-4 pubmed
    ..Its size, viability, and versatility make it a valuable tool for extending the limits of resectability and reconstruction...
  12. Cawson J, Papadopoulos T. Variants of sternal insertion of the pectoral muscle on mammography: a pictorial review. Clin Radiol. 2002;57:442-8 pubmed
    ..Familiarity with the different presentations of this muscle insertion will facilitate recognition and prevent unnecessary investigations...
  13. Scott Conner C, Al Jurf A. The sternalis muscle. Clin Anat. 2002;15:67-9 pubmed
  14. Petilon J, Carr D, Sekiya J, Unger D. Pectoralis major muscle injuries: evaluation and management. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2005;13:59-68 pubmed
    ..Surgery, whether early or delayed, consistently yields superior results compared with nonsurgical management. Prompt diagnosis and timely intervention likely will produce improved results...
  15. Jegoux F, Ferron C, Malard O, Espitalier F, Beauvillain de Montreuil C. Reconstruction of circumferential pharyngolaryngectomy using a 'horseshoe-shaped' pectoralis major myocutaneous flap. J Laryngol Otol. 2007;121:483-8 pubmed
    ..It has been applied to a wide range of patients, especially elderly ones and those with poor general status, as well as to cases in which widespread involvement was detected during surgery...
  16. Spriano G, Pellini R, Roselli R. Pectoralis major myocutaneous flap for hypopharyngeal reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2002;110:1408-13; discussion 1414-6 pubmed
    ..The other reconstructive options require surgical transgression of the abdomen and/or thorax in patients affected by malnutrition and other chronic systemic disorders...
  17. Komurcu M, Yildiz Y, Ozdemir M, Erler K. Rupture of the pectoralis major muscle in a paratrooper. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2004;75:81-4 pubmed
    ..Prevention of this type of altitude injury would be possible by applying the fundamentals of parachuting...
  18. Hanna C, Glenny A, Stanley S, Caughey M. Pectoralis major tears: comparison of surgical and conservative treatment. Br J Sports Med. 2001;35:202-6 pubmed
    ..To compare objective measures of strength and subjective functional outcomes in complete distal pectoralis major tears treated either surgically or non-surgically...
  19. Loukas M, Bowers M, Hullett J. Sternalis muscle: a mystery still. Folia Morphol (Warsz). 2004;63:147-9 pubmed
    ..A matter of debate is the sternalis muscle. We present a review of the literature of the sternalis muscle with special emphasis on its clinical anatomy...
  20. Chaturvedi P, Pathak K, Pai P, Chaukar D, Deshpande M, D Cruz A. A novel technique of raising a pectoralis major myocutaneous flap through the skin paddle incision alone. J Surg Oncol. 2004;86:105-6 pubmed
    ..We intend to suggest a novel technique, in which the pectoralis major muscle is exposed by raising the skin around the skin paddle incision alone without making any further extension...
  21. Shah J, Haribhakti V, Loree T, Sutaria P. Complications of the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap in head and neck reconstruction. Am J Surg. 1990;160:352-5 pubmed
    ..Thirty-five (26%) of the 135 patients developing complications required reoperation and only 2 among these required a second flap. Similarly, only 13 of the 61 patients who developed fistulas required surgical closure...
  22. Dodds S, Wolfe S. Injuries to the pectoralis major. Sports Med. 2002;32:945-52 pubmed
    ..Although complications such as re-rupture, infection, and heterotopic ossification do occasionally occur, favourable results should be expected when surgical repair is performed either acutely or in a delayed fashion...
  23. Arráez Aybar L, Sobrado Perez J, Merida Velasco J. Left musculus sternalis. Clin Anat. 2003;16:350-4 pubmed
    ..We also present a brief overview of the existing literature regarding the nomenclature, historical reports, and incidence of this muscle...
  24. Klesius A, Dzemali O, Simon A, Kleine P, Abdel Rahman U, Herzog C, et al. Successful treatment of deep sternal infections following open heart surgery by bilateral pectoralis major flaps. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2004;25:218-23 pubmed
    ..We analyzed the outcome of patients undergoing bilateral pectoralis major flap repair on functional and cosmetic results, chest stabilization and pulmonary function...
  25. Kroll S, Goepfert H, Jones M, Guillamondegui O, Schusterman M. Analysis of complications in 168 pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps used for head and neck reconstruction. Ann Plast Surg. 1990;25:93-7 pubmed
    ..In patients who had muscle flaps (without skin paddles), sex had no influence on complication rates. In all groups of patients, flaps consisting of muscle alone had fewer complications than did flaps with a cutaneous component...
  26. Chepeha D, Annich G, Pynnonen M, Beck J, Wolf G, Teknos T, et al. Pectoralis major myocutaneous flap vs revascularized free tissue transfer: complications, gastrostomy tube dependence, and hospitalization. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004;130:181-6 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the factors related to surgical complications, rate of gastrostomy tube (G-tube) dependence, and hospitalization in patients undergoing reconstruction with a pectoralis myocutaneous flap vs a soft-tissue revascularized flap...
  27. El Marakby H. The reliability of pectoralis major myocutaneous flap in head and neck reconstruction. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst. 2006;18:41-50 pubmed
    ..Also the final functional and the aesthetic results are not comparable to free flaps head and neck reconstruction...
  28. Milenovic A, Virag M, Uglesic V, Aljinović Ratković N. The pectoralis major flap in head and neck reconstruction: first 500 patients. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2006;34:340-3 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate almost 20 years of using the pectoralis major flap in head and neck reconstruction at the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Zagreb...
  29. Zou H, Zhang W, Han Q, Zhao Y. Salvage reconstruction of extensive recurrent oral cancer defects with the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;65:1935-9 pubmed
    ..This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap for reconstruction of oral and facial defects after excision of recurrent oral cancer and the results of salvage surgery...
  30. Vartanian J, Carvalho A, Carvalho S, Mizobe L, Magrin J, Kowalski L. Pectoralis major and other myofascial/myocutaneous flaps in head and neck cancer reconstruction: experience with 437 cases at a single institution. Head Neck. 2004;26:1018-23 pubmed
    ..Even with the worldwide use of free flaps, they are still the mainstay reconstructive procedures in many centers...
  31. Aärimaa V, Rantanen J, Heikkilä J, Helttula I, Orava S. Rupture of the pectoralis major muscle. Am J Sports Med. 2004;32:1256-62 pubmed
    ..Fewer than 200 cases have been reported in literature, many of them in single case reports. There is discrepancy regarding whether this kind of injury should be treated operatively...
  32. Young Lee B, Young Byun J, Hee Kim H, Sook Kim H, Mee Cho S, Hoon Lee K, et al. The sternalis muscles: incidence and imaging findings on MDCT. J Thorac Imaging. 2006;21:179-83 pubmed
    ..We studied the incidence and appearance of the sternalis muscles on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to permit the differentiation of the sternalis from significant pathologic condition...
  33. Kakwani R, Matthews J, Kumar K, Pimpalnerkar A, Mohtadi N. Rupture of the pectoralis major muscle: surgical treatment in athletes. Int Orthop. 2007;31:159-63 pubmed
  34. Scheuermann G, Bilgili S, Tuzun S, Mulvaney D. Comparison of chicken genotypes: myofiber number in pectoralis muscle and myostatin ontogeny. Poult Sci. 2004;83:1404-12 pubmed
    ..Higher muscularity of broilers, as compared with Leghorns, was not attributed to lower expression of myostatin during embryonic development...
  35. Castelli M, Pecorari G, Succo G, Bena A, Andreis M, Sartoris A. Pectoralis major myocutaneous flap: analysis of complications in difficult patients. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2001;258:542-5 pubmed
    ..PMMF proved to be suitable to give these patients good chances of a quick recovery with satisfactory aesthetic and functional results...
  36. Jackson B, Dial K. Scaling of mechanical power output during burst escape flight in the Corvidae. J Exp Biol. 2011;214:452-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, additional data for other taxa are needed to substantiate these scaling patterns. ..
  37. Zeiger K, Popp J, Becker A, Hankel J, Visscher C, Klein G, et al. Lauric acid as feed additive - An approach to reducing Campylobacter spp. in broiler meat. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0175693 pubmed publisher
    ..However, this effect seems to be dependent on the breed determining the feed intake capacity, the fat deposition and therefore the ability to incorporate lauric acid in the muscle. ..
  38. Bozkurt M, Klimczak A, Nasir S, Zor F, Krokowicz L, Siemionow M. Composite osseomusculocutaneous sternum, ribs, thymus, pectoralis muscles, and skin allotransplantation model of bone marrow transplantation. Microsurgery. 2013;33:43-50 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of seven composite osseomusculocutaneous sternum, ribs, thymus, pectoralis muscles, and skin transplantations were performed in two groups...
  39. Sanders R, Annest S, Goldson E. Neurogenic thoracic outlet and pectoralis minor syndromes in children. Vasc Endovascular Surg. 2013;47:335-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Surgical PMT should be considered first as the treatment of choice for children with NPMS. Thoracic outlet decompression is available if PMT is unsuccessful. ..
  40. Hayoun S, Ouazzani H, Habibi B, Belhabib S, Souhi H, Rhorfi I, et al. [Swelling of the pectoralis muscle revealing isolated muscular tuberculosis]. Pan Afr Med J. 2017;27:44 pubmed publisher
    ..The diagnosis was mainly based on histology. The patient was successfully treated with anti bacterial therapy only. This rare case study has been combined with a literature review. ..
  41. Hong J, Jeong H, Lew D, Roh T, Tark K, Choi E, et al. Hypopharyngeal reconstruction using remnant narrow pharyngeal wall as omega-shaped radial forearm free flap. J Craniofac Surg. 2009;20:1334-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We achieved fairly good results in both groups without total resection of the narrow remnant hypopharyngeal wall. ..
  42. de Faria J, Sterodimas A. Monoblock thoracobrachioplasty in males: a proposed technique mimicking the pectoral fold. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2011;35:225-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Monoblock thoracobrachioplasty mimicking the pectoral fold is a treatment option to be added to the armamentarium of techniques for postbariatric male patients. ..
  43. Iglesias J, Karssemeijer N. Robust initial detection of landmarks in film-screen mammograms using multiple FFDM atlases. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2009;28:1815-24 pubmed publisher
    ..A novel aspect of the method is that it is also capable of detecting and segmenting the pectoralis in craniocaudal views. ..
  44. Das C, Roy B, Oshima I, Miyachi H, Nishimura S, Iwamoto H, et al. Collagen content and architecture of the pectoralis muscle in male chicks and broilers reared under various nutritional conditions. Anim Sci J. 2010;81:252-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The PT muscle of chickens develops optimally when body growth is enhanced. The PT muscle of the compensatory growth broilers had improved collagen architecture regardless of the marked decrease in collagen content. ..
  45. Velleman S, Coy C, Nestor K. The influence of age on maternal inheritance of breast muscle morphology in turkeys. Poult Sci. 2010;89:876-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the results, the type of mating used to produce commercial turkeys would have a major effect on breast muscle morphology from 12 through 18 wk of age. ..
  46. Son B, Han S, Choi Y, Kim H, Kim M, Yang S, et al. Transaxillary subpectoral implantation of implantable pulse generator for deep brain stimulation. Neuromodulation. 2012;15:260-6; discussion 266 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrated that subpectoral transaxillary IPG implantation can provide better cosmetic satisfaction in patients undergoing DBS, with less discomfort and morbidity related to erosion and infection. ..
  47. Spear S. Discussion. Acellular dermis-assisted prosthetic breast reconstruction versus complete submuscular coverage: a head-to-head comparison of outcomes. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;124:1741-2 pubmed publisher
  48. Baban A, Torre M, Bianca S, Buluggiu A, Rossello M, Calevo M, et al. Poland syndrome with bilateral features: case description with review of the literature. Am J Med Genet A. 2009;149A:1597-602 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we reviewed the bilateral features present in our patient and those described in the literature. Hypotheses explaining bilateral features in PS are reviewed...
  49. Miano J, Loesser Casey K, Fine M. Description and scaling of pectoral muscles in ictalurid catfishes. J Morphol. 2013;274:467-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, spine muscles were larger than ray muscles in all species but the flathead catfish, which lives in water with the fastest currents. ..
  50. Kadlub N, Shin J, Ross D, Della Torre T, Ansari E, Persing J, et al. Use of the external pectoralis myocutaneous major flap in anterior skull base reconstruction. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013;42:453-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The PMMF remains a safe and versatile reconstructive tool in anterior skull base tumour resection. The externalized pedicle allows this flap to reach periorbital and anterior skull base. ..
  51. Dakwar E, Ahmadian A, Uribe J. The anatomical relationship of the diaphragm to the thoracolumbar junction during the minimally invasive lateral extracoelomic (retropleural/retroperitoneal) approach. J Neurosurg Spine. 2012;16:359-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study is to describe the anatomical relationship of the diaphragm in reference to the minimally invasive lateral approach to the thoracolumbar spine and its surgical significance...
  52. Brown R, Sharabi S, Kania K, Hollier L, Izaddoost S. The Split Pectoralis Flap: Combining the Benefits of Pectoralis Major Advancement and Turnover Techniques in One Flap. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2017;139:1474-1477 pubmed publisher
    ..Using the pectoralis as an advancement and turnover flap allows inferior sternum and mediastinum coverage using one donor site and maintaining the function of the muscle and preventing cosmetic deformity. ..
  53. Ben Hadj Yahia S, Vacher C, Guedon C. [Anatomic study of the location of the thoracoacromial pedicle. Application to the pectoralis major musculocutaneous flap]. Morphologie. 2009;93:13-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A narrow pectoralis major flap has to be harvested between the acromioxyphoid line and the lateral border of the pectoralis major. ..
  54. de Castro Pochini A, Ejnisman B, Andreoli C, Monteiro G, Silva A, Cohen M, et al. Pectoralis major muscle rupture in athletes: a prospective study. Am J Sports Med. 2010;38:92-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Today, there are more than 200 cases describing rupture of the pectoralis major muscle in athletes...
  55. Stylianos K, Constantinos P, Alexandros T, Aliki F, Nikolaos A, Demetriou M, et al. Muscle abnormalities of the chest in Poland's syndrome: variations and proposal for a classification. Surg Radiol Anat. 2012;34:57-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The purposes of the paper are to study the chest musculoskeletal malformations of the syndrome and propose a classification for the thoracic anomalies through our experience and taking into account the literature...
  56. Maxwell G, Birchenough S, Gabriel A. Efficacy of neopectoral pocket in revisionary breast surgery. Aesthet Surg J. 2009;29:379-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Because most patients undergoing revisionary surgery in the past decade presented with subglandular implants, little has been published regarding the treatment of revisionary surgery in patients with subpectoral implants...
  57. Zhang L, Zhang H, Qiao X, Yue H, Wu S, Yao J, et al. Effect of monochromatic light stimuli during embryogenesis on muscular growth, chemical composition, and meat quality of breast muscle in male broilers. Poult Sci. 2012;91:1026-31 pubmed publisher
  58. Teigen L, John R, Kuchnia A, Nagel E, Earthman C, Kealhofer J, et al. Preoperative Pectoralis Muscle Quantity and Attenuation by Computed Tomography Are Novel and Powerful Predictors of Mortality After Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation. Circ Heart Fail. 2017;10: pubmed publisher
    ..This one time, repeatable, internal assessment of patient substrate added valuable prognostic information that was not available on standard preoperative testing. ..
  59. McFarland D, Pesall J, Coy C, Velleman S. Effects of 17?-estradiol on turkey myogenic satellite cell proliferation, differentiation, and expression of glypican-1, MyoD and myogenin. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2013;164:565-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate a direct effect of estradiol on avian satellite cell proliferation independent of glypican-1, and decreased expression of MyoD and myogenin in some myogenic cells, coinciding with increased cellular proliferation...
  60. Robicsek F, Watts L. Pectus carinatum. Thorac Surg Clin. 2010;20:563-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment of pectus carinatum by nonsurgical methods such as exercise and casting has not been worthwhile, whereas surgical management is simple and successful...
  61. Nahabedian M. Acellular dermal matrices in primary breast reconstruction: principles, concepts, and indications. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2012;130:44S-53S pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this article is to review some of the important principles and concepts to improve our understanding of how these matrices perform and what can be expected of them...
  62. Garrigues G, Kraeutler M, Gillespie R, O Brien D, Lazarus M. Repair of pectoralis major ruptures: single-surgeon case series. Orthopedics. 2012;35:e1184-90 pubmed publisher
  63. Graves G, Romanek C. Mesoscale patterns of altitudinal tenancy in migratory wood warblers inferred from stable carbon isotopes. Ecol Appl. 2009;19:1264-73 pubmed
    ..However, tissues with high metabolic rates are unlikely to retain much isotopic signal of wintering habitat use by the time migrants reach their breeding territories...
  64. Montgomery M, Hulbert A, Buttemer W. Metabolic rate and membrane fatty acid composition in birds: a comparison between long-living parrots and short-living fowl. J Comp Physiol B. 2012;182:127-37 pubmed publisher
  65. Brandt S, Karemore G, Karssemeijer N, Nielsen M. An anatomically oriented breast coordinate system for mammogram analysis. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2011;30:1841-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In general, the new coordinate system makes an accurate anatomical registration of breasts possible, which suggests its wide applicability wherever 2-D mammogram registration is required...
  66. Sashida Y, Arashiro K. Successful management of tracheoinnominate artery fistula using a split pectoralis muscle flap with anatomical reconstruction by a synthetic graft. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg. 2010;44:175-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We report the successful repair for tracheoinnominate fistula, in which the innominate artery was interposed with a synthetic graft and the pectoralis muscle was used as a seal against infection. We know of 10 other reported cases...
  67. Tzikopoulos S, Mavroforakis M, Georgiou H, Dimitropoulos N, Theodoridis S. A fully automated scheme for mammographic segmentation and classification based on breast density and asymmetry. Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 2011;102:47-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, our methodology is applied to the complete miniMIAS database and it exhibits the reliability that is normally required for clinical use in CAD systems...
  68. Rekaya R, Sapp R, Wing T, Aggrey S. Genetic evaluation for growth, body composition, feed efficiency, and leg soundness. Poult Sci. 2013;92:923-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Simultaneous genetic improvement in leg soundness and innovative husbandry practices should improve broiler welfare without significant adverse effects on production efficiency...
  69. Ziskoven C, Patzer T, Ritsch M, Krauspe R, Kircher J. [Current treatment options for complete ruptures of the pectoralis major tendon]. Sportverletz Sportschaden. 2011;25:147-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In all other cases, especially in the elderly, conservative treatment remains an important option...
  70. Yiyit N, Isitmangil T, Saygin H. Eight patients with multiple bilateral thoracic anomalies: a new syndrome or bilateral Poland's syndrome?. Ann Thorac Surg. 2014;97:1758-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Poland's syndrome is usually unilateral. We present 8 patients with multiple bilateral thoracic anomalies...
  71. Ter Louw R, Nahabedian M. Prepectoral Breast Reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2017;140:51S-59S pubmed publisher
    ..This article will review the indications, technique, and current literature surrounding prepectoral prosthetic breast reconstruction...