palatal muscles


Summary: The muscles of the palate are the glossopalatine, palatoglossus, levator palati(ni), musculus uvulae, palatopharyngeus, and tensor palati(ni).

Top Publications

  1. Sommerlad B, Mehendale F, Birch M, Sell D, Hattee C, Harland K. Palate re-repair revisited. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2002;39:295-307 pubmed
    ..To analyze the results of a consecutive series of palate re-repairs performed using the operating microscope and identify predictive factors for outcome...
  2. Carvajal Monroy P, Grefte S, Kuijpers Jagtman A, Wagener F, Von den Hoff J. Strategies to improve regeneration of the soft palate muscles after cleft palate repair. Tissue Eng Part B Rev. 2012;18:468-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, novel therapeutic strategies based on tissue engineering to improve soft palate function after surgical repair are presented...
  3. Stål P, Johansson B. Abnormal mitochondria organization and oxidative activity in the palate muscles of long-term snorers with obstructive sleep apnea. Respiration. 2012;83:407-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These changes may create a substrate for decreased microcirculation, impaired aerobic metabolism and muscle dysfunction and contribute to upper airway obstruction during sleep...
  4. Hanes M, Weinzweig J, Panter K, McClellan W, Caterson S, Buchman S, et al. The effect of cleft palate repair on contractile properties of single permeabilized muscle fibers from congenitally cleft goat palates. Ann Plast Surg. 2008;60:188-93 pubmed publisher
    ..No differences in sF(0) were observed. nP(max) increased with presence of type 2 fibers. The persistent state of type 2 fibers following palatoplasty leads to increased fatigue in the LVP of MRP subjects and may cause VPI symptoms. ..
  5. Conill Tobías N, de Paula Vernetta C, García Callejo F, Marco Algarra J. Objective tinnitus from palatal myoclonus. Use of botulinum toxin: a case report. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp. 2012;63:391-2 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a patient with long-term objective tinnitus, along with this patient's response to botulinum toxin injection...
  6. Perry J, Kuehn D, Sutton B. Morphology of the levator veli palatini muscle using magnetic resonance imaging. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2013;50:64-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The muscle did diverge at the point where the muscle bundle entered the velum, as it has been previously described. Instead, the muscle diverges near the midline insertion becoming sparser (smaller superior-to-inferior diameter). ..
  7. Nohara K, Kotani Y, Ojima M, Sasao Y, Tachimura T, Sakai T. Power spectra analysis of levator veli palatini muscle electromyogram during velopharyngeal closure for swallowing, speech, and blowing. Dysphagia. 2007;22:135-9 pubmed
    ..It was therefore indicated that the motor units of the levator muscle participating in contraction were different during swallowing and respiratory activities. ..
  8. Alper C, Swarts J, Singla A, Banks J, Doyle W. Relationship between the electromyographic activity of the paratubal muscles and eustachian tube opening assessed by sonotubometry and videoendoscopy. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2012;138:741-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The mLVP activity occurred before that of the mTVP, the submental muscle group, and peak ET opening. The mLVP contractions were associated with movements of the soft palate, anterior ET orifice, and rotation of the ET cartilage. ..
  9. Tachimura T, Okuno K, Ojima M, Nohara K. Change in levator veli palatini muscle activity in relation to swallowing volume during the transition from the oral phase to pharyngeal phase. Dysphagia. 2006;21:7-13 pubmed
    ..LVP muscle activity was positively correlated with changes in swallowing volume. The LVP muscle was involved in the regulation of swallowing during the transition from the oral to pharyngeal phases. ..

More Information

Publications101 found, 100 shown here

  1. Wojcicki P, Wojcicka G. [The management of velopharyngeal insufficiency after pharyngeal augmentations and furlow surgery]. Otolaryngol Pol. 2006;60:887-92 pubmed
  2. Miyamoto J, Nakajima T, Nagasao T, Konno E, Okabe K, Tanaka T, et al. Full-thickness reconstruction of the eyelid with rotation flap based on orbicularis oculi muscle and palatal mucosal graft: long-term results in 12 cases. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2009;62:1389-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Minimal shrinkage of palatal mucosal grafts prevents the reconstructed eyelid from sagging. In only one case, poor design of the flap led to flap congestion. However, this complication can be avoided with the proper design. ..
  3. Cole P, Horn T, Thaller S. The use of decellularized dermal grafting (AlloDerm) in persistent oro-nasal fistulas after tertiary cleft palate repair. J Craniofac Surg. 2006;17:636-41 pubmed
    ..Decellularized dermal graft should be considered for use in the treatment of recurrent oro-nasal fistula after cleft palate repair. We would also like to encourage further clinical study. ..
  4. Vuono I, Zanoteli E, de Oliveira A, Fujita R, Pignatari S, Pizarro G, et al. Histological analysis of palatopharyngeal muscle from children with snoring and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2007;71:283-90 pubmed
    ..One of the suggested mechanisms involved in this process is a neuromuscular abnormality of the palatal muscles. Whether children with OSAS develop into OSAS adults, or children and adult OSAS are two distinct disorders ..
  5. Moon J, Kuehn D, Chan G, Zhao L. Induced velopharyngeal fatigue effects in speakers with repaired palatal clefts. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2007;44:251-60 pubmed
    ..To address whether speakers with cleft palate exhibit velopharyngeal mechanism fatigue and are more susceptible to muscle fatigue than are speakers without cleft palate...
  6. Hwang K, Kim D, Hwang S. Microscopic relation of palatopharyngeus with levator veli palatini and superior constrictor. J Craniofac Surg. 2009;20:1591-3 pubmed publisher
    ..There were close attachment between the PP and SC.A detailed understanding of the microscopic relationship between the levator veli palatini, PP, and SC muscle is desirable for performing pharyngeal flap surgeries. ..
  7. Gong H, Chen X, Zhang X, Liu F. [Research on apoptosis changes of tensor veli palatini in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome]. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2010;24:108-11 pubmed
    ..697, P < 0.01) respectively in the test group. The results indicate that apoptosis occurred in tensor veli palatini in patients with OS AHS, and the more severity of OSAHS, the more apoptosis. ..
  8. Arnold W, Nohadani N, Koch K. Morphology of the auditory tube and palatal muscles in a case of bilateral cleft palate. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2005;42:197-201 pubmed
    ..of otitis media in children with cleft palate, which may be related to the pathology of the auditory tube and palatal muscles. In the present study, the head of a human on term born fetus with bilateral palatal cleft was serially ..
  9. Valbuza J, de Oliveira M, Conti C, Prado L, de Carvalho L, do Prado G. Methods for increasing upper airway muscle tonus in treating obstructive sleep apnea: systematic review. Sleep Breath. 2010;14:299-305 pubmed publisher
    ..Well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the efficacy of such methods. ..
  10. Stamelou M, Saifee T, Edwards M, Bhatia K. Psychogenic palatal tremor may be underrecognized: reappraisal of a large series of cases. Mov Disord. 2012;27:1164-1168 pubmed publisher
    ..Some patients can have palatal movements as a special skill or due to palatal tics. Psychogenic palatal tremor is recognized but rarely reported in the literature...
  11. Cohen S, Chen L, Trotman C, Burdi A. Soft-palate myogenesis: a developmental field paradigm. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 1993;30:441-6 pubmed
    ..prenatal myogenesis of the soft palate from its early mesenchymal phase through the appearance of definitive palatal muscles and associated structures in a sample of 22 human fetuses that represented postfertilization weeks 6.5 to 20...
  12. Rogers G, Murthy A, Mulliken J. Congenital fenestration of the palate: A case of embryologic syzygy. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2006;43:363-6 pubmed
    ..Of the 26 putative cases in the literature, only 5 had confirmation of the cleft during the neonatal period. This report documents such a cleft in an infant and presents the likely pathogenesis. ..
  13. Pinto P, Debnath S. Use of pedicled graft of buccal fat pad to line a nasal defect in releasing pushback palatoplasty. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;45:249-50 pubmed
  14. Yang Y, Zhang X, Chen X. [Denervation change of tensor veli palati in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome]. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2012;26:977-9, 983 pubmed
    ..803, P < 0.01). These results indicate that the denervation change of tensor veli palati appear in OSAHS patients, and the severity of OSAHS are relevant with the degree of denervation. ..
  15. Carman K, Ozkan S, Yarar C, Yakut A. Essential palatal tremor treated with botulinum toxin. Pediatr Neurol. 2013;48:415-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Different treatment options have been used to treat palatal tremor, with varying success rates. Here we describe a patient with essential palatal tremor and who was treated with botulinum toxin injections. ..
  16. Lam D, Starr J, Perkins J, Lewis C, Eblen L, Dunlap J, et al. A comparison of nasendoscopy and multiview videofluoroscopy in assessing velopharyngeal insufficiency. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;134:394-402 pubmed
    ..94). NE and MVF assessments provide complementary information and are correlated. Both are associated with VPI severity. However, the "bird's-eye view" provided by NE has a stronger correlation with VPI severity than MVF. B-2b. ..
  17. Kim J, Moon S, Choi K, Kim J, Sharpe J. Patterns of ocular oscillation in oculopalatal tremor: imaging correlations. Neurology. 2007;68:1128-35 pubmed
    ..Instability of eye velocity to position integration from damage to the paramedian tract projections and denervation of the dorsal cap of the inferior olive are proposed mechanisms of the pendular nystagmus. ..
  18. Alvite M, Lopes R, Costa M. [Mechanical-thermal stimulation of the palatoglossus pillars]. Arq Gastroenterol. 2007;44:221-6 pubmed
  19. Fudalej P, Janiszewska Olszowska J, Wedrychowska Szulc B, Katsaros C. Early alveolar bone grafting has a negative effect on maxillary dental arch dimensions of pre-school children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate. Orthod Craniofac Res. 2011;14:51-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Early bone grafting results in a larger collapse of the lesser segment than bone grafting carried out between 9 and 12 years of age. ..
  20. Taranto Montemurro L, Kasai T. The upper airway in sleep-disordered breathing: UA in SDB. Minerva Med. 2014;105:25-40 pubmed
    ..It has been reported that UA alterations (i.e., collapse or dilation) can be observed in CSA. This review highlights the roles of the UA in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of SDB. ..
  21. Kimoff R. Upperairway myopathy is important in the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med. 2007;3:567-9 pubmed
  22. Okuda S, Abe S, Kim H, Agematsu H, Mitarashi S, Tamatsu Y, et al. Morphologic characteristics of palatopharyngeal muscle. Dysphagia. 2008;23:258-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results suggest that the palatopharyngeal muscle has a close positional relationship with the levator and tensor muscles of the palatine velum, the pharyngeal constrictor muscles, and the esophagus. ..
  23. Sawczuk A, Mosier K. Neural control of tongue movement with respect to respiration and swallowing. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 2001;12:18-37 pubmed
    ..This section will conclude with a discussion of the functional and clinical significance of cortical control with respect to recent advances in our understanding of the peripheral and brainstem physiology of tongue movement. ..
  24. Anastassov G, Joos U. Comprehensive management of cleft lip and palate deformities. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2001;59:1062-75; discussion 1075-7 pubmed
    ..If the treatment principles are not incorporated in the functional repair (ie, joining of the primary and the secondary growth centers during corrective procedures), compromised results are to be expected. ..
  25. Cheng N, Zhang K. [The applied anatomic study of palatopharyngeus muscle]. Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2004;20:384-7 pubmed
    ..The sphincter pharyngoplasty has some influence to the blood supply and innervation of the muscles, which may result to blood reversion and denervation for the distal component of palatopharyngeal flap. ..
  26. Cheng N, Zhao M, Qi K, Deng H, Fang Z, Song R. A modified procedure for velopharyngeal sphincteroplasty in primary cleft palate repair and secondary velopharyngeal incompetence treatment and its preliminary results. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2006;59:817-25 pubmed
    ..Further study of the procedure is needed. The theoretical basis, operative highlights, velopharyngeal function, advantages and disadvantages of the modified procedure were discussed. ..
  27. Saperstein E, Kennedy D, Mulliken J, Padwa B. Facial growth in children with complete cleft of the primary palate and intact secondary palate. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012;70:e66-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that the presence and/or repair of the secondary palate is responsible for midfacial hypoplasia in these patients. ..
  28. Ghadiali S, Swarts J, Doyle W. Effect of tensor veli palatini muscle paralysis on eustachian tube mechanics. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2003;112:704-11 pubmed
    ..Knowledge of how these physical components affect the global mechanical environment may lead to improved treatments for ET dysfunction that target the underlying mechanical abnormality. ..
  29. Xu J, Chen H, Tan W, Lin J, Wu W. The square flap method for cleft palate repair. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2007;44:579-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The technique presented has been effective, with the advantages of palatal closure without tension, good muscular reconstruction, and sufficient lengthening of the soft palate. ..
  30. Evans A, Ackermann B, Driscoll T. Functional anatomy of the soft palate applied to wind playing. Med Probl Perform Art. 2010;25:183-9 pubmed
    ..These muscles contribute to either a palatal or a pharyngeal component of velopharyngeal closure. This information should guide further research into targeted methods of assessment, management, and treatment of VPI in wind musicians. ..
  31. Sanchis J, Penarrocha M. Uvular paralysis after dental anesthesia. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002;60:1369-71 pubmed
  32. Fogel R, White D, Pierce R, Malhotra A, Edwards J, Dunai J, et al. Control of upper airway muscle activity in younger versus older men during sleep onset. J Physiol. 2003;553:533-44 pubmed
    ..Sleep onset per se does not appear to have a greater effect on upper airway muscle activity as one ages. ..
  33. Srinivasan I, Strantzas S, Crawford M. Phasic genioglossus and palatoglossus muscle activity during recovery from sevoflurane anesthesia: a prospective observational study in children. Anesthesiology. 2013;119:562-8 pubmed publisher
    ..0002). Genioglossus and palatoglossus activity increases during recovery from sevoflurane anesthesia in a dose-dependent manner over the clinical range of sevoflurane concentrations in children. ..
  34. Grzonka M, Koch K, Koch J, Glindemann S. Malformation of the vomer in submucous cleft palate. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2001;29:106-10 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, complete submucous cleft palate may cause imperfect palato-pharyngeal closure so that the affected person needs to undergo speech training and surgical treatment...
  35. Shimokawa T, Yi S, Izumi A, Ru F, Akita K, Sato T, et al. An anatomical study of the levator veli palatini and superior constrictor with special reference to their nerve supply. Surg Radiol Anat. 2004;26:100-5 pubmed
    ..Regarding the innervation of the superior constrictor, some variations were observed, and we consider it likely that there is a close relationship between these variations and the type of innervation of the LVP...
  36. Tachimura T, Nohara K, Satoh K, Wada T. Evaluation of fatigability of the levator veli palatini muscle during continuous blowing using power spectra analysis. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2004;41:320-6 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to compare the fatigability of the levator veli palatini (LVP) muscle during blowing in speakers who exhibit velopharyngeal incompetence with that from normal speakers by means of power spectra analysis...
  37. Haller S, Winkler D, Gobbi C, Lyrer P, Wetzel S, Steck A. Prominent activation of the putamen during essential palatal tremor: a functional MR imaging case study. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2006;27:1272-4 pubmed
    ..The present functional study complements previous pathologic studies, which associated PT with lesions to dentate nucleus, red nucleus, and the inferior olive (Guillain-Mollaret triangle)...
  38. Perry J, Kuehn D. Three-dimensional computer reconstruction of the levator veli palatini muscle in situ using magnetic resonance imaging. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2007;44:421-3 pubmed
  39. Lazzeri D, Viacava P, Pollina L, Sansevero S, Lorenzetti F, Balmelli B, et al. Dystrophic-like alterations characterize orbicularis oris and palatopharyngeal muscles in patients affected by cleft lip and palate. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2008;45:587-91 pubmed publisher
    ..This study analyzed histological and histochemical features of specimens of the orbicularis oris muscle, and palatal and pharyngeal muscles biopsied during surgery from 33 patients affected by cleft lip and palate...
  40. Osi A, Weishampel D. Jaw mechanism and dental function in the late cretaceous basal eusuchian Iharkutosuchus. J Morphol. 2009;270:903-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This is also supported by the microstructure of the thick, wrinkled enamel built up mostly by poorly developed columnar units. Based on wear patterns, ontogenetic variation in feeding habits of Iharkutosuchus is also recognized...
  41. Xu G, Ye J. [Characteristic of mandibular muscle activity in patients with obstructive sleep hypopnea apnea syndrome]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2008;43:814-7 pubmed
    ..To establish an index that can evaluate the genioglossus muscle activity and investigate the relationship between the genioglossus muscle activity and the severity of patients with obstructive sleep hypopnea apnea syndrome (OSAHS)...
  42. Tian W, Yin H, Li Y, Zhao S, Zheng Q, Shi B. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of velopharyngeal structures in Chinese children after primary palatal repair. J Craniofac Surg. 2010;21:568-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study aimed to investigate the characteristics of the velopharyngeal structures, including the levator veli palatini muscles, in children with repaired cleft palate and different speech outcomes...
  43. Suzuki C, Sando I, Balaban C, Kitagawa M, Takasaki K. Difference in attachment of the tensor veli palatini muscle to the eustachian tube cartilage with age. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2003;112:439-43 pubmed
    ..These findings are thought to be related to postnatal development and aging. The possibility of differences in ventilation function with age is discussed...
  44. Mehendale F, Birch M, Birkett L, Sell D, Sommerlad B. Surgical management of velopharyngeal incompetence in velocardiofacial syndrome. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2004;41:124-35 pubmed
    ..To analyze the results of surgery for velopharyngeal incompetence (VPI) in velocardiofacial syndrome...
  45. Samuel M, Torun N, Tuite P, Sharpe J, Lang A. Progressive ataxia and palatal tremor (PAPT): clinical and MRI assessment with review of palatal tremors. Brain. 2004;127:1252-68 pubmed
    ..Familial PAPT differs from sporadic PAPT in having marked atrophy of cervical cord and brainstem with corticospinal signs but without hypertrophic olivary appearance on MRI...
  46. Abe M, Murakami G, Noguchi M, Kitamura S, Shimada K, Kohama G. Variations in the tensor veli palatini muscle with special reference to its origin and insertion. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2004;41:474-84 pubmed
    ..The goal of this study was to describe the morphology of the TVP in a systematic and comprehensive manner...
  47. Sharma R, Nanda V, Makkar S. Angled blade for cleft palate surgery. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005;116:1572-3 pubmed
  48. McDonald M, Hoffman M, Gentry L, Jiang J. New insights into mechanism of Eustachian tube ventilation based on cine computed tomography images. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2012;269:1901-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Improved understanding of ET ventilation may facilitate management of middle ear disease as treatment evolves from ventilatory tube placement to ET manipulation...
  49. Ahdab R, Farhat W, Chalah M, Kerschen P, Lefaucheur J, Ayache S. Central and peripheral motor drive to the palatal muscles. Neurophysiol Clin. 2016;46:63-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A bilateral cortical command of the palate is supported by our results, with a possible predominant motor drive from the left hemisphere in right-handed subjects. ..
  50. Takasaki K, Sando I, Balaban C, Miura M. Functional anatomy of the tensor veli palatini muscle and Ostmann's fatty tissue. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2002;111:1045-9 pubmed
  51. Orita Y, Sando I, Hasebe S, Miura M. Postnatal change on the location of Ostmann's fatty tissue in the region lateral to Eustachian tube. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2003;67:1105-12 pubmed
    ..To delineate a possible role of protective function by Ostmann's fatty tissue (OF) in the lateral region to Eustachian tube (ET)...
  52. Skotnicka B, Hassmann Poznańska E. [Video endoscopic analysis of eustachian tube function in children with middle ear pathology]. Otolaryngol Pol. 2007;61:301-6 pubmed
    ..Dynamic video analysis is useful in the identify type of ET dysfunction in children. Obstructive dysfuntion need diagnostic procedures for chronic infection, nasopharyngeal reflux and alergic diseases...
  53. Chen C, Huang T. Lateral medullary infarction presenting contralateral palatal paresis. Acta Neurol Taiwan. 2008;17:239-42 pubmed
  54. Nanda V, Tuli P, Sharma R. Lateral approach to the levator veli palatini: a preliminary report. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2009;46:292-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This lateral approach helps in the complete release of the levator from all abnormal attachments and ensures reconstruction of an effective sling. This technique is of particular benefit in a palate re-repair...
  55. Kuehn D, Ettema S, Goldwasser M, Barkmeier J, Wachtel J. Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of occult submucous cleft palate. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2001;38:421-31 pubmed
  56. Nishie M. [Correlation between inferior olivary hypertrophy and generation of palatal tremor (formerly termed 'palatal myoclonus')]. No To Shinkei. 2003;55:307-15 pubmed
  57. Zhu T, Ma L. [A study of lateral skull radiography of patients with submucous cleft palate]. Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2003;38:132-4 pubmed
    ..To investigate the insertion position of the levator veli palatini in the soft palate with SMCP comparing normal group and find out reliance diagnosis methods for SMCP...
  58. Kent R. The uniqueness of speech among motor systems. Clin Linguist Phon. 2004;18:495-505 pubmed
    ..The craniofacial and laryngeal muscles are unique among the muscle systems of the human body and the specialized properties of these muscles are relevant to understanding the biomechanics of speech and various speech disorders...
  59. Morini A, Boninsegna C, Nostro M, Simonetti S, Orrico D, Moretto G, et al. Palatal tremor suppressed by mouth opening: clinical and neurophysiological correlations in two patients. J Neurol. 2005;252:1335-40 pubmed
    ..We emphasize that clear cut modulating phenomena may be relevant features in both typical and atypical involuntary EPT. We finally focus on the significance of jaw posture in determining PT suppression in our patients...
  60. Hanes M, Weinzweig J, Kuzon W, Panter K, Buchman S, Faulkner J, et al. Contractile properties of single permeabilized muscle fibers from congenital cleft palates and normal palates of Spanish goats. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;119:1685-94 pubmed
    ..The authors hypothesized that levator veli palatini muscle dysfunction inherent to cleft palates could affect the timing and outcome of cleft palate repair...
  61. Doyle W, Swarts J. Eustachian tube-tensor veli palatini muscle-cranial base relationships in children and adults: an osteological study. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;74:986-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, those relationships were reconstructed from skulls and compared between children and adults...
  62. Watson C. Re: Patterns of ocular oscillation in oculopalatal tremor: imaging correlations. Neurology. 2007;69:2111; author reply 2111 pubmed
  63. Hurubeanu L, Baciut G, Zeilhofer H, Sader R, Baciut M, Campian R, et al. [New morpho-functional rehabilitation methods in cleft lip and palate]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2008;112:229-33 pubmed
    ..Functional rehabilitation is the aspect, which gives the esthetics, social and familial integration of the patient, offering good quality of life...
  64. Nyberg J, Westberg L, Neovius E, Larson O, Henningsson G. Speech results after one-stage palatoplasty with or without muscle reconstruction for isolated cleft palate. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2010;47:92-103 pubmed publisher
    ..The number of subsequent velopharyngeal flaps was compared with respect to surgical techniques and cleft extent...
  65. Saleh A. Correction of incomplete cleft palate by u-shaped flap palatoplasty. Afr J Paediatr Surg. 2010;7:185-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To improve results of surgical treatment of cleft palate and secondary velopharyngeal incompetence, a carefully designed modified procedure for palatoplasty is presented...
  66. Yoshihara N, Okuda M, Takano K, Wada T, Osaka H. Idiopathic cranial polyneuropathy with unilateral IX and X and contralateral XI nerve palsy in a 4-year-old boy. Pediatr Neurol. 2012;47:198-200 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that aggressive therapy is unnecessary for patients with idiopathic cranial polyneuropathy. The pathogenesis of this condition may involve an immunologic mechanism...
  67. Breuls M, Sell D, Manders E, Boulet E, Vander Poorten V. SISL (ScreeningsInstrument Schisis Leuven): assessment of cleft palate speech, resonance and myofunction. B-ENT. 2006;2 Suppl 4:71-84 pubmed
    ..SP.ASS'98 and adapted to Flemish. It focuses on the relevant aspects of cleft type speech necessary to facilitate assessment, adequate diagnosis and management planning in a multi-disciplinary setting of cleft team care...
  68. Fudalej P, Katsaros C, Bongaarts C, Dudkiewicz Z, Kuijpers Jagtman A. Nasolabial esthetics in children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate after 1- versus 3-stage treatment protocols. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;67:1661-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To date, few studies have assessed the nasolabial appearance after different treatment protocols. The aim of the present study was to compare the nasolabial esthetics after 1- and 3-stage treatment protocols...
  69. Fudalej P, Katsaros C, Bongaarts C, Dudkiewicz Z, Kuijpers Jagtman A. Dental arch relationship in children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate following one-stage and three-stage surgical protocols. Clin Oral Investig. 2011;15:503-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The dental arch relationship following one-stage repair was less favorable than the outcome of three-stage repair. The palatal morphology following one-stage repair, however, was more favorable than the outcome of three-stage repair...
  70. De la Cuadra Blanco C, Peces Peña M, Rodriguez Vazquez J, Merida Velasco J, Merida Velasco J. Development of the human tensor veli palatini: specimens measuring 13.6-137 mm greatest length; weeks 6-16 of development. Cells Tissues Organs. 2012;195:392-9 pubmed publisher
  71. Alicandri Ciufelli M, Soloperto D, Palma S, Marrara A, Genovese E. A clockwork ear. Neuropediatrics. 2012;43:146-8 pubmed publisher
    ..tinnitus are head and neck vascular malformations, or muscular myoclonus of the tensor tympani, stapedial, or palatal muscles. The case of an 11-year-old girl with an objective tinnitus lasting from 1 year is herein presented, and the ..
  72. Li X, Li S. [Surgical reconstruction of velopharyngeal incompetence in postoperative cleft palate patients]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2002;16:420-1 pubmed
    ..To explore the clinical result of velopharyngeal cerclage in repairing velopharyngeal incompetence of postoperative cleft palate patients...
  73. Cho B, Kim J, Yang J, Lee D, Chung H, Park J. Influence of the Furlow palatoplasty for patients with submucous cleft palate on facial growth. J Craniofac Surg. 2004;15:547-54; discussion 555 pubmed
  74. Chien H, Sanchez T, Sennes L, Barbosa E. Endonasal approach of salpingopharyngeus muscle for the treatment of ear click related to palatal tremor. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2007;13:254-6 pubmed
    ..The result was very satisfactory. Tinnitus due to essential PT may be satisfactorily treated by endonasal injection of BTX into the salpingopharyngeus and palatopharyngeus muscles...
  75. Ghadiali S, Bell E, Swarts J. Timing of tensor and levator veli palatini force application determines eustachian tube resistance patterns during the forced-response test. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2010;37:720-9 pubmed publisher
  76. Lin K, Goldberg D, Williams C, Borowitz K, Persing J, Edgerton M. Long-term outcome analysis of two treatment methods for cleft palate: combined levator retropositioning and pharyngeal flap versus double-opposing Z-plasty. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 1999;36:73-8 pubmed
    ..This study compared morbidity and speech results from the use of these two methods in an effort to determine which was the superior technique...
  77. Yasuda K, Okuda D, Tanaka M, Mori R, Hasumi Nakayama Y, Tanaka M, et al. Central distribution of neuronal cell bodies innervating the levator veli palatini muscle and associated pattern of myosin heavy chain isoform expression in rat. Brain Res. 2003;968:80-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a relationship between MyHC isoform expression and the central distribution of LVP motoneurons or central projections of afferent neurons, with regard to activity of the LVP during both inspiration and expiration...
  78. MacDonald J. Objective tinnitus due to essential palatal tremor in a 5-year-old. Pediatr Neurol. 2007;36:175-6 pubmed
    ..All tests were normal including magnetic resonance imaging brain scan. One year after onset, his objective tinnitus and palatal tremor were no longer present...
  79. Boland P, Pataridis K, Eley K, Golding S, Watt Smith S. Automatic upstaging of tongue squamous cell carcinoma with lateral extrinsic muscle involvement is not justified. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013;42:1397-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Such stratification is of little clinical relevance, and an alternative more reliable method is required. ..
  80. Tachimura T, Nohara K, Wada T. Effect of placement of a speech appliance on levator veli palatini muscle activity during speech. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2000;37:478-82 pubmed
  81. Nohara K, Tachimura T, Wada T. Prediction of deterioration of velopharyngeal function associated with maxillary advancement using electromyography of levator veli palatini muscle. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2006;43:174-8 pubmed
    ..The purpose of the present study was to examine the possibility that postoperative velopharyngeal function following maxillary advancement could be predicted using preoperative electromyography of the levator veli palatini...
  82. Lu Y, Shi B, Zheng Q, Hu Q, Wang Z. Incidence of palatal fistula after palatoplasty with levator veli palatini retropositioning according to Sommerlad. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010;48:637-40 pubmed publisher
    ..03). Our results show that palatal fistula after repair is related mainly to the extent of the cleft and the experience of the operating surgeon...
  83. Braun T, Gurkov R, Hempel J, Berghaus A, Krause E. Patient benefit from treatment with botulinum neurotoxin A for functional indications in otorhinolaryngology. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;267:1963-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are needed to analyze the patients who will benefit most from a treatment with BoNT A...
  84. Janiszewska Olszowska J, Gawrych E, Dydyk A, Studniak E, Biaduń Popławska A, Zajaczek S. Oro-palatal dysplasia Bettex-Graf--clinical findings, genetic background, treatment. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2013;41:e29-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors postulate that a 20mm intercommissural distance allows acceptable function without the need for surgical correction...
  85. Cho J, Kim J, Lee H, Yoon J. Surgical anatomy of human soft palate. Laryngoscope. 2013;123:2900-4 pubmed publisher
    ..So far, these muscles have been analyzed separately and the whole structure of the soft palate has been described very vaguely. The purpose of this study was to describe the structure of soft palate collectively...
  86. Walter J. Obturators for cleft palate and other speech appliances. Dent Update. 2005;32:217-8, 220-2 pubmed
    ..The procedure of obturator moulding is described and the functioning of palatal training appliances and palatal supports explained...
  87. Pappachan B, Vasant R. Application of bilateral pedicled buccal fat pad in wide primary cleft palate. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;46:310-2 pubmed
    ..The pedicled flap was placed into this defect. Pedicled buccal fat pad can be brought from the lateral releasing incision itself without adding another donor site. The postoperative course was uneventful...
  88. Smolka K, Seifert E, Eggensperger N, Iizuka T, Smolka W. Reconstruction of the palatal aponeurosis with autogenous fascia lata in secondary radical intravelar veloplasty: a new method. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;37:756-60 pubmed publisher
    ..detected by nasendoscopy is commonly treated by secondary radical intravelar veloplasty, in which the palatal muscles are reoriented and positioned backwards...
  89. Zhang L, Yoshimura Y, Hatta T, Otani H. Myogenic determination and differentiation of the mouse palatal muscle in relation to the developing mandibular nerve. J Dent Res. 1999;78:1417-25 pubmed
    The vertebrate palatal muscles are derived from the cranial paraxial mesoderm and start myogenesis by the expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs)...
  90. Shvidler J, Cable B, Sheridan M. Hairy polyp in the oropharynx of a 5-week-old infant with sudden-onset respiratory distress. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;136:491-2 pubmed
  91. Jeannet P, Marcoz J, Kuntzer T, Roulet Perez E. Isolated facial and bulbar paresis: a persistent manifestation of neonatal myasthenia gravis. Neurology. 2008;70:237-8 pubmed publisher
  92. Grobe A, Eichhorn W, Hanken H, Precht C, Schmelzle R, Heiland M, et al. The use of buccal fat pad (BFP) as a pedicled graft in cleft palate surgery. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;40:685-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The BFP graft provides an advantage in reconstructive cleft palate surgery...