oculomotor muscles

Summary

Summary: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.

Top Publications

  1. Saleem Q, Cheema A, Tahir M, Dahri A, Sabir T, Niazi J. Outcome of unilateral lateral rectus recession and medial rectus resection in primary exotropia. BMC Res Notes. 2013;6:257 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to measure the success rate of unilateral lateral rectus recession and medial rectus resection in primary exotropia...
  2. Hakim O, Gaber El Hag Y, Maher H. Persistence of eye movement following disinsertion of extraocular muscle. J AAPOS. 2008;12:62-5 pubmed
    ..Orbital connective tissue can be considered an additional and important locomotor system. ..
  3. Graf M. [Diagnosis and treatment of trochlear nerve palsy]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2009;226:806-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Normal binocular vision in all directions of gaze for slight palsy and in large part of the daily used gaze area for severe palsy can be achieved by one or sometimes two operations. ..
  4. Jackson B. Orbital trauma, bradycardia, and vomiting: trapdoor fracture and the oculocardiac reflex: a case report. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2010;26:143-5 pubmed publisher
  5. Murthy R. Inverse Duane's retraction syndrome following myocysticercosis. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2008;56:89-90 pubmed
  6. Yazdian Z, Rajabi M, Ali Yazdian M, Rajabi M, Akbari M. Vertical rectus muscle transposition for correcting abduction deficiency in Duane's syndrome type 1 and sixth nerve palsy. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2010;47:96-100 pubmed publisher
    ..No recurrence was detected. The Scott Foster procedure is effective for improving deviation, abduction deficiency, and face turn in patients with Duane's syndrome type 1 and especially in those with sixth nerve palsy. ..
  7. Molinari A, Ugrin M. Frequency of the superior rectus muscle overaction/contracture syndrome in unilateral fourth nerve palsy. J AAPOS. 2009;13:571-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Of 198 patients, 33 (16.6%) met the selection criteria for superior rectus muscle overaction/contracture syndrome. Superior rectus muscle overaction/contracture syndrome frequently occurs in unilateral superior oblique palsy. ..
  8. Liu J, Brannstrom T, Andersen P, Pedrosa Domellöf F. Different impact of ALS on laminin isoforms in human extraocular muscles versus limb muscles. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:4842-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study showed distinct impact of ALS on EOMs compared with limb muscles. The EOMs maintained a normal laminin composition in their NMJs, which may be instrumental for the fact that they are not typically affected in ALS. ..
  9. Brodsky M. Dissociated horizontal deviation: clinical spectrum, pathogenesis, evolutionary underpinnings, diagnosis, treatment, and potential role in the development of infantile esotropia (an American Ophthalmological Society thesis). Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 2007;105:272-93 pubmed
    ..This unrecognized form of ocular motor dissociation may contribute to the pathogenesis of infantile esotropia. ..

More Information

Publications70

  1. Stanković B, Stojkovic M, Vlajkovic G, Zdravković I, Risovic D. Long-term outcome of strabismus and ptosis surgery in a mother and daughter with congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles. Vojnosanit Pregl. 2006;63:835-8 pubmed
    ..The aim of this report was to describe a severe, atypical, exposure-induced corneal stromal lysis in two patients...
  2. Blumer R, Konakci K, Pomikal C, Wieczorek G, Lukas J, Streicher J. Palisade endings: cholinergic sensory organs or effector organs?. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:1176-86 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aims to complement the authors' prior findings on palisade endings in extraocular muscles (EOMs) of monkeys, and to clarify whether palisade endings are cholinergic motor or cholinergic sensory...
  3. Rungaldier S, Heiligenbrunner S, Mayer R, Hanefl Krivanek C, Lipowec M, Streicher J, et al. Ultrastructural and molecular biologic comparison of classic proprioceptors and palisade endings in sheep extraocular muscles. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:5697-706 pubmed publisher
    ..To analyze and compare the structural and molecular features of classic proprioceptors like muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs (GTOs) and putative proprioceptors (palisade endings) in sheep extraocular muscle (EOMs)...
  4. Quaia C, Ying H, Optican L. The viscoelastic properties of passive eye muscle in primates. II: testing the quasi-linear theory. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6480 pubmed publisher
    ..It is currently unknown whether other passive biological tissues behave similarly...
  5. Rosengren S, Nogajski J, Cremer P, Colebatch J. Delayed vestibular evoked responses to the eyes and neck in a patient with an isolated brainstem lesion. Clin Neurophysiol. 2007;118:2112-6 pubmed
    ..We describe a case of a patient in whom these investigations localised the lesion and suggested its nature...
  6. Iwasaki S, McGarvie L, Halmagyi G, Burgess A, Kim J, Colebatch J, et al. Head taps evoke a crossed vestibulo-ocular reflex. Neurology. 2007;68:1227-9 pubmed
    ..These responses probably reflect vestibular function via crossed otolith-ocular pathways...
  7. Croes S, von Bartheld C. Measurement of contractile force of skeletal and extraocular muscles: effects of blood supply, muscle size and in situ or in vitro preparation. J Neurosci Methods. 2007;166:53-65 pubmed
    ..The mechanisms responsible for the declining values for force measurements are discussed, and we make specific recommendations for obtaining valid measurements of contractile force...
  8. Lim K, Poukens V, Demer J. Fascicular specialization in human and monkey rectus muscles: evidence for anatomic independence of global and orbital layers. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:3089-97 pubmed
    ..The authors investigated insertions and anatomic relationships of fiber fascicles within rectus EOMs to clarify the relationship to their pulleys...
  9. Kushner B. Comparison of a new, minimally invasive strabismus surgery technique with the usual limbal approach for rectus muscle recession and plication. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007;91:5 pubmed
  10. Khan A, Khalil D, Al Sharif L, Al Ghadhfan F, Al Tassan N. Germline Mosaicism for KIF21A Mutation (p.R954L) Mimicking Recessive Inheritance for Congenital Fibrosis of the Extraocular Muscles. Ophthalmology. 2010;117:154-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To document the genotype for familial congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) with apparent autosomal recessive inheritance...
  11. Hong S, Chang Y, Han S. Full tendon transposition augmented with posterior intermuscular suture and recession--resection surgery. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2006;20:254-5 pubmed
    ..To report an effect of the full tendon transposition augmented with posterior intermuscular suture and recession-resection surgery, for the patient with monocular elevation deficiency (MED) and large exotropia...
  12. Todd N, Rosengren S, Aw S, Colebatch J. Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (OVEMPs) produced by air- and bone-conducted sound. Clin Neurophysiol. 2007;118:381-90 pubmed
    ..To determine the origin and properties of short latency extraocular potentials produced by activation of the vestibular apparatus using two modes of acoustic stimulation...
  13. Soltys J, Gong B, Kaminski H, Zhou Y, Kusner L. Extraocular muscle susceptibility to myasthenia gravis: unique immunological environment?. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1132:220-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that complement inhibitory therapies may prove to be particularly effective in treatment of ocular myasthenia...
  14. Tjust A, Brannstrom T, Pedrosa Domellöf F. Unaffected motor endplate occupancy in eye muscles of ALS G93A mouse model. Front Biosci (Schol Ed). 2012;4:1547-55 pubmed
    ..We propose that EOM-specific properties make these muscles more resistant to the underlying pathophysiological process of ALS and that the EOMs are a useful model to advance our understanding of ALS...
  15. Puerto Hernandez B, Lopez Caballero C, Rodriguez Sanchez J, GONZALEZ MANRIQUE M, Contreras I. [Surgical treatment of Duane's syndrome type I by recession of the medial rectus of the affected eye and faden operation of the contralateral medial rectus]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2008;83:113-6 pubmed
    ..The purpose of our study is to report the results of patients undergoing recession of the medial rectus (MR) muscle of the affected eye and placement of contralateral MR faden posterior fixation sutures...
  16. Rosengren S, Jombik P, Halmagyi G, Colebatch J. Galvanic ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials provide new insight into vestibulo-ocular reflexes and unilateral vestibular loss. Clin Neurophysiol. 2009;120:569-80 pubmed publisher
    ..As galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) evokes the vestibulo-ocular reflex, we wished to investigate GVS-evoked OVEMPs...
  17. Nihalani B, Hunter D. Adjustable suture strabismus surgery. Eye (Lond). 2011;25:1262-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistently improved outcomes in the adjustable arm of nearly all retrospective studies support the advantage of the adjustable option, and strabismus surgeons are advised to become facile in the application of this approach...
  18. Iwasaki S, Chihara Y, Smulders Y, Burgess A, Halmagyi G, Curthoys I, et al. The role of the superior vestibular nerve in generating ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials to bone conducted vibration at Fz. Clin Neurophysiol. 2009;120:588-93 pubmed publisher
    ..If the n10 is due primarily to utricular activation then diseases which affect only the superior division of the vestibular nerve (SVN) should reduce or eliminate n10...
  19. Ludwig C, Mildinhall J, Gilchrist I. A population coding account for systematic variation in saccadic dead time. J Neurophysiol. 2007;97:795-805 pubmed
    ..Variations in dead time with separation between the two target locations are a natural consequence of the population coding assumption in the model...
  20. Mojon D. Comparison of a new, minimally invasive strabismus surgery technique with the usual limbal approach for rectus muscle recession and plication. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007;91:76-82 pubmed
    ..To present a novel, minimally invasive strabismus surgery (MISS) technique for rectus muscle operations...
  21. Bicer S, Reiser P. Myosin isoform expression in dog rectus muscles: patterns in global and orbital layers and among single fibers. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:157-67 pubmed publisher
    ..To quantitate the distribution of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms along the global and orbital layers of dog rectus muscles and determine MyHC and myosin light chain (MLC) isoform patterns among single fibers from both layers...
  22. Rajavi Z, Mohammad Rabei H, Ramezani A, Heidari A, Daneshvar F. Refractive effect of the horizontal rectus muscle recession. Int Ophthalmol. 2008;28:83-8 pubmed
    ..To determine refractive and corneal topographic changes after horizontal rectus muscles recession...
  23. Chambers J, Prescott T. Response times for visually guided saccades in persons with Parkinson's disease: a meta-analytic review. Neuropsychologia. 2010;48:887-99 pubmed publisher
  24. Lim S, Hong J, Kim M. Prognostic factors for recurrence with unilateral recess-resect procedure in patients with intermittent exotropia. Eye (Lond). 2011;25:449-54 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the prognostic factors, particularly age at the time of surgery, for recurrence after unilateral medial rectus resection and lateral rectus recession (R&R) procedures in patients with intermittent exotropia, or X(T)...
  25. Simon J. Complications of strabismus surgery. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2010;21:361-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the common and serious complications of strabismus surgery, emphasizing prevention, identification, and treatment...
  26. Budning A, Day C, Nguyen A. The short adjustable suture. Can J Ophthalmol. 2010;45:359-62 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe a new, adjustable suture technique for strabismus surgery that is safe and effective and allows for adjustment during the postoperative week only when required...
  27. Nihalani B, Whitman M, Salgado C, Loudon S, Hunter D. Short tag noose technique for optional and late suture adjustment in strabismus surgery. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;127:1584-90 pubmed publisher
    ..To present and evaluate a new technique that allows the second-stage suture adjustment in strabismus surgery to be skipped or delayed if the immediate postoperative alignment is satisfactory...
  28. Fackelmann K, Nouriani A, Horn A, Buttner Ennever J. Histochemical characterisation of trigeminal neurons that innervate monkey extraocular muscles. Prog Brain Res. 2008;171:17-20 pubmed publisher
    ..A surprisingly large population of NOS-positive TG cells (30%) was found only after distal tracer injections. Up to now none of these TG cell groups could be related to the palisade endings located at the myotendinous junction...
  29. Farvardin M, Rad A, Ashrafzadeh A. Results of bilateral medial rectus muscle recession in unilateral esotropic Duane syndrome. J AAPOS. 2009;13:339-42 pubmed publisher
    ..To report the results of bilateral medial rectus muscle recession in improvement of the ocular alignment and motility of patients with unilateral esotropic Duane syndrome...
  30. Yoo L, Kim H, Gupta V, Demer J. Quasilinear viscoelastic behavior of bovine extraocular muscle tissue. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:3721-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study describes, with the use of a quasilinear viscoelastic (QLV) model, the nonlinear, history-dependent viscoelastic properties and elastic stress-strain relationship of EOMs...
  31. Iwasaki S, Smulders Y, Burgess A, McGarvie L, MacDougall H, Halmagyi G, et al. Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials to bone conducted vibration of the midline forehead at Fz in healthy subjects. Clin Neurophysiol. 2008;119:2135-47 pubmed publisher
    ..To provide evidence that the response depends on otolithic function...
  32. Ahmadi M, Liu J, Brannstrom T, Andersen P, Stål P, Pedrosa Domellöf F. Human extraocular muscles in ALS. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:3494-501 pubmed publisher
    ..However, when compared to the limb muscles, the EOMs were remarkably preserved. EOMs are a useful model for the study of the pathophysiology of ALS...
  33. Yang X, Yamada K, Katz B, Guan H, Wang L, Andrews C, et al. KIF21A mutations in two Chinese families with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM). Mol Vis. 2010;16:2062-70 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine if previously described Homo sapiens kinesin family member 21A (KIF21A) mutations were responsible for CFEOM in these two Chinese pedigrees...
  34. Cho Y, Kim S. Role of the equator in the early overcorrection of intermittent exotropia. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2009;46:30-4 pubmed
    ..To determine the cause of consecutive esotropia on the basis of the relationship between the location of the equator and a new insertional site of the recessed lateral rectus muscle in cases of intermittent exotropia...
  35. Ameri A, Anvari F, Jafari A, Ahadzadeghan I, Akbari M, Rajabi M. Intraoperative adjustable suture surgery for excyclotorsion: a modification of the harada-ito procedure. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2009;46:368-71 pubmed publisher
  36. Erbagci I, Bekir N. Sutureless closure of the conjunctiva with a commercial fibrin sealant in extraocular muscle surgery for strabismus. Strabismus. 2007;15:89-94 pubmed
    ..This prospective study was done to determine the efficacy of an available commercial fibrin sealant for conjunctival wound closure following extraocular muscle surgery for strabismus...
  37. Li J, Lin M, Zhou H, Jia R, Fan X. Double-eyelid blepharoplasty incorporating blepharoptosis surgery for 'latent' aponeurotic ptosis. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2011;64:993-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Incorporation of the aponeurotic reinsertion and minimal dissection into the blepharoptosis surgery will correct the 'latent' aponeurotic ptosis successfully...
  38. Metten M, Link H, Staubach F, Bach M, Lagrèze W. Dose-response relationship in inferior oblique muscle recession. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2008;246:593-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, the effect of an additional anteroposition of the operated muscle was analysed, as well as differences between short and long term results...
  39. Lu S, Zhao C, Zhao K, Li N, Larsson C. Novel and recurrent KIF21A mutations in congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 1 and 3. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126:388-94 pubmed publisher
    ..To characterize the disease-causing mutations and associated clinical phenotypes in 5 Chinese families with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM)...
  40. Rungaldier S, Pomikal C, Streicher J, Blumer R. Palisade endings are present in canine extraocular muscles and have a cholinergic phenotype. Neurosci Lett. 2009;465:199-203 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that palisade endings are present in canine EOMs. In line with prior findings in cat and monkey, palisade endings in dog have a cholinergic phenotype...
  41. Kouvaris J, Gkongkou P, Papadimitriou C, Papacharalampous X, Antypas C, Balafouta M, et al. Bilateral metastases to extraocular muscles from lobular breast carcinoma. Onkologie. 2008;31:387-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Metastastic carcinoma to extraocular muscles is extremely rare, but even more so is the case of a bilateral one...
  42. Shan X, Ying H, Tian J, Quaia C, Walker M, Optican L, et al. Acute superior oblique palsy in monkeys: II. Changes in dynamic properties during vertical saccades. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:2612-20 pubmed
    ..To investigate vertical and torsional eye motion during and immediately after vertical saccades with acute acquired superior oblique palsy (SOP) in monkeys...
  43. Xu Y, Wang X, Peck C, Goldberg M. The time course of the tonic oculomotor proprioceptive signal in area 3a of somatosensory cortex. J Neurophysiol. 2011;106:71-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The length of the delay suggests that the proprioceptive eye position signal is unlikely to be used for online visual processing for action, although it could be used to calibrate an efference copy signal...
  44. Khan A, Khalil D, Al Tassan N. Congential fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type I (CFEOM1) on the Arabian Peninsula. Ophthalmic Genet. 2008;29:25-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess for KIF21A mutation in the first two reported Saudi Arabian families with the classic phenotype of congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type I (CFEOM1)...
  45. Matos K, Manso P, Marback E, Furlanetto R, Alberti G, Nose V. Protein expression of VEGF, IGF-1 and FGF in retroocular connective tissues and clinical correlation in Graves' ophthalmopathy. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2008;71:486-92 pubmed
    ..To investigate the immunohistochemical expression (IGF-1, EGFr, EGF, c-erbB-2/HER-2/neu, PDGF-A, PDGF-B, FGF and VEGF) in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy...
  46. Zhang M, Hutchinson A, Drack A, Cleveland J, Lambert S. Improved ocular alignment with adjustable sutures in adults undergoing strabismus surgery. Ophthalmology. 2012;119:396-402 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess whether outcomes of strabismus surgery are improved by using the adjustable suture technique and to determine which subgroups of strabismus patients benefit most from the adjustable suture technique...
  47. Awadein A, Sharma M, Bazemore M, Saeed H, Guyton D. Adjustable suture strabismus surgery in infants and children. J AAPOS. 2008;12:585-90 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the success rate of adjustable suture techniques in horizontal eye muscle surgery in children aged 10 years and younger...
  48. Quaia C, Ying H, Nichols A, Optican L. The viscoelastic properties of passive eye muscle in primates. I: static forces and step responses. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4850 pubmed publisher
    ..Eye plant models, which for lack of data had to rely on (erroneous) assumptions, will have to be updated to incorporate these properties...
  49. Chae S, Chun B, Kwon J. The effect of unilateral medial rectus muscle resection in patients with recurrent exotropia. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2008;22:174-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the effect of unilateral medial rectus muscle resection for recurrent exotropia after bilateral lateral rectus muscle recession for intermittent exotropia..
  50. Todd N, Rosengren S, Colebatch J. A utricular origin of frequency tuning to low-frequency vibration in the human vestibular system?. Neurosci Lett. 2009;451:175-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the tuning is at least in part due to properties of end-organs themselves, while the 100Hz best frequency may be a specifically utricular feature...
  51. Khan A. Bilateral inverse globe retraction (Duane's) syndrome. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2007;55:388-9 pubmed
    ..A case of true inverse Duane's retraction syndrome, bilateral inverse globe retraction syndrome apparently due to abnormal innervation, is the subject of this clinical report...
  52. Leow P, Ko S, Wu P, Chan C. Exotropic drift and ocular alignment after surgical correction for intermittent exotropia. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2010;47:12-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate changes in the angle of deviation over time and compare the motor success rate with different initial postoperative deviation in patients undergoing surgical correction for intermittent exotropia...
  53. Chihara Y, Iwasaki S, Ushio M, Murofushi T. Vestibular-evoked extraocular potentials by air-conducted sound: another clinical test for vestibular function. Clin Neurophysiol. 2007;118:2745-51 pubmed
  54. Lau F, Fan D, Sun K, Yu C, Wong C, Lam D. Residual torticollis in patients after strabismus surgery for congenital superior oblique palsy. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009;93:1616-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To study postoperative residual vertical deviation and abnormal head posture (AHP) after surgical treatment for congenital superior oblique palsy (SOP)...
  55. Ameri A, Jafari A, Anvari F, Ahadzadeghan I, Rajabi M. A new modfied anchored suspension-recession (so-called "hang-back" technique for high risk strabismus surgery. Binocul Vis Strabismus Q. 2010;25:21-30 pubmed
    ..To intruduce a new method for rectus muscle recession in order to minimize the riSk of a lost or slipped muscle and scleral perforation and compare it with the conventional method...
  56. Tibber M, Grant S, Morgan M. Oculomotor responses and visuospatial perceptual judgments compete for common limited resources. J Vis. 2009;9:21.1-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These data are consistent with visuoperceptual and oculomotor responses competing for common limited resources as well as spatial tasks incurring a relatively high attentional cost. ..
  57. Orlin A, Mills M, Ying G, Liu C. A comparison of hang-back with conventional recession surgery for exotropia. J AAPOS. 2007;11:597-600 pubmed
    ..Previous reports suggest that the hang-back technique for lateral rectus recession for exotropia results in poorer surgical success and may require a different surgical dosage...
  58. Rudolph G, Nentwich M, Hellebrand H, Pollack K, Gordes R, Bau V, et al. KIF21A variant R954W in familial or sporadic cases of CFEOM1. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2009;19:667-74 pubmed
    ..To demonstrate the clinical characteristics and determine mutations in the KIF21A gene, encoding a kinesin motor protein in patients with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) type 1...
  59. Shan X, Tian J, Ying H, Quaia C, Optican L, Walker M, et al. Acute superior oblique palsy in monkeys: I. Changes in static eye alignment. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:2602-11 pubmed
    ..To investigate immediate and long-term changes in static ocular alignment with acute acquired superior oblique palsy (SOP) in monkeys...
  60. Sharma P, Julka A, Gadia R, Chhabra A, Dehran M. Evaluation of single-stage adjustable strabismus surgery under conscious sedation. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2009;57:121-5 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the feasibility and stability of ocular alignment after single-stage adjustable strabismus surgery (SSASS) performed under topical anesthesia...
  61. Lee H, Kim S. Bilateral lateral rectus recession considering the tendon width in intermittent exotropia. Eye (Lond). 2009;23:1808-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to determine whether the tendon width of lateral rectus would be useful for predicting the effect of bilateral lateral rectus (BLR) recession...