neck muscles

Summary

Summary: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).

Top Publications

  1. Lindstroem R, Graven Nielsen T, Falla D. Current pain and fear of pain contribute to reduced maximum voluntary contraction of neck muscles in patients with chronic neck pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2012;93:2042-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess a range of physical and psychological factors and determine which factors contribute the most to reduced strength in patients with neck pain...
  2. Arumugam A, Mani R, Raja K. Interrater reliability of the craniocervical flexion test in asymptomatic individuals--a cross-sectional study. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2011;34:247-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to evaluate interrater reliability of the craniocervical flexion test (CCFT) on asymptomatic subjects...
  3. Giannakopoulos N, Hellmann D, Schmitter M, Krüger B, Hauser T, Schindler H. Neuromuscular interaction of jaw and neck muscles during jaw clenching. J Orofac Pain. 2013;27:61-71 pubmed publisher
    To test the hypothesis that jaw muscles and specific neck muscles, ie, levator scapulae, trapezius, sternocleidomastoideus, and splenius capitis, co-contract at the different submaximum bite forces usually generated during jaw clenching ..
  4. Vikne H, Gundersen K, Liestøl K, Maelen J, Vøllestad N. Intermuscular relationship of human muscle fiber type proportions: slow leg muscles predict slow neck muscles. Muscle Nerve. 2012;45:527-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Our aim in this study was to examine whether the muscle fiber type proportions in different muscles from the same individual are interrelated...
  5. Falla D, O Leary S, Farina D, Jull G. The change in deep cervical flexor activity after training is associated with the degree of pain reduction in patients with chronic neck pain. Clin J Pain. 2012;28:628-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between change in deep cervical flexor muscle activity and symptoms in response to specific training...
  6. Elliott J. Are there implications for morphological changes in neck muscles after whiplash injury?. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011;36:S205-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Literature review...
  7. Elliott J, Pedler A, Kenardy J, Galloway G, Jull G, Sterling M. The temporal development of fatty infiltrates in the neck muscles following whiplash injury: an association with pain and posttraumatic stress. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21194 pubmed publisher
    ..Initial ROM loss did not. MFI in the cervical extensors occur soon following whiplash injury and suggest the possibility for the occurrence of a more severe injury with subsequent PTSD in patients with persistent symptoms. ..
  8. Rai R, Nayak S, Ranade A, Prabhu L, Vadgaonkar R. Duplicated omohyoid muscle and its clinical significance. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2007;48:295-7 pubmed
    ..Knowledge of anomalies of this muscle is important to minimize the complications during the surgical procedures of cervical region. ..
  9. Rezasoltani A, Ali Reza A, Khosro K, Abbass R. Preliminary study of neck muscle size and strength measurements in females with chronic non-specific neck pain and healthy control subjects. Man Ther. 2010;15:400-3 pubmed publisher
    ..05). In conclusion, neck strength, the size of the SECM and the ratio of neck muscle strength to SECM size appear to be useful parameters in appraising patients with CNNP. ..

More Information

Publications75

  1. Sandberg M, Larsson B, Lindberg L, Gerdle B. Different patterns of blood flow response in the trapezius muscle following needle stimulation (acupuncture) between healthy subjects and patients with fibromyalgia and work-related trapezius myalgia. Eur J Pain. 2005;9:497-510 pubmed
    ..The intensity of stimulation should be taken into consideration when applying local needle stimulation (acupuncture) in order to increase the trapezius muscle blood flow in chronic pain conditions. ..
  2. Harris K, Heer D, Roy T, Santos D, Whitman J, Wainner R. Reliability of a measurement of neck flexor muscle endurance. Phys Ther. 2005;85:1349-55 pubmed
    ..Neck flexor muscle endurance was both statistically and clinically greater for subjects without neck pain than for those with neck pain. ..
  3. Strøm V, Røe C, Knardahl S. Work-induced pain, trapezius blood flux, and muscle activity in workers with chronic shoulder and neck pain. Pain. 2009;144:147-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Pain-afflicted people may benefit from breaks spaced at shorter intervals than those needed by pain-free subjects when working under time pressure...
  4. Johnston V, Jull G, Darnell R, Jimmieson N, Souvlis T. Alterations in cervical muscle activity in functional and stressful tasks in female office workers with neck pain. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2008;103:253-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether this is a consequence or source of the musculoskeletal disorder cannot be determined from this study. It is possible that workers currently without symptoms may be at risk of developing a musculoskeletal disorder. ..
  5. Andersen L, Nielsen P, Søgaard K, Andersen C, Skotte J, Sjøgaard G. Torque-EMG-velocity relationship in female workers with chronic neck muscle pain. J Biomech. 2008;41:2029-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Parallel increase in pain and perceived exertion among MYA were observed in response to the maximal contractions, emphasizing that heavy physical exertion provokes pain increase only in conditions of myalgia. ..
  6. Elliott J, Jull G, Noteboom J, Darnell R, Galloway G, Gibbon W. Fatty infiltration in the cervical extensor muscles in persistent whiplash-associated disorders: a magnetic resonance imaging analysis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006;31:E847-55 pubmed
    ..Future studies are required to investigate the relationships between muscular alterations and symptoms in patients suffering from persistent WAD. ..
  7. Hatipoğlu E, Kervancioglu P, Tuncer M. An unusual variation of the omohyoid muscle and review of literature. Ann Anat. 2006;188:469-72 pubmed
    ..In our case report, a variant of infrahyoid muscles is presented. Such an association constitutes an exceedingly rare condition. ..
  8. Petheram T, Hourigan P, Emran I, Weatherley C. Dropped head syndrome: a case series and literature review. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2008;33:47-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the option of surgical management must be carefully considered in each case, especially with respect to the potential disadvantages in elderly patients. ..
  9. Kumbhare D, Balsor B, Parkinson W, Harding Bsckin P, Bedard M, Papaioannou A, et al. Measurement of cervical flexor endurance following whiplash. Disabil Rehabil. 2005;27:801-7 pubmed
    ..Variance on CFE emphasizes the need to consider inter-, and intra-subject standard deviations to interpret scores. ..
  10. Szeto G, Straker L, O Sullivan P. A comparison of symptomatic and asymptomatic office workers performing monotonous keyboard work--1: neck and shoulder muscle recruitment patterns. Man Ther. 2005;10:270-80 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that altered muscle recruitment patterns observed in the symptomatic subjects preceded the onset of task discomfort, and this finding may have important implications for the etiology of WRNULD...
  11. Blouin J, Siegmund G, Carpenter M, Inglis J. Neural control of superficial and deep neck muscles in humans. J Neurophysiol. 2007;98:920-8 pubmed
    Human neck muscles have a complex multi-layered architecture...
  12. Salo P, Ylinen J, Mälkiä E, Kautiainen H, Häkkinen A. Isometric strength of the cervical flexor, extensor, and rotator muscles in 220 healthy females aged 20 to 59 years. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2006;36:495-502 pubmed
    ..Cross-sectional descriptive study...
  13. Rodriguez Vazquez J, Merida Velasco J, Verdugo López S, de la Cuadra Blanco C, Sanz Casado J. Anatomical relationships of the cleidoatlanticus muscle. Interpretation about its origin. Anat Sci Int. 2009;84:47-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Taking into account the relationships that presented with the superficial branches of the cervical plexus, we consider that the cleidoatlanticus muscle is derived from the sternocleidomastoid muscle...
  14. Pinsault N, Fleury A, Virone G, Bouvier B, Vaillant J, Vuillerme N. Test-retest reliability of cervicocephalic relocation test to neutral head position. Physiother Theory Pract. 2008;24:380-91 pubmed publisher
    ..39 to 0.78 and from 0.44 to 0.78, for absolute and variable errors, respectively)...
  15. Elliott J, Sterling M, Noteboom J, Darnell R, Galloway G, Jull G. Fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor muscles is not a feature of chronic, insidious-onset neck pain. Clin Radiol. 2008;63:681-7 pubmed publisher
  16. Blouin J, Inglis J, Siegmund G. Startle responses elicited by whiplash perturbations. J Physiol. 2006;573:857-67 pubmed
    ..produces muscle contractions throughout the body but the most brisk and synchronized contractions appear in the neck muscles. This response, which is greatest with the first exposure to a startling stimulus, could produce excessive and ..
  17. Sforza C, Tartaglia G, Lovecchio N, Ugolini A, Monteverdi R, Gianni A, et al. Mandibular movements at maximum mouth opening and EMG activity of masticatory and neck muscles in patients rehabilitated after a mandibular condyle fracture. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2009;37:327-33 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess rotation and translation movements of the mandible at maximum mouth opening in a group of patients successfully rehabilitated after condylar fractures...
  18. Jull G, Falla D, Vicenzino B, Hodges P. The effect of therapeutic exercise on activation of the deep cervical flexor muscles in people with chronic neck pain. Man Ther. 2009;14:696-701 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Specific low load C-CF exercise changes spatial and temporal characteristics of DCF activation which may partially explain its efficacy in rehabilitation...
  19. Schmidt Hansen P, Svensson P, Jensen T, Graven Nielsen T, Bach F. Patterns of experimentally induced pain in pericranial muscles. Cephalalgia. 2006;26:568-77 pubmed
    ..005). In conclusion, there appear to be characteristic pain patterns and pain sensitivity in different craniofacial muscles in healthy volunteers, which may be of importance for further research on different craniofacial pain conditions...
  20. La Touche R, Fernandez de Las Penas C, Fernández Carnero J, Díaz Parreño S, Paris Alemany A, Arendt Nielsen L. Bilateral mechanical-pain sensitivity over the trigeminal region in patients with chronic mechanical neck pain. J Pain. 2010;11:256-63 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Our findings revealed pressure-pain hyperalgesia in the trigeminal region in patients with mechanical chronic neck pain, suggesting spreading of sensitization to the trigeminal region in this patient population...
  21. Kasapoglu F, Dokuzlar U. An unknown anatomical variation of omohyoid muscle. Clin Anat. 2007;20:964-5 pubmed
  22. Gregory J, Guse D. Unique variant of levator glandulae thyroideae muscle. Clin Anat. 2007;20:966-7 pubmed
  23. Jull G, O Leary S, Falla D. Clinical assessment of the deep cervical flexor muscles: the craniocervical flexion test. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2008;31:525-33 pubmed publisher
  24. Wallin M, Raak R. Quality of life in subgroups of individuals with whiplash-associated disorders. Eur J Pain. 2008;12:842-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Living with long term pain influences quality of life. In previous studies of other chronic pain patients, subgrouping has been made according to thermal pain thresholds measured in quantitative sensory testing (QST)...
  25. Cagnie B, D Hooge R, Achten E, Cambier D, Danneels L. A magnetic resonance imaging investigation into the function of the deep cervical flexors during the performance of craniocervical flexion. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2010;33:286-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was (1) to determine the reliability of MRI for measuring cross-sectional area (CSA) of the longus colli (Lco) and longus capitis (Lca) and (2) to evaluate the changes in CSA during contraction...
  26. Blouin J, Inglis J, Siegmund G. Auditory startle alters the response of human subjects exposed to a single whiplash-like perturbation. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006;31:146-54 pubmed
    ..Human volunteers were exposed to a single whiplash-like perturbation...
  27. Burnett A, Green J, Netto K, Rodrigues J. Examination of EMG normalisation methods for the study of the posterior and posterolateral neck muscles in healthy controls. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2007;17:635-41 pubmed
    ..was to examine the reliability of normalisation methods used in the study of the posterior and posterolateral neck muscles in a group of healthy controls...
  28. Oksanen A, Ylinen J, Pöyhönen T, Anttila P, Laimi K, Hiekkanen H, et al. Repeatability of electromyography and force measurements of the neck muscles in adolescents with and without headache. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2007;17:493-503 pubmed
    Reliable measurements are needed to study the dysfunction of the neck muscles. The aim of this study was to determine the intra-tester repeatability of EMG and isometric force measurements of the neck muscles in adolescents with headache ..
  29. Hudson A, Gandevia S, Butler J. The effect of lung volume on the co-ordinated recruitment of scalene and sternomastoid muscles in humans. J Physiol. 2007;584:261-70 pubmed
    ..Thus, in humans, the mechanism responsible for the differential activation of these two inspiratory muscles has an element that is preset...
  30. Olson L, Millar A, Dunker J, Hicks J, Glanz D. Reliability of a clinical test for deep cervical flexor endurance. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2006;29:134-8 pubmed
    ..A need exists for reliable clinical tests of flexor endurance. This study determined intrarater and interrater reliability of such a test in persons without neck pain...
  31. James G, Doe T. The craniocervical flexion test: intra-tester reliability in asymptomatic subjects. Physiother Res Int. 2010;15:144-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the intratester reliability of the CCFT in asymptomatic subjects...
  32. D Amelio M, Di Benedetto N, Ragonese P, Daniele O, Brighina F, Fierro B, et al. Dropped head as an unusual presenting sign of myasthenia gravis. Neurol Sci. 2007;28:104-6 pubmed
    ..The case we describe concerns a 61-year-old woman with dropped-head syndrome as the unique complaint of myasthenia gravis...
  33. Loukas M, Merbs W, Tubbs R, Curry B, Jordan R. Levator glandulae thyroideae muscle with three slips. Anat Sci Int. 2008;83:273-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinicians who interpret imaging of the neck or surgeons who operate in the neck and especially on or near the thyroid gland should be aware of such a variation...
  34. Szeto G, Straker L, O Sullivan P. A comparison of symptomatic and asymptomatic office workers performing monotonous keyboard work--2: neck and shoulder kinematics. Man Ther. 2005;10:281-91 pubmed
    ..The individual differences in postural habits appeared to be independent of the physical environment. These results suggest motor control changes are associated with the presence of WRNULD...
  35. Chiu T, Law E, Chiu T. Performance of the craniocervical flexion test in subjects with and without chronic neck pain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2005;35:567-71 pubmed
    ..Cross-sectional comparative study...
  36. Falla D, Jull G, Hodges P, Vicenzino B. An endurance-strength training regime is effective in reducing myoelectric manifestations of cervical flexor muscle fatigue in females with chronic neck pain. Clin Neurophysiol. 2006;117:828-37 pubmed
  37. Rogers G, Oh A, Mulliken J. The role of congenital muscular torticollis in the development of deformational plagiocephaly. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;123:643-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Torticollis and sternocleidomastoid imbalance are implicated, but reporting is variable. The authors sought to determine the incidence of torticollis/sternocleidomastoid imbalance in deformational plagiocephaly...
  38. Edmondston S, Wallumrød M, Macléid F, Kvamme L, Joebges S, Brabham G. Reliability of isometric muscle endurance tests in subjects with postural neck pain. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2008;31:348-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of 3 isometric muscle endurance tests in subjects with postural neck pain...
  39. Aydog S, Ozcakar L, Demiryurek D, Bayramoglu A, Yorubulut M. An intervening thoracic outlet syndrome in a gymnast with levator claviculae muscle. Clin J Sport Med. 2007;17:323-5 pubmed
  40. Snively E, Russell A. Functional variation of neck muscles and their relation to feeding style in Tyrannosauridae and other large theropod dinosaurs. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2007;290:934-57 pubmed
    Reconstructed neck muscles of large theropod dinosaurs suggest influences on feeding style that paralleled variation in skull mechanics. In all examined theropods, the head dorsiflexor m...
  41. Capo J, Spinner R. The levator claviculae muscle. Clin Anat. 2007;20:968-9 pubmed
  42. Panfil C, Makowska A, Ellrich J. Brainstem and cervical spinal cord Fos immunoreactivity evoked by nerve growth factor injection into neck muscles in mice. Cephalalgia. 2006;26:128-35 pubmed
    ..The neuronal activation pattern following local nerve growth factor (NGF) administration into semispinal neck muscles in anaesthetized mice was investigated using Fos protein immunohistochemistry...
  43. Netto K, Burnett A. Reliability of normalisation methods for EMG analysis of neck muscles. Work. 2006;26:123-30 pubmed
    ..This study confirmed the validity of using MVICs elicited using the ID and PCD as reliable reference contractions for the normalisation of neck EMG...
  44. Andersen L, Blangsted A, Nielsen P, Hansen L, Vedsted P, Sjøgaard G, et al. Effect of cycling on oxygenation of relaxed neck/shoulder muscles in women with and without chronic pain. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010;110:389-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Although this beneficial response was observed in both groups, the post-exercise response was lower in women with trapezius myalgia...
  45. Ferrario V, Tartaglia G, Galletta A, Grassi G, Sforza C. The influence of occlusion on jaw and neck muscle activity: a surface EMG study in healthy young adults. J Oral Rehabil. 2006;33:341-8 pubmed
    ..Subjects with a 'complete' Angle Class I were somewhat a more homogenous group than subjects with 'partial' Angle Class I...
  46. Ylinen J, Hakkinen A, Nykanen M, Kautiainen H, Takala E. Neck muscle training in the treatment of chronic neck pain: a three-year follow-up study. Eura Medicophys. 2007;43:161-9 pubmed
    ..The objective of the trial was to evaluate whether the positive results achieved with a one-year training regimen in patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain would have long-standing effects...
  47. Sukekawa R, Itoh I. Anatomical study of the human omohyoid muscle: regarding intermediate morphologies between normal and anomalous morphologies of the superior belly. Anat Sci Int. 2006;81:107-14 pubmed
  48. Ylinen J, Nykänen M, Kautiainen H, Hakkinen A. Evaluation of repeatability of pressure algometry on the neck muscles for clinical use. Man Ther. 2007;12:192-7 pubmed
    ..However, on the individual level, due to the considerable variation found in the PPT results, caution is advised when interpreting the results in clinical practice...
  49. Fernandez de Las Penas C, Alonso Blanco C, Cuadrado M, Gerwin R, Pareja J. Myofascial trigger points and their relationship to headache clinical parameters in chronic tension-type headache. Headache. 2006;46:1264-72 pubmed
    To assess the presence of trigger points (TrPs) in several head and neck muscles in subjects with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) and in healthy subjects; and to evaluate the relationship of these TrPs with forward head posture (FHP),..
  50. Johnston V, Jull G, Souvlis T, Jimmieson N. Neck movement and muscle activity characteristics in female office workers with neck pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2008;33:555-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Cross-sectional study...
  51. Stapley P, Beretta M, Dalla Toffola E, Schieppati M. Neck muscle fatigue and postural control in patients with whiplash injury. Clin Neurophysiol. 2006;117:610-22 pubmed
    ..if patients with whiplash injury show identifiable increases in neck muscle fatigability and associated increase in postural body sway after contractions of dorsal neck muscles, and if physiotherapy treatment reduces these effects.
  52. Danielson K, Odderson I. Botulinum toxin type A improves blood flow in vascular thoracic outlet syndrome. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2008;87:956-9 pubmed publisher
    ..An improved subclavian artery flow was seen after scalene muscle chemodenervation for vascular thoracic outlet syndrome. This suggests its potential as a diagnostic test, treatment option, and predictor for surgical intervention...
  53. Fogli A. Skin and platysma muscle anchoring. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2008;32:531-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The author demonstrates that the absence of separation between skin and muscle, particularly at the cervical level, is a very efficient means for correcting platysma bands and for obtaining good definition of the cervicomental angle...
  54. Lindstrøm R, Schomacher J, Farina D, Rechter L, Falla D. Association between neck muscle coactivation, pain, and strength in women with neck pain. Man Ther. 2011;16:80-6 pubmed publisher
    ..01). These observations indicate a relationship between alterations in neuromuscular control in patients with neck pain and functional consequences, including impaired motor performance and increased levels of perceived disability...
  55. Elsley J, Nagy B, Cushing S, Corneil B. Widespread presaccadic recruitment of neck muscles by stimulation of the primate frontal eye fields. J Neurophysiol. 2007;98:1333-54 pubmed
    ..of the primate frontal eye fields (FEFs) in eye-head gaze shifts by recording EMG activity from multiple dorsal neck muscles after electrical stimulation of a broad distribution of sites throughout FEF...
  56. Peolsson A, Brodin L, Peolsson M. A tissue velocity ultrasound imaging investigation of the dorsal neck muscles during resisted isometric extension. Man Ther. 2010;15:567-73 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigated the tissue motion of the dorsal neck muscles at the C4 segmental level in 15 healthy subjects during manually resisted head extension...
  57. Schröter U, Wilson S, Srinivasan M, Ibbotson M. The morphology, physiology and function of suboesophageal neck motor neurons in the honeybee. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2007;193:289-304 pubmed
    ..with cell bodies in the suboesophageal ganglion, axons in the first cervical nerve (IK1) and terminals in neck muscles 44 and 51 (muscle classification: Snodgrass in Smithsonian Misc Coll 103:1-120, 1942)...
  58. Tatli B, Aydinli N, Caliskan M, Ozmen M, Bilir F, Acar G. Congenital muscular torticollis: evaluation and classification. Pediatr Neurol. 2006;34:41-4 pubmed
    ..The success rate of conservative treatment is primarily dependent on the patients' age at the initiation of exercises and ultrasonographic findings...
  59. Mizen K, Mitchell D. Anatomical variability of omohyoid and its relevance in oropharyngeal cancer. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2005;43:285-8 pubmed
    ..To define the reproducibility of the position of omohyoid muscle...
  60. Piyawinijwong S, Sirisathira N. Supernumerary subclavius muscle in Thais: predisposing cause of thoracic outlet syndrome. J Med Assoc Thai. 2010;93:1065-9 pubmed
    ..To demonstrate and classify the variation of the subclavius muscle according to its insertion in the Thais...
  61. Siegmund G, Blouin J, Brault J, Hedenstierna S, Inglis J. Electromyography of superficial and deep neck muscles during isometric, voluntary, and reflex contractions. J Biomech Eng. 2007;129:66-77 pubmed
    ..The goal of this study was to measure the electromyographic activity of superficial and deep neck muscles during tasks involving isometric, voluntary, and reflexively evoked contractions of the neck muscles...
  62. Elliott J, Sterling M, Noteboom J, Treleaven J, Galloway G, Jull G. The clinical presentation of chronic whiplash and the relationship to findings of MRI fatty infiltrates in the cervical extensor musculature: a preliminary investigation. Eur Spine J. 2009;18:1371-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Future research investigations aimed at accurate identification, sub-classification, prediction, and management of patients with acute and chronic whiplash is warranted and underway...
  63. Johnston V, Jimmieson N, Jull G, Souvlis T. Quantitative sensory measures distinguish office workers with varying levels of neck pain and disability. Pain. 2008;137:257-65 pubmed
    ..There is evidence of multiple peripheral nerve dysfunction with widespread sensitivity most likely due to altered central nociceptive processing initiated and sustained by nociceptive input from the periphery...
  64. Gdynia H, Sperfeld A, Unrath A, Ludolph A, Sabolek M, Storch A, et al. Histopathological analysis of skeletal muscle in patients with Parkinson's disease and 'dropped head'/'bent spine' syndrome. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2009;15:633-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar symptoms are known in patients with parkinsonian syndromes, but their pathophysiology remains unclear. One hypothesis is a relation between the movement disorder and the skeletal muscle pathology...
  65. von Stülpnagel C, Reilich P, Straube A, Schafer J, Blaschek A, Lee S, et al. Myofascial trigger points in children with tension-type headache: a new diagnostic and therapeutic option. J Child Neurol. 2009;24:406-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Trigger point-specific physiotherapy seems to be an effective therapy in these children. Further prospective and controlled studies in a larger cohort are warranted...
  66. Elliott J, Jull G, Noteboom J, Durbridge G, Gibbon W. Magnetic resonance imaging study of cross-sectional area of the cervical extensor musculature in an asymptomatic cohort. Clin Anat. 2007;20:35-40 pubmed
    ..Clin...