longitudinal ligaments


Summary: Two extensive fibrous bands running the length of the vertebral column. The anterior longitudinal ligament (ligamentum longitudinale anterius; lacertus medius) interconnects the anterior surfaces of the vertebral bodies; the posterior longitudinal ligament (ligamentum longitudinale posterius) interconnects the posterior surfaces. The commonest clinical consideration is OSSIFICATION OF POSTERIOR LONGITUDINAL LIGAMENT. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Vaccaro A, Falatyn S, Flanders A, Balderston R, Northrup B, Cotler J. Magnetic resonance evaluation of the intervertebral disc, spinal ligaments, and spinal cord before and after closed traction reduction of cervical spine dislocations. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1999;24:1210-7 pubmed
    ..A prospective clinical study using magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine in a consecutive series of patients with cervical spine dislocations...
  2. Matsunaga S, Sakou T, Taketomi E, Nakanisi K. Effects of strain distribution in the intervertebral discs on the progression of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligaments. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1996;21:184-9 pubmed
    ..Strain distribution in the intervertebral discs was evaluated biomechanically using an engineering true strain calculation formula...
  3. Tanno M, Furukawa K, Ueyama K, Harata S, Motomura S. Uniaxial cyclic stretch induces osteogenic differentiation and synthesis of bone morphogenetic proteins of spinal ligament cells derived from patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligaments. Bone. 2003;33:475-84 pubmed
  4. Ivancic P, Pearson A, Panjabi M, Ito S. Injury of the anterior longitudinal ligament during whiplash simulation. Eur Spine J. 2004;13:61-8 pubmed
    ..The complete ligament injuries were associated with greater increases in ALL strain, intervertebral extension, and flexibility parameters than were observed at uninjured intervertebral levels ( P<0.05)...
  5. Verlaan J, van de Kraats E, Oner F, van Walsum T, Niessen W, Dhert W. Bone displacement and the role of longitudinal ligaments during balloon vertebroplasty in traumatic thoracolumbar fractures. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2005;30:1832-9 pubmed
  6. Ha S. Finite element modeling of multi-level cervical spinal segments (C3-C6) and biomechanical analysis of an elastomer-type prosthetic disc. Med Eng Phys. 2006;28:534-41 pubmed
    ..It is numerically demonstrated that an elastomer with Young's modulus of 5.9 MPa for the artificial disc prosthesis well restores the biomechanical behavior of the intact spine...
  7. Stemper B, Yoganandan N, Pintar F, Rao R. Anterior longitudinal ligament injuries in whiplash may lead to cervical instability. Med Eng Phys. 2006;28:515-24 pubmed
    ..Mitigation of whiplash injury may be achieved by minimizing head retraction during initial stages of whiplash...
  8. Ohshima H, Hirano N, Osada R, Matsui H, Tsuji H. Morphologic variation of lumbar posterior longitudinal ligament and the modality of disc herniation. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1993;18:2408-11 pubmed
    ..This may be related to the small or poorly developed PLL in lower lumbar/lumbosacral region. It is suggested that the type of disc herniation (PLL intact or ruptured) is related to the morphologic variation of PLL. ..
  9. Ebo D, Goethals L, Bracke P, Mercelis R, De Clerck L. Dysphagia in a patient with giant osteophytes: case presentation and review of the literature. Clin Rheumatol. 2000;19:70-2 pubmed
    ..Radiographic evaluation revealed the underlying condition to be a diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis with exuberant and bumpy change within the anterior longitudinal ligament...

More Information

Publications109 found, 100 shown here

  1. Pham M, Attenello F, Lucas J, He S, Stapleton C, Hsieh P. Conservative management of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. A review. Neurosurg Focus. 2011;30:E2 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients who present without myelopathy have a high chance of remaining progression free. Those who already have signs of myelopathy at presentation may benefit from surgery due to a higher rate of progression over continued follow-up. ..
  2. Yoshida M, Tamaki T, Kawakami M, Nakatani N, Ando M, Yamada H, et al. Does reconstruction of posterior ligamentous complex with extensor musculature decrease axial symptoms after cervical laminoplasty?. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2002;27:1414-8 pubmed
    ..05). Laminoplasty is an appropriate operation for cervical spondylotic myelopathy and did not, in this study, seem to have any significant influence on the development or resolution of axial symptoms. ..
  3. Shiraishi T, Yato Y. New double-door laminoplasty procedure for the axis to preserve all muscular attachments to the spinous process: technical note. Neurosurg Focus. 2002;12:E9 pubmed
    ..The technique for this procedure is described and its usefulness in preventing postoperative spinal malalignment is discussed. ..
  4. Meyer S, Wu J, Mummaneni P. Laminoplasty outcomes: is there a difference between patients with degenerative stenosis and those with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament?. Neurosurg Focus. 2011;30:E9 pubmed publisher
    ..The VAS neck pain scores did not improve significantly with laminoplasty for either group. Laminoplasty may limit extension ROM. ..
  5. Pfeiffer J, Ridder G. An elderly woman with increasing dyspnoea after a fall. Emerg Med J. 2011;28:806-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This case, however, illustrates that precarious retropharyngeal haematoma can occur after low-energy trauma even without anticoagulation therapy. A high index of suspicion for this airway collapse is advisable in older patients. ..
  6. Kato S, Murakami H, Demura S, Yoshioka K, Hayashi H, Tsuchiya H. Novel surgical technique for ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament in the thoracic spine. J Neurosurg Spine. 2012;17:525-9 pubmed publisher
    ..After removal of the ossified PLL, posterior instrumented fusion was performed. This surgical procedure allows the surgeon to perform, safely and effectively, anterior decompression via a posterior approach for thoracic OPLL...
  7. Alanay A, Yazici M, Acaroglu E, Turhan E, Cila A, Surat A. Course of nonsurgical management of burst fractures with intact posterior ligamentous complex: an MRI study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2004;29:2425-31 pubmed
    ..Although changes in the shape of adjacent discs occur due to trauma and/or natural course, significant loss in signal intensity of nucleus pulposus is unlikely. Patient outcome seems to be highly satisfactory despite residual deformity. ..
  8. Kobayashi S, Momohara S, Ikari K, Mochizuki T, Kawamura K, Tsukahara S, et al. A case of Castleman's disease associated with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine. Mod Rheumatol. 2007;17:418-21 pubmed
    ..In this paper, we describe this patient in order to discuss the association of these diseases. ..
  9. Avadhani A, Shetty A, Rajasekaran S. Spontaneous stabilisation of postlaminectomy cervical kyphosis by anterior longitudinal ligament ossification. Singapore Med J. 2010;51:e66-8 pubmed
  10. Chen D, Liu Y, Yang H, Chen D, Zhang X, Fermandes J, et al. Connexin 43 promotes ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament through activation of the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways. Cell Tissue Res. 2016;363:765-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, Cx43, which is up-regulated by mechanical stress, seems to function partly via the activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signals to promote the osteoblastic differentiation of ligament fibroblasts. ..
  11. Luk K, Chow D, Holmes A. Vertical instability in spondylolisthesis: a traction radiographic assessment technique and the principle of management. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2003;28:819-27 pubmed
    ..Application of the traction radiographic technique in planning for spondylolisthesis reduction is discussed along with the technique of stabilization. ..
  12. Yang H, Lu X, Chen D, Yuan W, Yang L, He H, et al. Upregulated expression of connexin43 in spinal ligament fibroblasts derived from patients presenting ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011;36:2267-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The cultured fibroblasts from OPLL patients exhibited osteogenic characteristics, in which Cx43 played an important role. ..
  13. Mays S. Bone-formers and bone-losers in an archaeological population. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2016;159:577-84 pubmed publisher
  14. Epstein N, Grande D, Breitbart A. In vitro characteristics of cultured posterior longitudinal ligament tissue. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2002;27:56-8 pubmed
  15. Iwasawa T, Iwasaki K, Sawada T, Okada A, Ueyama K, Motomura S, et al. Pathophysiological role of endothelin in ectopic ossification of human spinal ligaments induced by mechanical stress. Calcif Tissue Int. 2006;79:422-30 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that mechanical stress promotes the progression of ossification in OPLL cells through autocrine and/or paracrine mechanisms of ET-1. ..
  16. Wang X, Gu T, Yuan W. [Treatment and mechanism of cervical spondylosis with sympathetic symptoms]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2008;46:1424-7 pubmed
    ..The posterior longitudinal ligaments of 8 rabbits were harvested and stained by Sucrose-Phosphate-glyoxylic acid (SPG) to distinguish the ..
  17. Wang L, Zhang Y, Shen Y, Su Y, Xu J, Ding W, et al. Using the T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging signal intensity ratio and clinical manifestations to assess the prognosis of patients with cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. J Neurosurg Spine. 2010;13:319-23 pubmed publisher
    ..An increased signal intensity ratio with positive pyramidal signs indicates less recuperative potential of the spinal cord and a poor surgical outcome. ..
  18. Jones J, Lerner A, Kim P, Law M, Hsieh P. Diffusion tensor imaging in the assessment of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: a report on preliminary results in 3 cases and review of the literature. Neurosurg Focus. 2011;30:E14 pubmed publisher
    ..This review describes the theoretical basis, application, and analysis of DT imaging as it pertains to neurosurgery. Particular emphasis is placed on OPLL. ..
  19. Liu F, Chai Y, Shen Y, Xu J, Du W, Zhang P. Posterior decompression with transforaminal interbody fusion for thoracic myelopathy due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament and the ligamentum flavum at the same level. J Clin Neurosci. 2013;20:570-5 pubmed publisher
    ..However, this procedure is not complication free and demands advanced technical expertise on the part of practitioners, particularly to avoid catastrophic spinal cord injuries. ..
  20. Yan L, Chang Z, Liu Y, Li Y, He B, Hao D. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the human bone morphogenetic protein-2 gene (109T > G) affects the Smad signaling pathway and the predisposition to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine. Chin Med J (Engl). 2013;126:1112-8 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to investigate whether bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 is a candidate gene to modify the susceptibility of OPLL and the mechanism of signal transduction in ossification...
  21. Epstein N. Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament in evolution in 12 patients. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1994;19:673-01 pubmed
    ..in their mid-forties, and had less severe spastic myeloradiculopathy, showed hypertrophied posterior longitudinal ligaments containing punctate ossification at disc spaces and contiguous endplates, with occasional extension behind ..
  22. Matsumoto T, Yoshida M, Yamada H, Kurimoto K, Tamaki T. Lumbar canal stenosis caused by hypertrophy of the posterior longitudinal ligament: case report. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2001;26:E576-9 pubmed
    ..One year after the operation the patient was asymptomatic without evidence of recurrence of the disease. HPLL is a very rare disease. This appears to be the first report of the disease in the lumbar spine. ..
  23. Hall R, Oakland R, Wilcox R, Barton D. Spinal cord-fragment interactions following burst fracture: an in vitro model. J Neurosurg Spine. 2006;5:243-50 pubmed
    ..These findings may indicate the importance of the dura's interaction with the cerebrospinal fluid in protecting the cord during this type of impact. ..
  24. Andres R, Binggeli R. Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. J Rheumatol. 2008;35:528-9 pubmed
  25. Orozco M, Solomons N, Schümann K, Friel J, de Montenegro A. Antioxidant-rich oral supplements attenuate the effects of oral iron on in situ oxidation susceptibility of human feces. J Nutr. 2010;140:1105-10 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, dietary antioxidants can reverse the depletion of fecal antioxidant capacity induced by oral Fe supplements. ..
  26. Yamauchi T, Taketomi E, Matsunaga S, Sakou T. Bone mineral density in patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament in the cervical spine. J Bone Miner Metab. 1999;17:296-300 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that patients with OPLL may tend to develop systemic hyperostosis, leading to the pathological ectopic ossification observed in OPLL. ..
  27. Shirazi Adl A, Parnianpour M. Load-bearing and stress analysis of the human spine under a novel wrapping compression loading. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2000;15:718-25 pubmed
    ..To alleviate hypermobility in compression, the wrapping loading could also allow for the application of meaningful compression loads in experimental as well as model studies of the multi-segmental spinal biomechanics. ..
  28. Moon S, Park M, Suk K, Suh J, Lee S, Kim N, et al. Feasibility of ultrasound examination in posterior ligament complex injury of thoracolumbar spine fracture. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2002;27:2154-8 pubmed
    ..e., patients with pacemaker, ferromagnetic implant, or severe claustrophobia) should be emphasized. More clinical data concerning the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of ultrasound examination should be addressed in future studies. ..
  29. Giger R, Szalay Quinodoz I, Haenggeli A, Dulguerov P. Ganglion cyst of the spinal anterior longitudinal ligament presenting as a retropharyngeal mass. Am J Otolaryngol. 2002;23:390-3 pubmed
    ..The histopathology, etiology, and clinical aspects of synovial and ganglion cysts of the cervical spine are briefly reviewed. ..
  30. Saifuddin A, Green R, White J. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical ligaments in the absence of trauma. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2003;28:1686-91; discussion 1691-2 pubmed
    ..The status of the anterior longitudinal ligaments and posterior longitudinal ligaments was assessed on T1-weighted images from C2 to T1 (total of 120 levels)..
  31. Yilmaz C, Kabatas S, Hepgul K, Bozdag E, Sunbuloglu E, Cansever T. Biomechanical analysis of multilevel discectomy and excision of posterior longitudinal ligament: an in vitro study in sheep. Neurol India. 2009;57:395-401 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Excision of PLL did not seem to affect stability (P>0.05). Our data suggested that cervical discectomy decreases stability of sheep spine pieces. ..
  32. Roberts S, Eisenstein S, Menage J, Evans E, Ashton I. Mechanoreceptors in intervertebral discs. Morphology, distribution, and neuropeptides. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1995;20:2645-51 pubmed
    ..the occurrence and morphology of mechanoreceptors in human and bovine intervertebral discs and longitudinal ligaments. To determine the type and frequency of mechanoreceptors present in intervertebral discs and anterior ..
  33. Wadhwani S, Loughenbury P, Soames R. The anterior dural (Hofmann) ligaments. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2004;29:623-7 pubmed
    ..Hofmann ligaments are present at most levels between C7 and L5; although most ligaments were limited to a single vertebral segment, some were observed to cross several segments. ..
  34. Kim T, Bae K, Uhm W, Kim T, Joo K, Jun J. Prevalence of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine. Joint Bone Spine. 2008;75:471-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The prevalence of cervical OPLL in Koreans was 0.60%, which was lower than that of Japanese and some previous western reports. ..
  35. Schmidt M, Abächerli C, Niemann T. [Inicidental finding: patient with cervical spine trauma]. Praxis (Bern 1994). 2012;101:265-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Keeping this entity in mind in daily clinical routine will help in making the correct diagnosis and in administering the corresponding therapy. ..
  36. Birnbaum K, Siebert C, Hinkelmann J, Prescher A, Niethard F. Correction of kyphotic deformity before and after transection of the anterior longitudinal ligament--a cadaver study. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2001;121:142-7 pubmed
  37. Yamamoto Y, Furukawa K, Ueyama K, Nakanishi T, Takigawa M, Harata S. Possible roles of CTGF/Hcs24 in the initiation and development of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2002;27:1852-7 pubmed
    ..A biochemical and histochemical study investigating the role of CTGF/Hcs24 in the ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) was conducted...
  38. Elgafy H, Bellabarba C. Three-column ligamentous extension injury of the thoracic spine: a case report and review of the literature. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007;32:E785-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A high index of suspicion is necessary to identify such extremely unstable injury despite its relative benign clinical and radiologic presentation. ..
  39. Huang T, Hsu K, Cheng C, Chen L, Wang C, Chan Y, et al. Arthroscopic suture fixation of tibial eminence avulsion fractures. Arthroscopy. 2008;24:1232-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Treating ACL avulsion fracture by arthroscopic suture fixation by use of 4 No. 5 Ethibond sutures can restore ACL length, stabilize fragments, promote early motion, and minimize morbidity. Level IV, therapeutic case series. ..
  40. Cholewicki J, Panjabi M, Nibu K, Macias M. Spinal ligament transducer based on a hall effect sensor. J Biomech. 1997;30:291-3 pubmed
    ..The transducer is low cost and is capable of measuring the linear distance between the K-wires in the range 4-12 mm with the root mean square (RMS) accuracy of 0.025 mm. ..
  41. Whang P, Vaccaro A, Poelstra K, Patel A, Anderson D, Albert T, et al. The influence of fracture mechanism and morphology on the reliability and validity of two novel thoracolumbar injury classification systems. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007;32:791-5 pubmed
    ..Since these injury characteristics are interrelated and are critical to the maintenance of spinal stability, we think that both concepts should be considered during the assessment and management of these patients. ..
  42. Shin J, Steinmetz M, Benzel E, Krishnaney A. Dorsal versus ventral surgery for cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: considerations for approach selection and review of surgical outcomes. Neurosurg Focus. 2011;30:E8 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, the features and limitations of these approaches are reviewed with an emphasis on complications and outcomes. ..
  43. Sekine M, Yamashita T, Takebayashi T, Sakamoto N, Minaki Y, Ishii S. Mechanosensitive afferent units in the lumbar posterior longitudinal ligament. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2001;26:1516-21 pubmed
    ..0 g) were thought to act as nociceptive units. All units identified in this study satisfied these criteria. Our result suggests that afferent fibers from the lumbar posterior longitudinal ligament have a principally nociceptive function. ..
  44. Kalayci M, Cagavi F, Acikgoz B. Unilateral cervical facet fracture: presentation of two cases and literature review. Spinal Cord. 2004;42:466-72 pubmed
    ..The compliance of the patient to cervical immobilization in nonoperative treatment plays a very important role in the development of late complications. MRI in the acute period may be useful in determining instability. ..
  45. Ando K, Imagama S, Wakao N, Hirano K, Tauchi R, Muramoto A, et al. Examination of the influence of ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament on symptom progression and surgical outcome of ossification of the thoracic ligamentum flavum: a multicenter study. J Neurosurg Spine. 2012;16:147-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, surgery with instrumentation for Type D OALLs may produce better surgical outcomes. ..
  46. Iwamura Y, Onari K, Kondo S, Inasaka R, Horii H. Cervical intradural disc herniation. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2001;26:698-702 pubmed
    ..A case report of anterior en bloc resected cervical intradural disc herniation and a review of the literature...
  47. Salpietro F, Alafaci C, Collufio D, Passalacqua M, Puglisi E, Tripodo E, et al. Radicular compression by lumbar intraspinal epidural gas pseudocyst in association with lateral disc herniation. Role of the posterior longitudinal ligament. J Neurosurg Sci. 2002;46:93-5; discussion 95 pubmed
  48. Nakase H, Matsuda R, Shin Y, Park Y, Sakaki T. The use of ultrasonic bone curettes in spinal surgery. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2006;148:207-12; discussion 212-3 pubmed
    ..The author describes a clinical applications, procedure, and efficacy of ultrasonic bone curette (UBC) (bone-removal bar) in spinal surgery...
  49. Yoon D, Yi S, Shin H, Kim K, Kim S. Clinical and radiological results following cervical arthroplasty. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2006;148:943-50 pubmed
    ..This was a retrospective study of clinical and radiological results of cervical arthroplasty using the Bryan cervical disc prosthesis to evaluate the efficacy of arthroplasty in clinical applications...
  50. Marshman L, Benjamin J, David K, King A, Chawda S. "Disc cysts" and "posterior longitudinal ligament ganglion cysts": synonymous entities? Report of three cases and literature review. Neurosurgery. 2005;57:E818 pubmed
    ..quot; Recently, "disc cysts" have been distinguished as a separate entity, mostly on the grounds of cyst-disc communication...
  51. Cunningham B, Berven S, Hu N, Beatson H, De Deyne P, McAfee P. Regeneration of a spinal ligament after total lumbar disk arthroplasty in primates. Cells Tissues Organs. 2009;190:347-55 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the SIS- induced and newly formed ligamentous tissue anterior to the spinal segment did not lead to a measurable limitation of spinal extension...
  52. Sweet J, Ammerman J, Deshmukh V, White J. Cruciate paralysis secondary to traumatic atlantooccipital dislocation. J Neurosurg Spine. 2010;12:19-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors present, to their knowledge, the first reported case of cruciate paralysis resulting from atlantooccipital dislocation...
  53. Taniguchi T, Maejima H, Watarai A, Aki R, Katsuoka K. A case of psoriasis vulgaris with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis involved with ossifications of posterior and anterior longitudinal ligament. Rheumatol Int. 2012;32:1343-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore suspected DISH. Furthermore, ossifications of the posterior and anterior longitudinal ligaments were noted in the cervical spine...
  54. Modi M, Singla V, Khandelwal N, Prabhakar S, Duberkar D. Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis VI) presenting as familial myelopathy. Int J Neurosci. 2011;121:337-40 pubmed publisher
    ..As both brothers had dysmorphic facial features, further work-up suggested the diagnosis of a rare familial form of myelopathy due to mucopolysaccharidosis VI...
  55. Yang H, Lu X, Chen D, Yuan W, Yang L, Chen Y, et al. Mechanical strain induces Cx43 expression in spinal ligament fibroblasts derived from patients presenting ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Eur Spine J. 2011;20:1459-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we propose that the increase in Cx43 expression induced by mechanical strain in OPLL cells plays an important role in the progression of OPLL...
  56. Deukmedjian A, Dakwar E, Ahmadian A, Smith D, Uribe J. Early outcomes of minimally invasive anterior longitudinal ligament release for correction of sagittal imbalance in patients with adult spinal deformity. ScientificWorldJournal. 2012;2012:789698 pubmed publisher
    ..3%. Conclusions. In the authors' early experience, release of the anterior longitudinal ligament using the minimally invasive lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas approach may be a feasible alternative in correcting sagittal deformity...
  57. Mizuno J, Nakagawa H, Hashizume Y. Cervical amyotrophy caused by hypertrophy of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Spinal Cord. 2002;40:484-8 pubmed
    ..A case report...
  58. Panjabi M, Pearson A, Ito S, Ivancic P, Gimenez S, Tominaga Y. Cervical spine ligament injury during simulated frontal impact. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2004;29:2395-403 pubmed
  59. Song J, Mizuno J, Nakagawa H. Clinical and radiological analysis of ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament causing dysphagia and hoarseness. Neurosurgery. 2006;58:913-9; discussion 913-9 pubmed
    ..We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and radiological characteristics of ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament (OALL)...
  60. Wang C, Yan M, Zhou H, Wang S, Dang G. Open reduction of irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation by transoral anterior atlantoaxial release and posterior internal fixation. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006;31:E306-13 pubmed
    ..A retrospective study of surgical outcome of 33 patients with irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation (IAAD)...
  61. Schweitzer K, Vaccaro A, Harrop J, Hurlbert J, Carrino J, Rechtine G, et al. Interrater reliability of identifying indicators of posterior ligamentous complex disruption when plain films are indeterminate in thoracolumbar injuries. J Orthop Sci. 2007;12:437-42 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the interrater reliability of indicators surgeons use when assessing PLC disruption on imaging studies, including computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
  62. Kotani Y, Takahata M, Abumi K, Ito M, Sudo H, Minami A. Cervical myelopathy resulting from combined ossification of the ligamentum flavum and posterior longitudinal ligament: report of two cases and literature review. Spine J. 2013;13:e1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In the cervical spine, the combination of ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is rarely seen. There have been only four cases reported in the English literature...
  63. Imai S, Konttinen Y, Tokunaga Y, Maeda T, Hukuda S, Santavirta S. Tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive nerve fibres in rat posterior longitudinal ligament. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1997;63:51-60 pubmed
    ..This may represent a neuroanatomical equivalent reflecting modulatory functions, which could participate in the pathogenesis of low back pain...
  64. Dogan S, Safavi Abbasi S, Theodore N, Horn E, Rekate H, Sonntag V. Pediatric subaxial cervical spine injuries: origins, management, and outcome in 51 patients. Neurosurg Focus. 2006;20:E1 pubmed
    ..In this study the authors evaluated the mechanisms and patterns of injury and the factors affecting management and outcome of pediatric subaxial cervical spine injuries (C3-7)...
  65. Winkler P, Zausinger S, Milz S, Buettner A, Wiesmann M, Tonn J. Morphometric studies of the ligamentum flavum: a correlative microanatomical and MRI study of the lumbar spine. Zentralbl Neurochir. 2007;68:200-4 pubmed
    ..Therefore, microanatomical and neuroradiological investigations were performed to determine the microtopography of this ligament, especially with respect to its lateral extension...
  66. Vordemvenne T, Hartensuer R, Löhrer L, Vieth V, Fuchs T, Raschke M. Is there a way to diagnose spinal instability in acute burst fractures by performing ultrasound?. Eur Spine J. 2009;18:964-71 pubmed publisher
    ..However, ultrasound can be considered to be an adequate alternative method in cases with contraindications for MRI such as ferromagnetic side effects, claustrophobia, availability or emergency diagnostics in multiple injuries...
  67. von Scotti F, Schroder R, Streitparth F, Kandziora F, Hoffmann R, Schnake K. [Ultrasound examination of the posterior ligament complex in thoracolumbar spinal fractures]. Radiologe. 2010;50:1132, 1134-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of ultrasound imaging in the assessment of the PLC status in thoracolumbar fractures of the spine...
  68. Radcliff K, Kepler C, Reitman C, Harrop J, Vaccaro A. CT and MRI-based diagnosis of craniocervical dislocations: the role of the occipitoatlantal ligament. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2012;470:1602-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to define CT and MRI-based diagnostic criteria for craniocervical dislocations to facilitate early injury recognition and stabilization...
  69. Fulkerson D, Hwang S, Patel A, Jea A. Open reduction and internal fixation for angulated, unstable odontoid synchondrosis fractures in children: a safe alternative to halo fixation?. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2012;9:35-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In these patients, surgical fixation may be a safe and efficacious alternative to halo orthosis as the primary treatment...
  70. Chin K, Ghiselli G, Cumming V, Furey C, Yoo J, Emery S. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging assessment for potential compressive effects of retained posterior longitudinal ligament after anterior cervical fusions: a cross-sectional study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013;38:253-6 pubmed publisher
    ..A cross-sectional study...
  71. Ilkko E, Tikkakoski T, Pyhtinen J. The helical three-dimensional CT in the diagnosis of torticollis with occipitocondylar hypoplasia. Eur J Radiol. 1998;29:55-60 pubmed
    ..The second patient had acute cervical lymphadenitis associated with post-operative torticollis. 3D CT distinctly revealed atlantoaxial subluxation with hypoplasia of the occipital condyles in both cases...
  72. Solomonow M, He Zhou B, Baratta R, Lu Y, Zhu M, Harris M. Biexponential recovery model of lumbar viscoelastic laxity and reflexive muscular activity after prolonged cyclic loading. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2000;15:167-75 pubmed
    ..g., ligaments, discs, etc.) after 50 min of cyclic loading, and to develop a model describing such recovery...
  73. Choi S, Shin M, Kim S, Bae S. Non-contiguous spinal injury in cervical spinal trauma: evaluation with cervical spine MRI. Korean J Radiol. 2004;5:219-24 pubmed
    ..We wished to evaluate the incidence of non-contiguous spinal injury in the cervicothoracic junction (CTJ) or the upper thoracic spines on cervical spinal MR images in the patients with cervical spinal injuries...
  74. Utsumi M, Azuma C, Tohno S, Tohno Y, Moriwake Y, Minami T, et al. Increases of calcium and magnesium and decrease of iron in human posterior longitudinal ligaments of the cervical spine with aging. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2005;103:217-28 pubmed
    ..changes of ligaments with aging, the authors investigated age-related changes of elements in the posterior longitudinal ligaments (PLLs) by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry...
  75. Schmidt K, Viera J, Reith W. [Degenerative diseases of the spine]. Radiologe. 2011;51:779-83 pubmed publisher
    ..A lack of correlation between the imaging findings and clinical symptoms remains problematic. A meaningful interpretation of x-ray images and MRI can only be made with the appropriate knowledge of the symptoms and possible diseases...
  76. van der Merwe A, Maat G, Watt I. Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis: diagnosis in a palaeopathological context. Homo. 2012;63:202-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, DISH cannot be positively diagnosed solely based on the presence of extra-spinal enthesophytes...
  77. Yang D, Ding W, Zhang Y, Zhang W, Xu J, Shen Y. Removal versus preservation of the posterior longitudinal ligament in Bryan cervical disc arthroplasty. Chin Med J (Engl). 2013;126:3812-6 pubmed
    ..However, no clinical reports have compared PLL removal with preservation in Bryan cervical disc arthroplasty. This study aimed to assess the role of removal of PLL in Bryan cervical disc arthroplasty at an 18-month follow-up...
  78. Zhou H, Sun Y, Wang S, Zhang F, Zhang L, Pan S, et al. [Reoperation for cervical myelopathy duo to progressing ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligaments in patients with expansive laminoplasty]. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2016;48:210-4 pubmed
    ..of the patients with reoperation for cervical myelopathy due to progressing ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligaments, with previous open-door expansive laminoplasty, and to evaluate the outcomes...
  79. Yilmazlar S, Ikiz I, Kocaeli H, Tekdemir I, Adim S. Details of fibroligamentous structures in the cervical unco-vertebral region: an obscure corner. Surg Radiol Anat. 2003;25:50-3 pubmed
    ..The recognition of the PVFLT may provide for safe surgery by protecting the neural and vascular structures during decompression in the UV region...
  80. Vaccaro A, Lee J, Schweitzer K, Lim M, Baron E, Oner F, et al. Assessment of injury to the posterior ligamentous complex in thoracolumbar spine trauma. Spine J. 2006;6:524-8 pubmed
    ..Currently, no consensus exists on radiographic imaging parameters that may indicate injury to the posterior ligamentous complex...
  81. Fornaciari G, Giuffra V, Giusiani S, Fornaciari A, Villari N, Vitiello A. The 'gout' of the Medici, Grand Dukes of Florence: a palaeopathological study. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2009;48:375-7 pubmed publisher
  82. Giuffra V, Giusiani S, Fornaciari A, Villari N, Vitiello A, Fornaciari G. Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis in the Medici, Grand Dukes of Florence (XVI century). Eur Spine J. 2010;19 Suppl 2:S103-7 pubmed publisher
  83. Faizan A, Goel V, Garfin S, Bono C, Serhan H, Biyani A, et al. Do design variations in the artificial disc influence cervical spine biomechanics? A finite element investigation. Eur Spine J. 2012;21 Suppl 5:S653-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the oval design with an inferior ball component, produced motion, facet loads, implant stresses and capsule ligament strains closest to the intact spine, which may be key to long-term implant survival...
  84. Oner F, Wood K, Smith J, Shaffrey C. Therapeutic decision making in thoracolumbar spine trauma. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010;35:S235-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Systematic literature review...
  85. Koda M, Furuya T, Okawa A, Inada T, Kamiya K, Ota M, et al. Mid- to long-term outcomes of posterior decompression with instrumented fusion for thoracic ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. J Clin Neurosci. 2016;27:87-90 pubmed publisher
    ..PDF surgery for thoracic OPLL is thus considered a relatively safe and stable surgical procedure considering the mid- to long-term outcomes. ..
  86. Hyldmo P, Horodyski M, Conrad B, Aslaksen S, Røislien J, Prasarn M, et al. Does the novel lateral trauma position cause more motion in an unstable cervical spine injury than the logroll maneuver?. Am J Emerg Med. 2017;35:1630-1635 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the lateral trauma position may be considered for unconscious non-intubated trauma patients. ..
  87. Prabhakar H, Bithal P, Dash M, Chaturvedi A. Rupture of aorta and inferior vena cava during lumbar disc surgery. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2005;147:327-9; discussion 329 pubmed
    ..A quick diagnosis and prompt management resulted in a favourable outcome for the patient...
  88. Calisaneller T, Ozdemir O, Tosun E, Altinors N. Dysphagia due to diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2005;147:1203-6; discussion 1206 pubmed
  89. Wang M, Thambuswamy M. Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament in non-Asians: demographic, clinical, and radiographic findings in 43 patients. Neurosurg Focus. 2011;30:E4 pubmed publisher
    ..However, reports of OPLL in non-Asians have been sporadic in the medical literature. This study describes clinical and radiographic findings with OPLL in non-Asians at a tertiary care center treating a diverse multiethnic population...
  90. Bian Q, Jia K, Liu S, Shu B, Liang Q, Zhou C, et al. Inhibitory effect of YQHYRJ recipe on osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2 in fibroblasts from posterior longitudinal ligament of mice. Pharmazie. 2011;66:784-90 pubmed
    ..To clarify the YQHYRJ effect of OPLL on a cellular level, we induced mice fibroblasts from posterior longitudinal ligaments to differentiate into osteoblasts by human recombinant BMP-2, and treated them with YQHYRJ and its three ..
  91. Ramsay N, Walker J, Tang R, Vaghadia H, Sawka A. Flexion-rotation manoeuvre increases dimension of the acoustic target window for paramedian thoracic epidural access. Br J Anaesth. 2014;112:556-62 pubmed publisher
    ..This study examined the effects of changes in body position on the length of the PLL as a measure of the acoustic target window for paramedian thoracic epidural access...
  92. Anderson R, Kan P, Hansen K, Brockmeyer D. Cervical spine clearance after trauma in children. Neurosurg Focus. 2006;20:E3 pubmed