ligamentum flavum

Summary

Summary: The paired bands of yellow elastic tissue that connect adjoining laminae of the vertebrae. With the laminae, it forms the posterior wall of the spinal canal and helps hold the body erect.

Top Publications

  1. Sairyo K, Biyani A, Goel V, Leaman D, Booth R, Thomas J, et al. Lumbar ligamentum flavum hypertrophy is due to accumulation of inflammation-related scar tissue. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007;32:E340-7 pubmed
    A histologic, biologic, and immunohistochemical assessment using human samples of the lumbar ligamentum flavum.
  2. Abbas J, Hamoud K, Masharawi Y, May H, Hay O, Medlej B, et al. Ligamentum flavum thickness in normal and stenotic lumbar spines. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010;35:1225-30 pubmed publisher
    A descriptive computed tomography (CT) study of the ligamentum flavum (LF) thickness in individuals with normal and stenotic lumbar spines.
  3. Vasudevan A, Knuckey N. Ossification of the ligamentum flavum. J Clin Neurosci. 2002;9:311-3 pubmed
    ..MRI and CT scans of the spine confirmed the presence of calcified ligamentum flavum from T1-T6...
  4. Yayama T, Uchida K, Kobayashi S, Kokubo Y, Sato R, Nakajima H, et al. Thoracic ossification of the human ligamentum flavum: histopathological and immunohistochemical findings around the ossified lesion. J Neurosurg Spine. 2007;7:184-93 pubmed
    ..The object of this study was to histopathologically and immunohistochemically characterize ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) in samples of the thoracic spine harvested en bloc during surgery and to enhance the understanding of ..
  5. Moon H, Park Y, Ryu Y, Kim J, Kwon T, Chung H, et al. The angiogenic capacity from ligamentum flavum subsequent to inflammation: a critical component of the pathomechanism of hypertrophy. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012;37:E147-55 pubmed publisher
    In vitro study about angiogenic potentiality of ligamentum flavum (LF) cells using coculture of human lumbar LF cells and activated macropage-like THP-1 cells.
  6. Ben Hamouda K, Jemel H, Haouet S, Khaldi M. Thoracic myelopathy caused by ossification of the ligamentum flavum: a report of 18 cases. J Neurosurg. 2003;99:157-61 pubmed
    Thoracic myelopathy caused by ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) is a rare entity, most evident in Japan...
  7. Postacchini F, Gumina S, Cinotti G, Perugia D, Demartino C. Ligamenta flava in lumbar disc herniation and spinal stenosis. Light and electron microscopic morphology. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1994;19:917-22 pubmed
    ..In spinal stenosis, fibrotic changes, chondroid metaplasia, and calcification reduce the elasticity of the ligaments, which may thus bulge into the spinal canal in the standing position even if they are normal in thickness. ..
  8. Park J, Chang H, Lee J. Quantitative analysis of transforming growth factor-beta 1 in ligamentum flavum of lumbar spinal stenosis and disc herniation. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2001;26:E492-5 pubmed
    The concentration of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1) was examined in the ligamentum flavum of lumbar spinal stenosis and disc herniation...
  9. Olszewski A, Yaszemski M, White A. The anatomy of the human lumbar ligamentum flavum. New observations and their surgical importance. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1996;21:2307-12 pubmed
    An anatomic study was performed to investigate the ligamentum flavum of the human lumbar spine...

More Information

Publications71

  1. Baker J, Hanson G. Cyst of the ligamentum flavum. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1994;19:1092-4 pubmed
    A patient with sciatica resulting from a hemorrhagic cyst of the ligamentum flavum is reported. Surgical removal of the cyst relieved the patient of her sciatic symptoms. Cyst of ligamentum flavum is an uncommon cause of radiculopathy...
  2. Miyakoshi N, Shimada Y, Suzuki T, Hongo M, Kasukawa Y, Okada K, et al. Factors related to long-term outcome after decompressive surgery for ossification of the ligamentum flavum of the thoracic spine. J Neurosurg. 2003;99:251-6 pubmed
    Factors related to long-term surgical outcome of thoracic myelopathy caused by ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) have not been fully investigated...
  3. Lirk P, Kolbitsch C, Putz G, Colvin J, Colvin H, Lorenz I, et al. Cervical and high thoracic ligamentum flavum frequently fails to fuse in the midline. Anesthesiology. 2003;99:1387-90 pubmed
    ..to the hanging-drop technique, the loss-of-resistance technique is thought to rely on the penetration of the ligamentum flavum. However, the exact morphology of the ligamentum flavum at different vertebral levels remains controversial...
  4. Trivedi P, Behari S, Paul L, Banerji D, Jain V, Chhabra D. Thoracic myelopathy secondary to ossified ligamentum flavum. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2001;143:775-82 pubmed
    Focal ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) forms one of the rare causes of thoracic myelopathy...
  5. Sakamaki T, Sairyo K, Sakai T, Tamura T, Okada Y, Mikami H. Measurements of ligamentum flavum thickening at lumbar spine using MRI. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2009;129:1415-9 pubmed publisher
    As the ligamentum flavum (LF) covers most of the posterolateral part of the lumbar spinal canal, its thickening can be attributed to the development of lumbar canal encroachment...
  6. Giulioni M, Zucchelli M, Damiani S. Thoracic myelopathy caused by calcified ligamentum flavum. Joint Bone Spine. 2007;74:504-5 pubmed
    Calcification of the ligamentum flavum is a rare manifestation of the calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease (CPPD). In CPPD deposition disease, spinal involvement is rare...
  7. Pantazis G, Tsitsopoulos P, Bibis A, Mihas C, Chatzistamou I, Kouzelis C. Symptomatic ossification of the ligamentum flavum at the lumbar spine: a retrospective study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2008;33:306-11 pubmed publisher
    A retrospective study on 9 patients treated for ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) at the lumbar spine.
  8. Wilby M, Fraser R, Vernon Roberts B, Moore R. The prevalence and pathogenesis of synovial cysts within the ligamentum flavum in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis and radiculopathy. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009;34:2518-24 pubmed publisher
    A clinicopathologic study of synovial cysts in the ligamentum flavum (LF) in patients with spinal stenosis.
  9. Yamamoto A, Nishiura I, Handa H, Kondo A. Ganglion cyst in the ligamentum flavum of the cervical spine causing myelopathy: report of two cases. Surg Neurol. 2001;56:390-5 pubmed
    Ganglion cyst in the ligamentum flavum is commonly found in the lower lumbar region; occurrence in the cervical region is extremely rare...
  10. Safak A, Is M, Sevinc O, Barut C, Eryoruk N, Erdogmus B, et al. The thickness of the ligamentum flavum in relation to age and gender. Clin Anat. 2010;23:79-83 pubmed publisher
    Hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum (LF) can reduce the diameter of the spinal canal posteriorly...
  11. Specchia N, Pagnotta A, Gigante A, Logroscino G, Toesca A. Characterization of cultured human ligamentum flavum cells in lumbar spine stenosis. J Orthop Res. 2001;19:294-300 pubmed
    To investigate the pathogenesis of the degenerative changes of the ligamentum flavum occurring in lumbar spine stenosis, yellow ligament cells from patients with lumbar spine stenosis were cultured for the first time and subjected to ..
  12. Kim H, Min W, Jeong J, Kim S, Kim J, Kim S, et al. Combination of Runx2 and BMP2 increases conversion of human ligamentum flavum cells into osteoblastic cells. BMB Rep. 2011;44:446-51 pubmed
    ..Here, human ligamentum flavum (LF) fibroblast- like cells from six patients were tested for their conversion into osteoblasts using ..
  13. Park J, Lee B, Kang Y, Kim T, Yoon J, Kim H, et al. Inflammatory cytokines induce fibrosis and ossification of human ligamentum flavum cells. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2013;26:E6-12 pubmed publisher
    In vitro experiment using degenerated human ligamentum flavum (LF) and various inflammatory cytokines.
  14. Kosaka H, Sairyo K, Biyani A, Leaman D, Yeasting R, Higashino K, et al. Pathomechanism of loss of elasticity and hypertrophy of lumbar ligamentum flavum in elderly patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007;32:2805-11 pubmed publisher
    A histologic, biologic, and immunohistochemical assessment using human samples of lumbar ligamentum flavum.
  15. Park B, Min W, Oh C, Jeon I, Kim S, Kyung H, et al. Surgical outcome of thoracic myelopathy secondary to ossification of ligamentum flavum. Joint Bone Spine. 2007;74:600-5 pubmed
    ..Few series of OLF in South Korean subjects has previously been published. This study is to describe the clinical and radiologic aspects, as well as surgical outcomes in a group of South Korean patients...
  16. Chen Y, Wei J, Wang J, Lee H, Chiang E, Lai H, et al. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from human ligamentum flavum: implicating etiology of ligamentum flavum hypertrophy. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011;36:E1193-200 pubmed publisher
    To demonstrate the existence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in ligamentum flavum (LF) and their pathogenic role in LF hypertrophy.
  17. Aizawa T, Sato T, Sasaki H, Kusakabe T, Morozumi N, Kokubun S. Thoracic myelopathy caused by ossification of the ligamentum flavum: clinical features and surgical results in the Japanese population. J Neurosurg Spine. 2006;5:514-9 pubmed
    Data obtained in patients with thoracic myelopathy caused by ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) were retrospectively reviewed to clarify clinical features and surgical outcomes in the Japanese population.
  18. Gu R, Zhu Q, Lin Y, Yang X, Gao Z, Tanaka Y. Dynamic canal encroachment of ligamentum flavum: an in vitro study of cadaveric specimens. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2006;19:187-90 pubmed
    In extension of the cervical spine, the ligamentum flavum (LF) may bulge and intrude into the vertebral canal and cause symptoms of myelopathy and/or radiculopathy in patients with canal stenosis...
  19. Pascal Moussellard H, Cabre P, Smadja D, Catonne Y. Symptomatic ossification of the ligamentum flavum: a clinical series from the French Antilles. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2005;30:E400-5 pubmed
    A series of 14 patients from the French Antilles treated for ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF).
  20. Mizuno J, Nakagawa H, Inoue T, Hashizume Y. Ligamentum flavum hematoma in the lumbar spine. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2005;45:212-5 pubmed
    A previously healthy 45-year-old woman presented with ligamentum flavum hematoma manifesting as radicular leg pain. Neurological examination findings were consistent with L-5 root compression...
  21. Liao C, Chen T, Jung S, Chen L. Surgical experience with symptomatic thoracic ossification of the ligamentum flavum. J Neurosurg Spine. 2005;2:34-9 pubmed
    Symptomatic thoracic ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) is rare, and its prognostic factors remain unclear. The authors retrospectively studied 24 patients with surgically treated thoracic OLF to delineate its prognostic factor.
  22. Lirk P, Colvin J, Steger B, Colvin H, Keller C, Rieder J, et al. Incidence of lower thoracic ligamentum flavum midline gaps. Br J Anaesth. 2005;94:852-5 pubmed
    ..technique used to identify the epidural space is thought to rely on the penetration of the ligamentum flavum. Investigations at the cervical and lumbar regions have demonstrated that the ligamentum flavum frequently ..
  23. Gazzeri R, Galarza M, Gorgoglione L, Bisceglia M, D Angelo V. Cervical cyst of the ligamentum flavum and C7-T1 subluxation: case report. Eur Spine J. 2005;14:807-9 pubmed
    A patient with progressive gait disturbance resulting from a cyst of the cervical ligamentum flavum associated with C7-T1 listhesis is reported. Surgical removal of the cyst improved the patient's myelopathy...
  24. Wang Z, Li X, Li M, Wang Q. Changes in basic metabolic elements associated with the degeneration and ossification of ligamenta flava. J Spinal Cord Med. 2008;31:279-84 pubmed
    To determine the association between levels of basic metabolic elements and degeneration and ossification of the ligamentum flavum (LF).
  25. Kang K, Lee C, Shin S, Park S, Chung C, Chung S. Ossification of the ligamentum flavum of the thoracic spine in the Korean population. J Neurosurg Spine. 2011;14:513-9 pubmed publisher
    Thoracic ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF), a main cause of thoracic myelopathy, is an uncommon disease entity. It is seen mostly in East Asia, although the majority of reports have issued from Japan...
  26. Sairyo K, Biyani A, Goel V, Leaman D, Booth R, Thomas J, et al. Pathomechanism of ligamentum flavum hypertrophy: a multidisciplinary investigation based on clinical, biomechanical, histologic, and biologic assessments. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2005;30:2649-56 pubmed
    A multidisciplinary study involving clinical, histologic, biomechanical, biologic, and immunohistologic approaches. OBJECTIVE.: To clarify the pathomechanism of hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum.
  27. Park J, Kong C, Suhl K, Chang E, Riew K. The increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases associated with elastin degradation and fibrosis of the ligamentum flavum in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. Clin Orthop Surg. 2009;1:81-9 pubmed publisher
    ..characteristics of spinal stenosis is elastin degradation and fibrosis of the extracellular matrix of the ligamentum flavum. However, there have been no investigations to determine which biochemical factors cause these histologic ..
  28. Hirabayashi H, Ebara S, Takahashi J, Narasaki K, Takahara K, Murakami G, et al. Surgery for thoracic myelopathy caused by ossification of the ligamentum flavum. Surg Neurol. 2008;69:114-6; discussion 116 pubmed
    Ossification of the ligamentum flavum overlying the lower thoracic spine frequently produces myelopathy. This study analyzed the postoperative outcomes after decompressive laminectomy for thoracic OLF.
  29. Wildi L, Kurrer M, Benini A, Weishaupt D, Michel B, Brühlmann P. Pseudocystic degeneration of the lumbar ligamentum flavum: a little known entity. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2004;17:395-400 pubmed
    ..work was to investigate the clinical and histologic features of patients with pseudocystic lesions of the ligamentum flavum in the lumbar region of the spinal canal and ascertain the existence of genuine ligamentum flavum pseudocysts...
  30. Mizuno J, Nakagawa H. Unilateral ossification of the ligamentum flavum in the cervical spine with atypical radiological appearance. J Clin Neurosci. 2002;9:462-4 pubmed
    We report a case of symptomatic unilateral ossification of the ligamentum flavum with unusual radiological presentation in the cervical spine...
  31. Oh I, Ha K. Matrix metalloproteinase-3 on ligamentum flavum in degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009;34:E552-7 pubmed publisher
    Human ligamentum flavum (LF) was examined for the activity level of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) in degenerative spondylolithesis (DS) patients using immunohistochemistry, Western blot, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain ..
  32. Gazzeri R, Canova A, Fiore C, Galarza M, Neroni M, Giordano M. Acute hemorrhagic cyst of the ligamentum flavum. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2007;20:536-8 pubmed
    ..A case report and clinical discussion...
  33. Yoshii S, Ikeda K, Murakami H. Myxomatous degeneration of the ligamentum flavum of the lumbar spine. Spinal Cord. 2001;39:488-91 pubmed
    Report of two cases of acute lumbar nerve root compression caused by myxomatous degeneration of the ligamentum flavum.
  34. Guo J, Luk K, Karppinen J, Yang H, Cheung K. Prevalence, distribution, and morphology of ossification of the ligamentum flavum: a population study of one thousand seven hundred thirty-six magnetic resonance imaging scans. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010;35:51-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Large scale, cross-sectional imaging study of a general population...
  35. Yin X, Chen Z, Guo Z, Liu X, Yu H. Tissue transglutaminase expression and activity in human ligamentum flavum cells derived from thoracic ossification of ligamentum flavum. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010;35:E1018-24 pubmed publisher
    The study was undertaken to compare the expression and activity of tissue transglutaminase (TG2) in human ligamentum flavum cells derived from ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) and non-OLF patients.
  36. Löhr M, Hampl J, Lee J, Ernestus R, Deckert M, Stenzel W. Hypertrophy of the lumbar ligamentum flavum is associated with inflammation-related TGF-? expression. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2011;153:134-41 pubmed publisher
    Despite the significance of hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum (HLF) in the disease progress of neurogenic claudication, the cellular mechanisms underlying the gradual fibrotic thickening of the ligamentum flavum remain poorly ..
  37. Sun X, Chen Z, Qi Q, Guo Z, Sun C, Li W, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of ossification of the ligamentum flavum associated with dural ossification: clinical article. J Neurosurg Spine. 2011;15:386-92 pubmed publisher
    In this paper, the authors aimed to summarize the clinical characteristics of ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) associated with dural ossification (DO) and to identify improved methods for preoperative diagnosis.
  38. Cui G, Watanabe K, Miyauchi Y, Hosogane N, Tsuji T, Ishii K, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase 13 in the ligamentum flavum from lumbar spinal canal stenosis patients with and without diabetes mellitus. J Orthop Sci. 2011;16:785-90 pubmed publisher
    Lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS) is one of the most common spinal disorders in the elderly, and ligamentum flavum (LF) hypertrophy is an important cause of LSCS...
  39. Taha H, Bareksei Y, Albanna W, Schirmer M. Ligamentum flavum cyst in the lumbar spine: a case report and review of the literature. J Orthop Traumatol. 2010;11:117-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Most reported intraspinal cysts are ganglion or synovial cysts. Ligamentum flavum pseudocyst, as a cystic lesion in the lumbar spine, is a rare and unusual cause of neurologic signs and ..
  40. Mak K, Mak K, Gwi Mak E. Ossification of the ligamentum flavum in the cervicothoracic junction: case report on ossification found on both sides of the lamina. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2002;27:E11-4 pubmed
    A case of ossification on both sides of the ligamentum flavum in the cervicothoracic junction is described.
  41. Zhang Y, Chen J, Zhong Z, Yang D, Zhu Q. Is platelet-derived growth factor-BB expression proportional to fibrosis in the hypertrophied lumber ligamentum flavum?. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010;35:E1479-86 pubmed publisher
    A clinical and experimental assessment using human samples of lumbar ligamentum flavum (LF).
  42. Okada A, Harata S, Takeda Y, Nakamura T, Takagaki K, Endo M. Age-related changes in proteoglycans of human ligamentum flavum. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1993;18:2261-6 pubmed
    Age-related changes in proteoglycans of human ligamentum flavum were studied using specimens obtained from patients divided into four age groups. The proteoglycans were purified by ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography...
  43. Cakir E, Kuzeyli K, Usul H, Peksoylu B, Yazar U, Reis A, et al. Ligamentum flavum cyst. J Clin Neurosci. 2004;11:67-9 pubmed
    Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of ligamentum flavum and other spinal cysts have been well described, the role of contrast enhancement in this diagnosis has been neglected...
  44. Okuda T, Fujimoto Y, Tanaka N, Ishida O, Baba I, Ochi M. Morphological changes of the ligamentum flavum as a cause of nerve root compression. Eur Spine J. 2005;14:277-86 pubmed
    The ligamentum flavum is considered to be one of the important causes of radiculopathy in lumbar degenerative disease...
  45. Tokala D, Lam K, Prince H. Ossification of the proximal thoracic ligamenta flava causing acute myelopathy in a Caucasian: case report and literature review. Spinal Cord. 2007;45:310-3 pubmed
    ..Case report and literature review...
  46. Li F, Chen Q, Xu K. Surgical treatment of 40 patients with thoracic ossification of the ligamentum flavum. J Neurosurg Spine. 2006;4:191-7 pubmed
    The authors evaluated different surgical methods used to treat thoracic ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF).
  47. Muthukumar N. Ossification of the ligamentum flavum as a result of fluorosis causing myelopathy: report of two cases. Neurosurgery. 2005;56:E622; discussion E622 pubmed
    Ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) is increasingly being recognized as a cause of myeloradiculopathy. However, the cause of such OLF has been identified only occasionally...
  48. Keynan O, Smorgick Y, Schwartz A, Ashkenazi E, Floman Y. Spontaneous ligamentum flavum hematoma in the lumbar spine. Skeletal Radiol. 2006;35:687-9 pubmed
    ..frequently, other extradural causes may be implicated, such as infection, neoplasm, epidural hematoma, or ligamentum flavum pathology...
  49. Xu R, Sciubba D, Gokaslan Z, Bydon A. Ossification of the ligamentum flavum in a Caucasian man. J Neurosurg Spine. 2008;9:427-37 pubmed publisher
    ..of spinal ligaments is a well-known cause of myelopathy in East Asian populations, with ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) and the posterior longitudinal ligament being the most prevalent...
  50. Kong Q, Ma X, Li F, Guo Z, Qi Q, Li W, et al. COL6A1 polymorphisms associated with ossification of the ligamentum flavum and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007;32:2834-8 pubmed publisher
    A case-control association study was conducted to investigate the genetic etiology for ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine (OPLL).
  51. Nakatani T, Marui T, Hitora T, Doita M, Nishida K, Kurosaka M. Mechanical stretching force promotes collagen synthesis by cultured cells from human ligamentum flavum via transforming growth factor-beta1. J Orthop Res. 2002;20:1380-6 pubmed
    Although mechanical stress as a result of spinal instability is known to cause hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum resulting in degenerative spinal canal stenosis, the mechanism of the ligament hypertrophy is not well understood...
  52. Muthukumar N, Karuppaswamy U. Tumoral calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease of the ligamentum flavum. Neurosurgery. 2003;53:103-8; discussion 108-9 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this article is to report our experience with six cases involving massive focal deposition of CPPD crystals in the ligamentum flavum.
  53. Vera C, Cure J, Naso W, Gelven P, Worsham F, Roof B, et al. Paraplegia due to ossification of ligamenta flava in X-linked hypophosphatemia. A case report. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1997;22:710-5 pubmed
  54. Shiokawa K, Hanakita J, Suwa H, Saiki M, Oda M, Kajiwara M. Clinical analysis and prognostic study of ossified ligamentum flavum of the thoracic spine. J Neurosurg. 2001;94:221-6 pubmed
    A variety of factors may affect surgery-related outcome in patients with ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) of the thoracic spine...
  55. Kuh S, Kim Y, Cho Y, Jin B, Kim K, Yoon Y, et al. Contributing factors affecting the prognosis surgical outcome for thoracic OLF. Eur Spine J. 2006;15:485-91 pubmed
    The thoracic ossification of ligamentum flavum (OLF) is a disease that produces spastic paraparesis, and there are various factors that may affect the surgical outcome of thoracic OLF patients...
  56. DiMaio S, Marmor E, Albrecht S, Mohr G. Ligamentum flavum cysts causing incapacitating lumbar spinal stenosis. Can J Neurol Sci. 2005;32:237-42 pubmed
    Cysts of the ligamentum flavum are rare and unusual causes of spinal compression.
  57. Zhong Z, Zha D, Xiao W, Wu S, Wu Q, Zhang Y, et al. Hypertrophy of ligamentum flavum in lumbar spine stenosis associated with the increased expression of connective tissue growth factor. J Orthop Res. 2011;29:1592-7 pubmed publisher
    Hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum (LF) contributes to lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS), and results mainly from fibrosis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a profibrotic factor involved in the fibrotic process...
  58. Asamoto S, Jimbo H, Fukui Y, Doi H, Sakagawa H, Ida M, et al. Cyst of the ligamentum flavum--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2005;45:653-6 pubmed
    An 86-year-old man presented with intermittent claudication caused by a cyst of the ligamentum flavum. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an extradural cystic mass at the L5-S1 intervertebral space and canal stenosis at the ..
  59. Guo Q, Ni B, Yang J, Zhu Z, Yang J. Simultaneous ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament and ossification of the ligamentum flavum causing upper thoracic myelopathy in DISH: case report and literature review. Eur Spine J. 2011;20 Suppl 2:S195-201 pubmed publisher
    ..DISH) and simultaneous ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) and ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) at T1-2 causing thoracic myelopathy is reported herein...
  60. Jayakumar P, Devi B, Bhat D, Das B. Thoracic cord compression due to ossified hypertrophied ligamentum flavum. Neurol India. 2002;50:286-9 pubmed
    Ossified ligamentum flavum is increasingly appreciated as an important cause of thoracic myeloradiculopathy. Fifteen patients with age ranging from 30-61 years were studied...
  61. Terada H, Yokoyama Y, Kamata N, Hozumi T, Kondo T. Cyst of the ligamentum flavum. Neuroradiology. 2001;43:49-51 pubmed
    We report the case of a patient with sciatica resulting from a cyst of the ligamentum flavum.
  62. Okuda T, Baba I, Fujimoto Y, Tanaka N, Sumida T, Manabe H, et al. The pathology of ligamentum flavum in degenerative lumbar disease. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2004;29:1689-97 pubmed
    A pathologic study of the ligamentum flavum in degenerative lumbar disease.