giant cell granuloma

Summary

Summary: A non-neoplastic inflammatory lesion, usually of the jaw or gingiva, containing large, multinucleated cells. It includes reparative giant cell granuloma. Peripheral giant cell granuloma refers to the gingiva (giant cell epulis); central refers to the jaw.

Top Publications

  1. Ustundag E, Iseri M, Keskin G, Muezzinoglu B. Central giant cell granuloma. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2002;65:143-6 pubmed
    The central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) is an uncommon benign bony lesion that accounts for less than 7% of all benign lesions of the jaws in tooth-bearing areas. Its etiology is unknown and its biological behavior is poorly understood...
  2. Lin Y, Chen H, Chen H, Wang W, Chen Y, Lin L. Central giant cell granuloma of the mandible in a 7-year-old boy: a case report. Quintessence Int. 2007;38:253-9 pubmed
    Central giant cell granuloma is a relatively uncommon benign bony lesion of a variably aggressive nature. This paper presents the case of a 7-year-old boy with central giant cell granuloma in the anterior mandible...
  3. de Lange J, Van den Akker H, van den Berg H. Central giant cell granuloma of the jaw: a review of the literature with emphasis on therapy options. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2007;104:603-15 pubmed
    Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) is a benign lesion of the jaws with an unknown etiology. Clinically and radiologically, a differentiation between aggressive and non-aggressive lesions can be made...
  4. Ozden F, Ozden B, Kurt M, Gunduz K, Gunhan O. Peripheral giant cell granuloma associated with dental implants: a rare case report. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2009;24:1153-6 pubmed
    The peripheral giant cell granuloma is a benign reactive exophytic lesion of unknown etiology occurring on the gingiva and alveolar ridge. Different local causal factors have been associated with this type of lesion...
  5. Duarte Ruiz B, Riba García F, Navarro Cuellar C, Bucci T, Cuesta Gil M, Navarro Vila C. Reparative giant cell granuloma in a pediatric patient. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2007;12:E331-5 pubmed
    ..The facial CT and incisional biopsy confirmed the suspected diagnosis of reparative giant cell granuloma. The patient was surgically treated, carrying out a left marginal maxillectomy associated with the ..
  6. Bataineh A, Al Khateeb T, Rawashdeh M. The surgical treatment of central giant cell granuloma of the mandible. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002;60:756-61 pubmed
    The objective of this study was to report and evaluate our experience in the surgical treatment of mandibular central giant cell granuloma by resection without continuity defect and peripheral ostectomy.
  7. Nackos J, Wiggins R, Harnsberger H. CT and MR imaging of giant cell granuloma of the craniofacial bones. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2006;27:1651-3 pubmed
    b>Giant cell granuloma (GCG) is a rare lesion. The purpose of this study was to determine the CT characteristics and describe possible MR imaging features of GCG of the craniofacial bones.
  8. Sezer B, Koyuncu B, Gomel M, Gunbay T. Intralesional corticosteroid injection for central giant cell granuloma: a case report and review of the literature. Turk J Pediatr. 2005;47:75-81 pubmed
    Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) is a benign intraosseous lesion of the jaws that is found predominantly in children and young adults...
  9. de Lange J, van den Akker H, van den Berg H, Richel D, Gortzak R. Limited regression of central giant cell granuloma by interferon alpha after failed calcitonin therapy: a report of 2 cases. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;35:865-9 pubmed
    Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) is a benign lesion of the jaws with a sometimes locally aggressive behaviour...

More Information

Publications73

  1. Wang C, Song Y, Peng B, Fan M, Li J, Zhu S, et al. Expression of c-Src and comparison of cytologic features in cherubism, central giant cell granuloma and giant cell tumors. Oncol Rep. 2006;15:589-94 pubmed
    Cherubism (CBM) and central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) of the jaw and giant cell tumor (GCT) of the long bone are clinically different diseases. Histologically, they are all multinucleated giant cell (MGC)-containing lesions...
  2. Vered M, Buchner A, Dayan D. Immunohistochemical expression of glucocorticoid and calcitonin receptors as a tool for selecting therapeutic approach in central giant cell granuloma of the jawbones. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;35:756-60 pubmed
    Aggressive cases of central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) have been arbitrarily treated with steroids and calcitonin...
  3. Bischof M, Nedir R, Lombardi T. Peripheral giant cell granuloma associated with a dental implant. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2004;19:295-9 pubmed
    ..An excisional biopsy of the mass resulted in the diagnosis of peripheral giant cell granuloma. After the implants were gently curetted and scaled, they were cleaned using abrasive paste...
  4. de Lange J, Van den Akker H. Clinical and radiological features of central giant-cell lesions of the jaw. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2005;99:464-70 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological features of central giant-cell lesions that were diagnosed in The Netherlands between January 1, 1990, and January 1, 1995...
  5. Gungormus M, Akgül H. Central giant cell granuloma of the jaws: a clinical and radiologic study. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2003;4:87-97 pubmed
    The purpose of this study is to present the clinical and radiological features of 27 cases of central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) of the jaws.
  6. Kruse Losler B, Diallo R, Gaertner C, Mischke K, Joos U, Kleinheinz J. Central giant cell granuloma of the jaws: a clinical, radiologic, and histopathologic study of 26 cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2006;101:346-54 pubmed
    The clinical behavior of central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) of the jaws is variable and difficult to predict. Clinical data and follow-up information of 26 patients with CGCG were analyzed...
  7. Doulaveri G, Tsagroni E, Giannadaki M, Bosemberg E, Limas C, Potouridou I, et al. Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma in a 70-year-old woman. Int J Dermatol. 2003;42:290-1 pubmed
  8. de Lange J, van den Akker H, Veldhuijzen van Zanten G, Engelshove H, van den Berg H, Klip H. Calcitonin therapy in central giant cell granuloma of the jaw: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;35:791-5 pubmed
    The successful therapeutic use of calcitonin in patients with a central giant cell granuloma has been shown in several case reports...
  9. Vered M, Buchner A, Dayan D. Giant cell granuloma of the jawbones--a proliferative vascular lesion? Immunohistochemical study with vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. J Oral Pathol Med. 2006;35:613-9 pubmed
    To estimate the angiogenic activity in central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) by immunohistochemical stains for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)...
  10. Tosco P, Tanteri G, Iaquinta C, Fasolis M, Roccia F, Berrone S, et al. Surgical treatment and reconstruction for central giant cell granuloma of the jaws: a review of 18 cases. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2009;37:380-7 pubmed publisher
    Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) is an uncommon benign bony lesion that occurs in the mandible and maxilla...
  11. Morita K, Okamoto H, Miyachi Y. Papular elastolytic giant cell granuloma: a clinical variant of annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma or generalized granuloma annulare?. Eur J Dermatol. 1999;9:647-9 pubmed
    ..man with asymptomatic red papules on the trunk and upper arms was reported as a case of papular elastolytic giant cell granuloma. A skin biopsy specimen from a papule on the back showed similar findings to those of annular elastolytic ..
  12. Martins M, Pires F, Daleck F, Myaki S, Friggi M, Martins M. Peripheral giant cell granuloma in anterior maxilla: case report in a child. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2005;30:161-4 pubmed
    A case of giant cell granuloma in a 7-year-old boy was reported. The lesion was probably caused by trauma and was interfering with the normal eruption of the permanent maxillary left lateral incisor...
  13. Kauzman A, Li S, Bradley G, Bell R, Wunder J, Kandel R. Central giant cell granuloma of the jaws: assessment of cell cycle proteins. J Oral Pathol Med. 2004;33:170-6 pubmed
    Several reports have demonstrated the presence of a high proliferative activity in central giant cell granuloma, raising the possibility that deregulation of the cell cycle may contribute to its pathogenesis...
  14. Curtis N, Walker D. A case of aggressive multiple metachronous central giant cell granulomas of the jaws: differential diagnosis and management options. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2005;34:806-8 pubmed
    ..The patient presented in 1997 with a large central giant cell granuloma of the right maxilla which was treated with a partial maxillectomy...
  15. Rawashdeh M, Bataineh A, Al Khateeb T. Long-term clinical and radiological outcomes of surgical management of central giant cell granuloma of the maxilla. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;35:60-6 pubmed
    ..report the results of long-term clinical and radiological follow up of the surgical management of central giant cell granuloma of the maxilla...
  16. Edwards P, Fantasia J, Saini T, Rosenberg T, Sachs S, Ruggiero S. Clinically aggressive central giant cell granulomas in two patients with neurofibromatosis 1. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2006;102:765-72 pubmed
    ..Kerl first reported an association of NF1 with multiple central giant cell granulomas (CGCGs) of the jaws. There have since been 4 additional published cases of NF1 patients with CGCGs of the jaws...
  17. Abdo E, Alves L, Rodrigues A, Mesquita R, Gomez R. Treatment of a central giant cell granuloma with intralesional corticosteroid. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2005;43:74-6 pubmed
    A recurrent central giant cell granuloma in a 14-year-old girl in the anterior region of the mandible was treated successfully by intralesional injection of corticosteroid.
  18. Dickson B, Li S, Wunder J, Ferguson P, Eslami B, Werier J, et al. Giant cell tumor of bone express p63. Mod Pathol. 2008;21:369-75 pubmed publisher
    ..of tendon sheath, pigmented villonodular synovitis, aneurysmal bone cyst, chondroblastoma, and central giant cell granuloma. The mononuclear cell component in all cases of giant cell tumor of bone was found to express all forms of ..
  19. Sharma R, Verma A, Pawar S, Dev E, Devadas R, Shiv V, et al. Pediatric giant cell granuloma of the temporal bone: a case report and brief review of the literature. J Clin Neurosci. 2002;9:459-62 pubmed
    b>Giant cell granuloma of the skull base is a distinct rare clinicopathologic lesion, which progressively destroys the involved bone. It causes increased intracranial pressure and mass effect on the brain...
  20. Roberts J, Shores C, Rose A. Surgical treatment is warranted in aggressive central giant cell granuloma: a report of 2 cases. Ear Nose Throat J. 2009;88:E8-E13 pubmed
    Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) is a benign but locally destructive lesion of the mandible or maxilla that presents most often in the second and third decades of life...
  21. Lee H, Ercoli C, Fantuzzo J, Girotto J, Coniglio J, Palermo M. Oral rehabilitation of a 12-year-old patient diagnosed with a central giant cell granuloma using a fibula graft and an implant-supported prosthesis: a clinical report. J Prosthet Dent. 2008;99:257-62 pubmed publisher
    This clinical report describes the oral rehabilitation of a 12-year-old boy with a central giant cell granuloma of the mandible...
  22. Hirshberg A, Kozlovsky A, Schwartz Arad D, Mardinger O, Kaplan I. Peripheral giant cell granuloma associated with dental implants. J Periodontol. 2003;74:1381-4 pubmed
    Peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG) is a well-circumscribed lesion confined to the alveolar and gingival mucosa. PGCG is considered a reactive lesion caused by local irritation or trauma...
  23. Kelly B, Mrstik M, Ramos Caro F, Iczkowski K. Papular elastolytic giant cell granuloma responding to hydroxychloroquine and quinacrine. Int J Dermatol. 2004;43:964-6 pubmed
  24. Carlos R, Sedano H. Intralesional corticosteroids as an alternative treatment for central giant cell granuloma. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2002;93:161-6 pubmed
    Four cases of central giant cell granuloma were treated with intralesional infiltration of a solution of Kenacort-A (10 mg/mL, triamcinolone aqueous suspension SQUIBB) and either (1) Lidocaine 2% with epinephrine 1:200,000 Marcaine or (2) ..
  25. Itonaga I, Hussein I, Kudo O, Sabokbar A, Watt Smith S, Ferguson D, et al. Cellular mechanisms of osteoclast formation and lacunar resorption in giant cell granuloma of the jaw. J Oral Pathol Med. 2003;32:224-31 pubmed
    b>Giant cell granuloma (GCG) is an osteolytic tumour of the jaw which is characterised by the presence of both mononuclear and multinucleated (osteoclast-like) giant cell components...
  26. Pogrel M. Calcitonin therapy for central giant cell granuloma. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2003;61:649-53; discussion 53-4 pubmed
    ..of alternative nonsurgical therapies have been advocated in recent years for the management of the central giant cell granuloma (CGCG)...
  27. de Lange J, van Rijn R, van den Berg H, Van den Akker H. Regression of central giant cell granuloma by a combination of imatinib and interferon: a case report. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;47:59-61 pubmed publisher
    Central giant cell granuloma is a benign lesion of the jaws which is sometimes aggressive locally. The most common treatment is curettage,which has a high recurrence rate, particularly in more aggressive lesions...
  28. Martins W, De Oliveira Ribas M, Braosi A, Machado M, Lima A. Multiple giant cell lesions of the maxillofacial skeleton. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;65:1250-3 pubmed
  29. Farzaneh A, Pardis P. Central giant cell granuloma and fibrous dysplasia occurring in the same jaw. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2005;10 Suppl 2:E130-2 pubmed
    ..Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) is described as a benign lesion affecting the mandible and maxilla that consists of a massive ..
  30. Ortore R, Bovo R, Ciorba A, Ceruti S, Martini A. Giant cell granuloma of the temporal bone: a case report. B-ENT. 2008;4:45-8 pubmed
    b>Giant cell granuloma (GCG) is a rare nonneoplastic bone lesion that occurs mostly in the jawbones; few cases arise in the remainder of the skull, including the temporal bone...
  31. Pock L, Blazkova J, Caloudová H, Varjassyová I, Konkolová R, Hercogova J. Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma causes an irreversible disappearance of the elastic fibres. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2004;18:365-8 pubmed
    ..This finding is typical of annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma (AEGCG)...
  32. Chaparro Avendaño A, Berini Aytés L, Gay Escoda C. Peripheral giant cell granuloma. A report of five cases and review of the literature. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2005;10:53-7; 48-52 pubmed
    Peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG) is a relatively frequent benign reactive lesion of the oral cavity, originating from the periosteum or periodontal membrane following local irritation or chronic trauma...
  33. Sholapurkar A, Pai K, Ahsan A. Central giant cell granuloma of the anterior maxilla. Indian J Dent Res. 2008;19:78-82 pubmed
    Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) formerly called giant cell reparative granuloma is a non-neoplastic proliferative lesion of unknown etiology. It occurs most commonly in the mandible...
  34. Vered M, Buchner A, Dayan D. Central giant cell granuloma of the jawbones--new insights into molecular biology with clinical implications on treatment approaches. Histol Histopathol. 2008;23:1151-60 pubmed publisher
  35. Salum F, Yurgel L, Cherubini K, De Figueiredo M, Medeiros I, Nicola F. Pyogenic granuloma, peripheral giant cell granuloma and peripheral ossifying fibroma: retrospective analysis of 138 cases. Minerva Stomatol. 2008;57:227-32 pubmed
    The present study examined retrospectively the clinical and radiographic characteristics of pyogenic granuloma (PG), peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG) and peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF), located in the gingiva and alveolar ridge.
  36. Moser A, Hoffmann K, Walch C, Sovinz P, Lackner H, Schwinger W, et al. Intracranial reparative giant cell granuloma secondary to cholesteatoma in a 15-year-old girl. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2008;30:935-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Cholesteatoma should be considered as a trigger for intracranial GCRG growth, especially if adjacent to the temporal bone...
  37. Ozkaya Bayazit E, Buyukbabani N, Baykal C, Ozturk A, Okcu M, Soyer H. Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma: sparing of a burn scar and successful treatment with chloroquine. Br J Dermatol. 1999;140:525-30 pubmed
    Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma is a rare granulomatous skin disease characterized by phagocytosis of elastic fibres by multinucleated giant cells...
  38. Wendt F, Torriani M, Gomes A, de Araujo L, Torriani D. Intralesional corticosteroid injection for central giant cell granuloma: an alternative treatment for children. J Dent Child (Chic). 2009;76:229-32 pubmed
    The purpose of the present article was to report a case of central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) associated with intralesional corticosteroid injections...
  39. Nicolai G, Lorè B, Mariani G, Bollero P, De Marinis L, Calabrese L. Central giant cell granuloma of the jaws. J Craniofac Surg. 2010;21:383-6 pubmed publisher
    Central giant cell granuloma was classified by the World Health Organization in 2005 as a rarely aggressive idiopathic benign intraosseous lesion that occurs almost exclusively in the jaws...
  40. Tobón Arroyave S, Franco González L, Isaza Guzmán D, Floréz Moreno G, Bravo Vásquez T, Castañeda Peláez D, et al. Immunohistochemical expression of RANK, GRalpha and CTR in central giant cell granuloma of the jaws. Oral Oncol. 2005;41:480-8 pubmed
    The aim was to evaluate the phenotypic expression of various cellular osteotropic factors in central giant cell granuloma (CGCG)...
  41. Flaitz C. Peripheral giant cell granuloma: a potentially aggressive lesion in children. Pediatr Dent. 2000;22:232-3 pubmed
    ..The diagnosis of peripheral giant cell granuloma, a benign reactive gingival lesion, is confirmed by histopathologic examination...
  42. Ciorba A, Altissimi G, Giansanti M. Giant cell granuloma of the maxilla: case report. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2004;24:26-9 pubmed
    b>Giant cell granuloma is an uncommon bony lesion in the head and neck region, most commonly affecting the maxilla and mandible. Although it is a benign disease process, it can also be locally destructive...
  43. Slootweg P. Lesions of the jaws. Histopathology. 2009;54:401-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Other lesions, not strictly odontogenic but also mainly confined to the jaw bones, are giant cell lesions, fibro-osseous lesions, and the melanotic neuro-ectodermal tumour of infancy. They also will be included in this overview...
  44. Arai Y, Chiba Y, Umeda S, Ohara Y, Iwai T, Komatsu M, et al. Reduction surgery using a combination of a stereolithographic model and navigation system for ossifying fibroma with secondary central giant cell granuloma. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2016;43:207-11 pubmed publisher
    Both central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) and ossifying fibroma (OF) are relatively common diseases. The synchronous presentation of CGCG and OF is, however, an extremely rare occurrence...
  45. Shang Z, Li Z, Chen X, Li J, McCoy J. Expansile lesion of the mandible in a 45-year-old woman. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2003;61:621-5 pubmed
  46. Kim H, Lee H, Suh D, Choi C, Kim J, Lee J, et al. Giant cell reparative granuloma of the temporal bone: MR findings with pathologic correlation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2003;24:1136-8 pubmed
    ..The hypointensity on T2-weighted images corresponded to areas of hemorrhage and hemosiderin deposition on pathologic correlation. ..
  47. Stack R, Weatherhead R. Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon causing ptosis. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2003;31:540-1 pubmed
  48. Throndson R, Sexton S. A mandibular central lesion with unusually rapid growth. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2004;98:4-9 pubmed
  49. Klemke C, Siebold D, Dippel E, Hildenbrand R, Bleyl U, Goerdt S. Generalised annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma. Dermatology. 2003;207:420-2 pubmed
  50. Darré T, Tchaou M, Sonhaye L, Patassi A, Kanassoua K, Tchangaï B, et al. [Analysis of a series of 44 cases of peritoneal tuberculosis diagnosed in the pathology laboratory of the Tokoin teaching hospital of Lomé (1993-2014)]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2015;108:324-7 pubmed publisher
    ..An increase in cell count was observed in 94.6% of cases. Histology revealed the epithelial giant cell granuloma associated with caseous necrosis in 38 cases (86.4%) and cheesy isolated in 6 patients...
  51. Menge M, Maier W, Feuerhake F, Kaminsky J, Pfeiffer J. Giant cell reparative granuloma of the temporal bone. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2009;151:397-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a case of GCRG of the left temporal bone that was treated surgically via a combined transtemporal-subtemporal approach. A short literature review about diagnosis, clinical behavior and treatment of this tumor entity is given. ..
  52. Porzionato A, Alaggio R, Aprile A. Perianal and vulvar Crohn's disease presenting as suspected abuse. Forensic Sci Int. 2005;155:24-7 pubmed
    ..If the patient is hospitalised and the question of protection does not arise, physicians should exclude dermatological diseases before reporting to the judicial authorities. ..
  53. Boedeker C, Kayser G, Ridder G, Maier W, Schipper J. Giant-cell reparative granuloma of the temporal bone: a case report and review of the literature. Ear Nose Throat J. 2003;82:926-9, 933-4, 936-7 pubmed
    ..We also review the cases of temporal bone GCRG that have been reported in the literature so far. ..
  54. Tuggle D, Mantor P, Foley D, Markley M, Puffinbarger N. Using a bioabsorbable copolymer plate for chest wall reconstruction. J Pediatr Surg. 2004;39:626-8 pubmed
    ..The authors describe their recent experience with a commercially available bioabsorbable plate in a variety of conditions that require chest wall reconstruction...
  55. Robinson A, Solofomalala G, Andriatahina T, Ravelomanana N. [Cutaneous tuberculosis: a pediatric case in Madagascar]. Med Trop (Mars). 2008;68:173-5 pubmed
    ..Treatment was successful using standard antituberculosis therapy. This case illustrates the diagnostic pitfalls associated with this type of tuberculosis...
  56. Uzbek U, Mushtaq I. Giant cell granuloma of the maxilla. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2007;19:93-5 pubmed
    ..The swelling was clinically and radiographically diagnosed as Central Giant Cell Granuloma. The patient also had Angles Class 2 Division 2 Malocclusion in which repeated micro trauma may have ..
  57. Krupa W, Dewan M, Jeon M, Kurtin P, Younge B, Goronzy J, et al. Trapping of misdirected dendritic cells in the granulomatous lesions of giant cell arteritis. Am J Pathol. 2002;161:1815-23 pubmed
  58. Khodaei I, Rowley H, Farrell M, Collins C, Vianni L, Rawluk D. An unusual cause for tinnitus. Ir Med J. 2001;94:312-3 pubmed
    ..They usually present at the epiphyses of long bones such as the proximal femur and distal radius. Otological symptoms are not known as a common presenting symptom of giant cell granulomas...
  59. Etemadi J, Mortazavi Khosrowshahi M, Ardalan M, Esmaili H, Javadrashid R, Shoja M. Brown tumor of hyperparathyroidism masquerading as central giant cell granuloma in a renal transplant recipient: a case report. Transplant Proc. 2009;41:2920-2 pubmed publisher
    The brown tumor of hyperparathyroidism is histologically identical to the central giant cell granuloma (CGCG), but these lesions can be differentiated based on history and laboratory findings...
  60. Cooper L. Giant cell myocarditis: diagnosis and treatment. Herz. 2000;25:291-8 pubmed
    ..To confirm and extend these findings, a randomized trial of immunosuppression including muromonab-CD3, cyclosporine, and steroids is underway...
  61. Grand E, Burgener E, Samson J, Lombardi T. Post-traumatic development of a peripheral giant cell granuloma in a child. Dent Traumatol. 2008;24:124-6 pubmed publisher
    The peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG) is a benign hyperplastic gingival lesion of unknown aetiology occurring mostly in adults. A few cases have been described in children where a more aggressive clinical behaviour has been observed...
  62. Desai P, Steiner G. Ultrastructure of brown tumor of hyperparathyroidism. Ultrastruct Pathol. 1990;14:505-11 pubmed
    ..The fibroblasts show myofibroblastic differentiation. We think that brown tumor represents a reparative cellular process similar to giant cell reparative granuloma of bone...
  63. Savage N, Daly C. Gingival enlargements and localized gingival overgrowths. Aust Dent J. 2010;55 Suppl 1:55-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This distinct aetiopathogenesis separates this group of lesions both in terms of their specific clinical presentation and behaviour and their propensity for recurrence if managed inadequately...
  64. Aldaqal S. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Clinical presentation, radiological features and treatment. Saudi Med J. 2004;25:1884-7 pubmed
    ..To determine the clinical characteristic, clinical presentations and radiological features of diopathic granulomatous mastitis, and the best treatment approaches of this clinical entity...