plantar fasciitis

Summary

Summary: Inflammation of the plantar fascia (aponeurosis) on the bottom of the foot causing heel pain. The etiology of plantar fasciitis remains controversial but is likely to involve a biomechanical imbalance. Though often presenting along with HEEL SPUR, they do not appear to be causally related.

Top Publications

  1. Kudo P, Dainty K, Clarfield M, Coughlin L, Lavoie P, Lebrun C. Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial evaluating the treatment of plantar fasciitis with an extracoporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) device: a North American confirmatory study. J Orthop Res. 2006;24:115-23 pubmed
    Despite numerous publications and clinical trials, the results of treatment of recalcitrant chronic plantar fasciitis with extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) still remain equivocal as to whether or not this treatment provides relief ..
  2. Riddle D, Pulisic M, Pidcoe P, Johnson R. Risk factors for Plantar fasciitis: a matched case-control study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2003;85-A:872-7 pubmed
    b>Plantar fasciitis is one of the more common soft-tissue disorders of the foot, yet little is known about its etiology...
  3. Hyer C, Vancourt R, Block A. Evaluation of ultrasound-guided extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in the treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2005;44:137-43 pubmed
    ..39 heels) were evaluated to determine the success of ultrasound-guided ESWT for treatment of recalcitrant plantar fasciitis. All patients had been diagnosed and treated for plantar fasciitis for greater than 6 months and had failed ..
  4. Alshami A, Babri A, Souvlis T, Coppieters M. Biomechanical evaluation of two clinical tests for plantar heel pain: the dorsiflexion-eversion test for tarsal tunnel syndrome and the windlass test for plantar fasciitis. Foot Ankle Int. 2007;28:499-505 pubmed
    Plantar heel pain may result from several conditions such as tarsal tunnel syndrome (TTS) and plantar fasciitis. The dorsiflexion-eversion test is used to diagnose TTS, whereas the windlass test is used for plantar fasciitis...
  5. Rompe J. Repetitive low-energy shock wave treatment is effective for chronic symptomatic plantar fasciitis. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2007;15:107; author reply 108 pubmed
  6. Theodore G, Buch M, Amendola A, Bachmann C, Fleming L, Zingas C. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy for the treatment of plantar fasciitis. Foot Ankle Int. 2004;25:290-7 pubmed
    ..effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) using the Dornier Epos Ultra for the treatment of plantar fasciitis. The Active Group was treated with electromagnetically generated shocks using ultrasound guidance during a ..
  7. Ogden J, Alvarez R, Levitt R, Johnson J, Marlow M. Electrohydraulic high-energy shock-wave treatment for chronic plantar fasciitis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2004;86-A:2216-28 pubmed
    b>Plantar fasciitis is a common foot disorder that may be resistant to nonoperative treatment...
  8. Hammer D, Adam F, Kreutz A, Rupp S, Kohn D, Seil R. Ultrasonographic evaluation at 6-month follow-up of plantar fasciitis after extracorporeal shock wave therapy. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2005;125:6-9 pubmed
    ..extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) on the ultrasonographic appearance of chronically painful, proximal plantar fasciitis. Twenty-two patients with a unilateral proximal plantar fasciitis were prospectively enrolled after ..
  9. DiGiovanni B, Nawoczenski D, Malay D, Graci P, Williams T, Wilding G, et al. Plantar fascia-specific stretching exercise improves outcomes in patients with chronic plantar fasciitis. A prospective clinical trial with two-year follow-up. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006;88:1775-81 pubmed
    In a previous investigation, eighty-two patients with chronic proximal plantar fasciitis for a duration of more than ten months completed a randomized, prospective clinical trial...

More Information

Publications76

  1. Liang H, Wang T, Chen W, Hou S. Thinner plantar fascia predicts decreased pain after extracorporeal shock wave therapy. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2007;460:219-25 pubmed
    Increased plantar fascia thickness is common with chronic plantar fasciitis, and reduction of the thickness after extracorporeal shock wave therapy or steroid injection has been reported...
  2. Buccilli T, Hall H, Solmen J. Sterile abscess formation following a corticosteroid injection for the treatment of plantar fasciitis. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2005;44:466-8 pubmed
    A sterile abscess following a corticosteroid injection for the treatment of plantar fasciitis has not been reported in the literature. This case report demonstrates such a complication...
  3. Chundru U, Liebeskind A, Seidelmann F, Fogel J, Franklin P, Beltran J. Plantar fasciitis and calcaneal spur formation are associated with abductor digiti minimi atrophy on MRI of the foot. Skeletal Radiol. 2008;37:505-10 pubmed publisher
    ..the clinical diagnosis of Baxter's neuropathy, with MRI markers of potential etiologies, including calcaneal spur formation, plantar fasciitis, calcaneal edema, Achilles tendinosis and posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD).
  4. McPoil T, Martin R, Cornwall M, Wukich D, Irrgang J, Godges J. Heel pain--plantar fasciitis: clinical practice guildelines linked to the international classification of function, disability, and health from the orthopaedic section of the American Physical Therapy Association. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2008;38:A1-A18 pubmed publisher
    The Heel Pain-Plantar Fasciitis Guidelines link the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) body structures (Ligaments and fascia of ankle and foot, and Neural structures of lower leg) and the ICF body ..
  5. Buchbinder R. Clinical practice. Plantar fasciitis. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:2159-66 pubmed
  6. Allen R, Gross M. Toe flexors strength and passive extension range of motion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint in individuals with plantar fasciitis. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2003;33:468-78 pubmed
    ..Cross-sectional study...
  7. Metzner G, Dohnalek C, Aigner E. High-energy Extracorporeal Shock-Wave Therapy (ESWT) for the treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis. Foot Ankle Int. 2010;31:790-6 pubmed publisher
    Few reports about the success of high-energy extracorporeal shock-wave therapy in cases of plantar fasciitis exist, even fewer about long-term results...
  8. Karabay N, Toros T, Hurel C. Ultrasonographic evaluation in plantar fasciitis. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2007;46:442-6 pubmed
    The heels of 23 patients who were diagnosed with unilateral/bilateral plantar fasciitis were evaluated via ultrasonography and compared with their asymptomatic feet and a control group of 23 people...
  9. Lee T, Ahmad T. Intralesional autologous blood injection compared to corticosteroid injection for treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis. A prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Foot Ankle Int. 2007;28:984-90 pubmed
    The response of chronic plantar fasciitis to any treatment is unpredictable. Autologous blood might provide cellular and humoral mediators to induce healing in areas of degeneration, the underlying pathology in plantar fasciitis...
  10. Rompe J, Meurer A, Nafe B, Hofmann A, Gerdesmeyer L. Repetitive low-energy shock wave application without local anesthesia is more efficient than repetitive low-energy shock wave application with local anesthesia in the treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis. J Orthop Res. 2005;23:931-41 pubmed
    It remains unclear whether application of local anesthesia (LA) interferes with clinical efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for chronic plantar fasciitis.
  11. Rompe J. Plantar fasciitis. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:834; author reply 834 pubmed
  12. Wearing S, Smeathers J, Urry S, Hennig E, Hills A. The pathomechanics of plantar fasciitis. Sports Med. 2006;36:585-611 pubmed
    b>Plantar fasciitis is a musculoskeletal disorder primarily affecting the fascial enthesis. Although poorly understood, the development of plantar fasciitis is thought to have a mechanical origin...
  13. May T, Judy T, Conti M, Cowan J. Current treatment of plantar fasciitis. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2002;1:278-84 pubmed
    b>Plantar fasciitis is one of the most common complaints of chronic rearfoot heel pain seen by primary care providers. The etiology and differential diagnosis are numerous, as are treatment options...
  14. Harty J, Soffe K, O Toole G, Stephens M. The role of hamstring tightness in plantar fasciitis. Foot Ankle Int. 2005;26:1089-92 pubmed
    b>Plantar fasciitis is a repetitive microtrauma overload injury of the attachment of the plantar fascia at the inferior aspect of the calcaneus...
  15. Badlissi F, Dunn J, Link C, Keysor J, McKinlay J, Felson D. Foot musculoskeletal disorders, pain, and foot-related functional limitation in older persons. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005;53:1029-33 pubmed
    ..To examine whether common musculoskeletal disorders of feet are associated with pain and foot-related functional limitation...
  16. Ozdemir H, Yilmaz E, Murat A, Karakurt L, Poyraz A, Ogur E. Sonographic evaluation of plantar fasciitis and relation to body mass index. Eur J Radiol. 2005;54:443-7 pubmed
    We have investigated the role of sonography in the diagnosis of plantar fasciitis.
  17. Chia K, Suresh S, Kuah A, Ong J, Phua J, Seah A. Comparative trial of the foot pressure patterns between corrective orthotics,formthotics, bone spur pads and flat insoles in patients with chronic plantar fasciitis. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2009;38:869-75 pubmed
    The objective of the study is to compare the efficacy of fl at insoles, bone spur pads, pre-fabricated orthotics and customised orthotics in reducing plantar contact pressure of subjects with plantar fasciitis.
  18. Ogden J. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy for plantar fasciitis: randomised controlled multicentre trial. Br J Sports Med. 2004;38:382 pubmed
  19. Wearing S, Smeathers J, Sullivan P, Yates B, Urry S, Dubois P. Plantar fasciitis: are pain and fascial thickness associated with arch shape and loading?. Phys Ther. 2007;87:1002-8 pubmed
    Although plantar fascial thickening is a sonographic criterion for the diagnosis of plantar fasciitis, the effect of local loading and structural factors on fascial morphology are unknown...
  20. Rammeh N, Elleuch M, Meddeb N, Sahli H, Cheour E, Sellami S. [Palmar-plantar fasciitis and multiple myeloma]. Tunis Med. 2003;81:889-93 pubmed
    ..Through the study of the various cases of the literature, we remind the various characteristics of this syndrome...
  21. Huang Y, Wei S, Wang H, Lieu F. Ultrasonographic guided botulinum toxin type A treatment for plantar fasciitis: an outcome-based investigation for treating pain and gait changes. J Rehabil Med. 2010;42:136-40 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasonographic guided botulinum toxin type A injections into the plantar fascia to reduce pain and improve gait in patients with unilateral plantar fasciitis.
  22. Landorf K, Keenan A, Herbert R. Effectiveness of foot orthoses to treat plantar fasciitis: a randomized trial. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:1305-10 pubmed
    b>Plantar fasciitis is one of the most common foot complaints...
  23. Irving D, Cook J, Menz H. Factors associated with chronic plantar heel pain: a systematic review. J Sci Med Sport. 2006;9:11-22; discussion 23-4 pubmed
    ..Such a list is essential in the development of new and improved preventative and treatment strategies for CPHP...
  24. Wang C, Wang F, Yang K, Weng L, Ko J. Long-term results of extracorporeal shockwave treatment for plantar fasciitis. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34:592-6 pubmed
    Extracorporeal shockwave treatment has shown mixed short-term results for plantar fasciitis. However, the long-term results are not available.
  25. Liden B, Simmons M, Landsman A. A retrospective analysis of 22 patients treated with percutaneous radiofrequency nerve ablation for prolonged moderate to severe heel pain associated with plantar fasciitis. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2009;48:642-7 pubmed publisher
    ..involving 22 patients (31 feet) with a history of prolonged moderate to severe heel pain associated with plantar fasciitis were examined to determine if ablation of the sensory branch of the medial calcaneal nerve would result in ..
  26. Gerdesmeyer L, Frey C, Vester J, Maier M, Weil L, Russlies M, et al. Radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy is safe and effective in the treatment of chronic recalcitrant plantar fasciitis: results of a confirmatory randomized placebo-controlled multicenter study. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36:2100-9 pubmed publisher
    Radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy is an effective treatment for chronic plantar fasciitis that can be administered to outpatients without anesthesia but has not yet been evaluated in controlled trials.
  27. Beyzadeoglu T, Gokce A, Bekler H. [The effectiveness of dorsiflexion night splint added to conservative treatment for plantar fasciitis]. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc. 2007;41:220-4 pubmed
    We evaluated the effectiveness and results of night splint applications for the treatment of plantar fasciitis.
  28. Cole C, Seto C, Gazewood J. Plantar fasciitis: evidence-based review of diagnosis and therapy. Am Fam Physician. 2005;72:2237-42 pubmed
    b>Plantar fasciitis causes heel pain in active as well as sedentary adults of all ages. The condition is more likely to occur in persons who are obese or in those who are on their feet most of the day...
  29. Landorf K, Radford J, Keenan A, Redmond A. Effectiveness of low-Dye taping for the short-term management of plantar fasciitis. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2005;95:525-30 pubmed
    Low-Dye taping is often used as a short-term treatment for plantar fasciitis. We evaluated the short-term effectiveness of low-Dye taping in relieving pain associated with plantar fasciitis...
  30. Dyck D, Boyajian O Neill L. Plantar fasciitis. Clin J Sport Med. 2004;14:305-9 pubmed
  31. Haake M, Buch M, Schoellner C, Goebel F, Vogel M, Mueller I, et al. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy for plantar fasciitis: randomised controlled multicentre trial. BMJ. 2003;327:75 pubmed
    To determine the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy compared with placebo in the treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis.
  32. Mehra A, Zaman T, Jenkin A. The use of a mobile lithotripter in the treatment of tennis elbow and plantar fasciitis. Surgeon. 2003;1:290-2 pubmed
    To evaluate the use of the mobile lithotripter in the treatment of tennis elbow and plantar fasciitis.
  33. Wearing S, Smeathers J, Yates B, Sullivan P, Urry S, Dubois P. Sagittal movement of the medial longitudinal arch is unchanged in plantar fasciitis. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004;36:1761-7 pubmed
    Although a lowered medial longitudinal arch has been cited as a causal factor in plantar fasciitis, there is little experimental evidence linking arch motion to the pathogenesis of the condition...
  34. Baldassin V, Gomes C, Beraldo P. Effectiveness of prefabricated and customized foot orthoses made from low-cost foam for noncomplicated plantar fasciitis: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2009;90:701-6 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the effectiveness of prefabricated and customized foot orthoses made from low-cost foam (ethylene vinyl acetate [EVA]) in plantar fasciitis.
  35. Michelson J. Study of plantar fasciitis treatment is flawed. BMJ. 2003;327:870 pubmed
  36. Huang Y, Wang L, Wang H, Chang K, Leong C. The relationship between the flexible flatfoot and plantar fasciitis: ultrasonographic evaluation. Chang Gung Med J. 2004;27:443-8 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between flexible flatfoot and plantar fasciitis.
  37. Osborne H, Breidahl W, Allison G. Critical differences in lateral X-rays with and without a diagnosis of plantar fasciitis. J Sci Med Sport. 2006;9:231-7 pubmed
    b>Plantar fasciitis is a clinical diagnosis and is often combined with some form of imaging to validate the diagnosis...
  38. Genc H, Saracoglu M, Nacir B, Erdem H, Kacar M. Long-term ultrasonographic follow-up of plantar fasciitis patients treated with steroid injection. Joint Bone Spine. 2005;72:61-5 pubmed
    To evaluate the long-term efficacy of steroid injection for plantar fasciitis using clinical parameters and high-resolution ultrasonography.
  39. DiGiovanni B, Nawoczenski D, Lintal M, Moore E, Murray J, Wilding G, et al. Tissue-specific plantar fascia-stretching exercise enhances outcomes in patients with chronic heel pain. A prospective, randomized study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2003;85-A:1270-7 pubmed
    Approximately 10% of patients with plantar fasciitis have development of persistent and often disabling symptoms. A poor response to treatment may be due, in part, to inappropriate and nonspecific stretching techniques...
  40. Lohrer H, Nauck T, Dorn Lange N, Scholl J, Vester J. Comparison of radial versus focused extracorporeal shock waves in plantar fasciitis using functional measures. Foot Ankle Int. 2010;31:1-9 pubmed publisher
    Recent literature shows evidence for effective treatment for plantar fasciitis using either focused or radial shock waves. Up to now no research has been available which compares these different procedures...
  41. Roxas M. Plantar fasciitis: diagnosis and therapeutic considerations. Altern Med Rev. 2005;10:83-93 pubmed
    b>Plantar fasciitis is the most common cause of inferior heel pain. The pain and discomfort associated with this condition can have a dramatic impact on physical mobility...
  42. Tong K, Furia J. Economic burden of plantar fasciitis treatment in the United States. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2010;39:227-31 pubmed
    Although plantar fasciitis (PF) is prevalent among adults in the United States, few studies have quantified the economic burden of this condition...
  43. Snow D, Reading J, Dalal R. Lateral plantar nerve injury following steroid injection for plantar fasciitis. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39:e41; discussion e41 pubmed
    ..man presented with pain and numbness affecting the lateral aspect of his foot after a steroid injection for plantar fasciitis. Examination confirmed numbness and motor impairment of the lateral plantar nerve...
  44. Greve J, Grecco M, Santos Silva P. Comparison of radial shockwaves and conventional physiotherapy for treating plantar fasciitis. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2009;64:97-103 pubmed
    To compare radial shockwave treatment and conventional physiotherapy for plantar fasciitis.
  45. Neufeld S, Cerrato R. Plantar fasciitis: evaluation and treatment. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2008;16:338-46 pubmed
    b>Plantar fasciitis is the most common cause of plantar heel pain. Its characteristic features are pain and tenderness, predominately on the medial aspect of the calcaneus near the sole of the heel...
  46. Marafkó C. Endoscopic partial plantar fasciotomy as a treatment alternative in plantar fasciitis. Acta Chir Orthop Traumatol Cech. 2007;74:406-9 pubmed
    One of the most common causes of chronic heel pain is plantar fasciitis (ocalcaneal spur?). This condition most frequently occurs in patients over the age of 40...
  47. Govindarajan R, Bakalova T, Doss N, Splain S, Michael R, Abadir A. Posterior tibial nerve block in the therapeutic management of painful calcaneal spur (plantar fasciitis): a preliminary experience. Can J Anaesth. 2003;50:862-3 pubmed
  48. Hammer D, Adam F, Kreutz A, Kohn D, Seil R. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in patients with chronic proximal plantar fasciitis: a 2-year follow-up. Foot Ankle Int. 2003;24:823-8 pubmed
    ..compare the effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in patients with chronically painful proximal plantar fasciitis with a further conventional conservative treatment...
  49. Rajkumar P, Schmitgen G. Shock waves do more than just crush stones: extracorporeal shock wave therapy in plantar fasciitis. Int J Clin Pract. 2002;56:735-7 pubmed
    ..With this, a new tool has become available for the treatment of plantar fasciitis, achillis tendinitis, shoulder pain and tendinosis of the elbow...
  50. Labek G, Auersperg V, Ziernhöld M, Poulios N, Böhler N. [Influence of local anesthesia and energy level on the clinical outcome of extracorporeal shock wave-treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis]. Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb. 2005;143:240-6 pubmed
    The efficacy of low energy extracorporeal shock wave treatment (ESWT) for chronic plantar fasciitis is discussed controversially. It is unclear whether the simultaneous application of local anesthesia (LA) interferes with clinical outcome.
  51. Malay D, Pressman M, Assili A, Kline J, York S, Buren B, et al. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy versus placebo for the treatment of chronic proximal plantar fasciitis: results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, multicenter intervention trial. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2006;45:196-210 pubmed
    Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of recalcitrant proximal plantar fasciitis. The objective of this investigation was to compare the outcomes of participants treated with a new ESWT device ..
  52. Walther M, Radke S, Kirschner S, Ettl V, Gohlke F. Power Doppler findings in plantar fasciitis. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2004;30:435-40 pubmed
    The study was performed to characterize the power Doppler ultrasonographic (PDU) findings in plantar fasciitis using a 7.5 MHz linear transducer...
  53. Landorf K, Keenan A, Herbert R. Effectiveness of different types of foot orthoses for the treatment of plantar fasciitis. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2004;94:542-9 pubmed
    Clinicians often use foot orthoses to manage the symptoms of plantar fasciitis. Although there has been considerable research evaluating the effectiveness of orthoses for this condition, there is still a lack of scientific evidence that ..
  54. Kalaci A, Cakici H, Hapa O, Yanat A, Dogramaci Y, Sevinc T. Treatment of plantar fasciitis using four different local injection modalities: a randomized prospective clinical trial. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2009;99:108-13 pubmed
    To determine the effectiveness of four different local injection modalities in the treatment of plantar fasciitis.
  55. Rompe J, Decking J, Schoellner C, Nafe B. Shock wave application for chronic plantar fasciitis in running athletes. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Sports Med. 2003;31:268-75 pubmed
    Recent articles have reported success with repeated low-energy shock wave application for treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis in runners.
  56. Ibrahim M, Donatelli R, Schmitz C, Hellman M, Buxbaum F. Chronic plantar fasciitis treated with two sessions of radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy. Foot Ankle Int. 2010;31:391-7 pubmed publisher
    ..shock wave therapy (RSWT) has been previously demonstrated as an efficient treatment option for chronic plantar fasciitis (PF) when administered in three sessions...
  57. Yucel I, Ozturan K, Demiraran Y, Degirmenci E, Kaynak G. Comparison of high-dose extracorporeal shockwave therapy and intralesional corticosteroid injection in the treatment of plantar fasciitis. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2010;100:105-10 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of high-dose extracorporeal shockwave therapy applied with an ankle block and corticosteroid injection in patients with plantar fasciitis whose symptoms persisted for more than 6 months.
  58. Lemont H, Ammirati K, Usen N. Plantar fasciitis: a degenerative process (fasciosis) without inflammation. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2003;93:234-7 pubmed
    The authors review histologic findings from 50 cases of heel spur surgery for chronic plantar fasciitis. Findings include myxoid degeneration with fragmentation and degeneration of the plantar fascia and bone marrow vascular ectasia...
  59. Young M, Cook J, Webster K. The effect of topical wheatgrass cream on chronic plantar fasciitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Complement Ther Med. 2006;14:3-9 pubmed
    To investigate the efficacy of a topical wheatgrass cream for improving pain and function in patients with chronic plantar fasciitis.
  60. Yucel I, Yazici B, Degirmenci E, Erdogmus B, Dogan S. Comparison of ultrasound-, palpation-, and scintigraphy-guided steroid injections in the treatment of plantar fasciitis. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2009;129:695-701 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study was to compare the efficacies of steroid injections guided by scintigraphy, ultrasonography, and palpation in plantar fasciitis.
  61. Roos E, Engström M, Söderberg B. Foot orthoses for the treatment of plantar fasciitis. Foot Ankle Int. 2006;27:606-11 pubmed
    ..mechanical interventions such as foot orthoses and night splints are effective in reducing pain from plantar fasciitis. There is, however, a lack of controlled trials...
  62. Speed C, Nichols D, Wies J, Humphreys H, Richards C, Burnet S, et al. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy for plantar fasciitis. A double blind randomised controlled trial. J Orthop Res. 2003;21:937-40 pubmed
    ..Benefit has been shown in calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff, but evidence for its use in non-calcific disorders is limited...
  63. Akfirat M, Sen C, Gunes T. Ultrasonographic appearance of the plantar fasciitis. Clin Imaging. 2003;27:353-7 pubmed
    To study high frequency sonographic in the examination of plantar fasciitis (PF), which is a common cause of heel pain.
  64. Wynne M, Burns J, Eland D, Conatser R, Howell J. Effect of counterstrain on stretch reflexes, hoffmann reflexes, and clinical outcomes in subjects with plantar fasciitis. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2006;106:547-56 pubmed
    ..Previous research indicates that osteopathic manipulative treatment based on counterstrain produces a decrease in the stretch reflex of the calf muscles in subjects with Achilles tendinitis...
  65. Riddle D, Pulisic M, Sparrow K. Impact of demographic and impairment-related variables on disability associated with plantar fasciitis. Foot Ankle Int. 2004;25:311-7 pubmed
    b>Plantar fasciitis is a common foot disorder that impacts many functional activities. Research that quantifies the impact that plantar fasciitis has on function is lacking...
  66. Riddle D, Schappert S. Volume of ambulatory care visits and patterns of care for patients diagnosed with plantar fasciitis: a national study of medical doctors. Foot Ankle Int. 2004;25:303-10 pubmed
    b>Plantar fasciitis is a relatively common disorder of the foot, yet little is known about its prevalence, what types of physicians see patients with the disorder, or how, on a national scale, patients are typically managed...
  67. Radford J, Landorf K, Buchbinder R, Cook C. Effectiveness of low-Dye taping for the short-term treatment of plantar heel pain: a randomised trial. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2006;7:64 pubmed
    ..We performed a participant-blinded randomised trial to assess the effectiveness of low-Dye taping, a commonly used short-term treatment for plantar heel pain...